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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4215-4228, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the treatment of both wild type and mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, acquired resistance is a major clinical challenge. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of telmisartan (Tel), CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination in rociletinib resistant NSCLC tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D spheroid cultures and western blotting were used for evaluating cytotoxic effects and protein expression. An in vivo rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC was developed by subcutaneous injection of rociletinib resistant H1975 cells into nude mice. RESULTS: Tel, CFM 4.16 and sorafenib combination displayed superior anti-cancer effects in 3D spheroid cultures and a rociletinib resistant H1975 xenograft model of NSCLC by decreasing the protein expression of oncogenic and cancer stem cell markers (Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4). CONCLUSION: Tel facilitates effective penetration of CFM 4.16 and sorafenib in rociletinib resistant H1975 models of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Telmisartan/administração & dosagem , Tiadiazóis/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Telmisartan/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445279

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor in the world. Sorafenib is the first-line drug for patients with advanced HCC. However, long-term treatment with sorafenib often results in reduced sensitivity of tumor cells to the drug, leading to acquired resistance. Identifying biomarkers which can predict the response to sorafenib treatment may represent a clinical challenge in the personalized treatment era. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2), a secretory glycoprotein, plays an important role in regulating intracellular free cholesterol homeostasis. In HCC patients, downregulation of hepatic NPC2 is correlated with poor clinical pathological features through regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. This study aimed to investigate the roles of secretory NPC2-mediated free cholesterol levels as biomarkers when undergoing sorafenib treatment and evaluate its impact on acquired sorafenib resistance in HCC cells. Herein, we showed that NPC2 downregulation and free cholesterol accumulation weakened sorafenib's efficacy through enhancing MAPK/AKT signaling in HCC cells. Meanwhile, NPC2 overexpression slightly enhanced the sorafenib-induced cytotoxic effect. Compared to normal diet feeding, mice fed a high-cholesterol diet had much higher tumor growth rates, whereas treatment with the free cholesterol-lowering agent, hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, enhanced sorafenib's tumor-inhibiting ability. In addition, sorafenib treatment induced higher NPC2 secretion, which was mediated by inhibition of the Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling pathway in HCC cells. In both acquired sorafenib-resistant cell and xenograft models, NPC2 and free cholesterol secretion were increased in culture supernatant and serum samples. In conclusion, NPC2-mediated free cholesterol secretion may represent a candidate biomarker for the likelihood of HCC cells developing resistance to sorafenib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(28): 4667-4686, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is the first-line treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is closely correlated with tumors and drug resistance. However, the relationship between YB-1 and sorafenib resistance and the underlying mechanism in HCC remain unknown. AIM: To explore the role and related mechanisms of YB-1 in mediating sorafenib resistance in HCC. METHODS: The protein expression levels of YB-1 were assessed in human HCC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues. Next, we constructed YB-1 overexpression and knockdown hepatocarcinoma cell lines with lentiviruses and stimulated these cell lines with different concentrations of sorafenib. Then, we detected the proliferation and apoptosis in these cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, flow cytometry and Western blotting assays. We also constructed a xenograft tumor model to explore the effect of YB-1 on the efficacy of sorafenib in vivo. Moreover, we studied and verified the specific molecular mechanism of YB-1 mediating sorafenib resistance in hepatoma cells by digital gene expression sequencing (DGE-seq). RESULTS: YB-1 protein levels were found to be higher in HCC tissues than in corresponding nontumor tissues. YB-1 suppressed the effect of sorafenib on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Consistently, the efficacy of sorafenib in vivo was enhanced after YB-1 was knocked down. Furthermore, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DGE-seq demonstrated that the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway was essential for the sorafenib resistance induced by YB-1. Subsequently, YB-1 interacted with two key proteins of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (Akt1 and PIK3R1) as shown by searching the BioGRID and HitPredict websites. Finally, YB-1 suppressed the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway induced by sorafenib, and the blockade of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by LY294002 mitigated YB-1-induced sorafenib resistance. CONCLUSION: Overall, we concluded that YB-1 augments sorafenib resistance through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HCC and suggest that YB-1 is a key drug resistance-related gene, which is of great significance for the application of sorafenib in advanced-stage HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box
4.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4100-4111, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339558

RESUMO

SHANK-associated RH domain interacting protein (SHARPIN) plays an important role in carcinogenesis, as well as inflammation and immunity. Our study explored the effects and underlying mechanisms of SHARPIN in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we found that upregulated SHARPIN in patients with ccRCC led to a poor prognosis. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of clinical samples was carried out and the results suggested the positive association between SHARPIN and hypoxia-induced factor-2α (HIF-2α). Von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) is a tumor suppressor that contributes to degrading HIF-2α. Mechanically, SHARPIN promoted the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of pVHL, resulting in the sustained activation of HIF-2α. The α and ß domains of pVHL and ubiquitin-like domain of SHARPIN are required for the interaction. The knockdown of SHARPIN effectively inhibited acquired sorafenib resistance in ccRCC cell lines and tumor growth in xenograft models. In conclusion, our work reveals a novel posttranslational regulation of SHARPIN on pVHL, indicating that SHARPIN could be a potential target for ccRCC treatment.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Ubiquitinas/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Distribuição Aleatória , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Ubiquitinação , Ubiquitinas/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
5.
Exp Cell Res ; 406(1): 112755, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332981

RESUMO

Liver cancer is one of the most common and high recurrence malignancies. Besides radiotherapy and surgery, chemotherapy also plays an essential role in the treatment of liver cancer. Sorafenib and sorafenib-based combination therapies have been proven efficacy against tumors. However, previous clinical studies have indicated that some patients with liver cancer are resistant to sorafenib treatment and the existing strategies are not satisfactory in the clinic. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate strategies to improve the effectiveness of sorafenib for liver cancer and to explore effective drug combinations. In the present study, we found that dichloroacetate (DCA) could significantly enhance the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib on liver cancer cells, including reduced viability and dramatically promoted apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Moreover, compared to sorafenib alone, the combination of DCA and sorafenib markedly increased the degradation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 by enhancing its phosphorylation. Overexpression of Mcl-1 could significantly attenuate the synergetic effect of DCA and sorafenib on apoptosis induction in liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that the ROS-JNK pathway was obviously activated in the DCA combined sorafenib group. The levels of ROS and p-JNK were dramatically up-regulated in the two drug combination groups. Antioxidant NAC could alleviate the synergetic effects of DCA and sorafenib on ROS generation, JNK activation, Mcl-1 degradation, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, DCA and sorafenib's effects on Mcl-1 degradation and apoptosis could also be inhibited by JNK inhibitor 'SP'600125. Finally, the synergetic effects of DCA and sorafenib on tumor growth suppression, Mcl-1 degradation and induction of apoptosis were also validated in liver cancer xenograft in vivo. These findings indicate that DCA enhances the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib via the ROS-JNK-Mcl-1 pathway in liver cancer cells. This study may provide new insights to improve the chemotherapeutic effect of sorafenib, which may be beneficial for further clinical application of sorafenib in liver cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Dicloroacético/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antracenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206574

RESUMO

Sorafenib (Sor) is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, but its water solubility is very low. To improve its solubility, sorafenib hydrochloride hydrate, sorafenib hydrobromide and sorafenib hydrobromide hydrate were prepared in the mixed solvent of the corresponding acid solution, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). The crystal structures of sorafenib hydrochloride trihydrate (Sor·HCl.3H2O), 4-(4-{3-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoro-methyl)phenyl]ureido}phenoxy)-2-(N-methylcarbamoyl) pyridinium hydrochloride trihydrate, C21H17ClF3N4O3+·Cl-.3H2O (I), sorafenib hydrochloride monohydrate (Sor·HCl.H2O), C21H17ClF3N4O3+·Cl-.H2O (II), its solvated form (sorafenib hydrochloride monohydrate monotetrahydrofuran (Sor·HCl.H2O.THF), C21H17ClF3N4O3+·Cl-.H2O.C4H8O (III)), sorafenib hydrobromide (Sor·HBr), 4-(4-{3-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoro-methyl)phenyl]ureido}phenoxy)-2-(N-methylcarbamoyl) pyridinium hydrobromide, C21H17ClF3N4O3+·Br- (IV) and sorafenib hydrobromide monohydrate (Sor·HBr.H2O), C21H17ClF3N4O3+·Br-.H2O (V) were analysed. Their hydrogen bond systems and topologies were investigated. The results showed the distinct roles of water molecules in stabilizing their crystal structures. Moreover, (II) and (V) were isomorphous crystal structures with the same space group P21/n, and similar unit cell dimensions. The predicted morphologies of these forms based on the BFDH model matched well with experimental morphologies. The energy frameworks showed that (I), and (IV) might have better tabletability than (II) and (V). Moreover, the solubility and dissolution rate data exhibited an improvement in the solubility of these salts compared with the free drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Sorafenibe/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cristais Líquidos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Análise Espectral
7.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 2150-2172, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208001

RESUMO

Sorafenib, an oral multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been the first-line therapy for the treatment of patients with advanced HCC, providing a survival benefit of only three months in approximately 30% of patients. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare tumour subpopulation with self-renewal and differentiation capabilities, and have been implicated in tumour growth, recurrence and drug resistance. The process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the generation and maintenance of the CSC population, resulting in immune evasion and therapy resistance in several cancers, including HCC. The aim of this study is to target the chemoresistant CSC population in HCC by assessing the effectiveness of a combination treatment approach with Sorafenib, an EMT inhibitor and an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). A stem-cell-conditioned serum-free medium was utilised to enrich the CSC population from the human HCC cell lines Hep3B, PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2. The anchorage independent spheres were characterised for CSC features. The human HCC-derived spheres were assessed for EMT status and expression of immune checkpoint molecules. The effect of combination treatment with SB431542, an EMT inhibitor, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of programmed cell death protein ligand-1 (PD-L1) or CD73 along with Sorafenib on human HCC-derived CSCs was examined with cell viability and apoptosis assays. The three-dimensional spheres enriched from human HCC cell lines demonstrated CSC-like features. The human HCC-derived CSCs also exhibited the EMT phenotype along with the upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules. The combined treatment with SB431542 and siRNA-mediated PD-L1 or CD73 knockdown effectively enhanced the cytotoxicity of Sorafenib against the CSC population compared to Sorafenib alone, as evidenced by the reduced size and proliferation of spheres. Furthermore, the combination treatment of Sorafenib with SB431542 and PD-L1 or CD73 siRNA resulted in an increased proportion of an apoptotic population, as evidenced by flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, the combined targeting of EMT and immune checkpoint molecules with Sorafenib can effectively target the CSC tumour subpopulation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 691, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244479

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, there still remains a lack of effective diagnostic and therapeutic targets for this disease. Increasing evidence demonstrates that RNA modifications play an important role in the progression of HCC, but the role of the N7-methylguanosine (m7G) methylation modification in HCC has not been properly evaluated. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the function and mechanism of the m7G methyltransferase WD repeat domain 4 (WDR4) in HCC as well as its clinical relevance and potential value. We first verified the high expression of WDR4 in HCC and observed that upregulated WDR4 expression increased the m7G methylation level in HCC. WDR4 promoted HCC cell proliferation by inducing the G2/M cell cycle transition and inhibiting apoptosis in addition to enhancing metastasis and sorafenib resistance through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, we observed that c-MYC (MYC) can activate WDR4 transcription and that WDR4 promotes CCNB1 mRNA stability and translation to enhance HCC progression. Mechanistically, we determined that WDR4 enhances CCNB1 translation by promoting the binding of EIF2A to CCNB1 mRNA. Furthermore, CCNB1 was observed to promote PI3K and AKT phosphorylation in HCC and reduce P53 protein expression by promoting P53 ubiquitination. In summary, we elucidated the MYC/WDR4/CCNB1 signalling pathway and its impact on PI3K/AKT and P53. Furthermore, the result showed that the m7G methyltransferase WDR4 is a tumour promoter in the development and progression of HCC and may act as a candidate therapeutic target in HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Ciclina B1/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 698, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257282

RESUMO

Sorafenib, a protein kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma, has been repeatedly reported to induce ferroptosis by possibly involving inhibition of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, known as system xc-. Using a combination of well-defined genetically engineered tumor cell lines and canonical small molecule ferroptosis inhibitors, we now provide unequivocal evidence that sorafenib does not induce ferroptosis in a series of tumor cell lines unlike the cognate system xc- inhibitors sulfasalazine and erastin. We further show that only a subset of tumor cells dies by ferroptosis upon sulfasalazine and erastin treatment, implying that certain cell lines appear to be resistant to system xc- inhibition, while others undergo ferroptosis-independent cell death. From these findings, we conclude that sorafenib does not qualify as a bona fide ferroptosis inducer and that ferroptosis induced by system xc- inhibitors can only be achieved in a fraction of tumor cell lines despite robust expression of SLC7A11, the substrate-specific subunit of system xc-.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069373

RESUMO

Despite liver cancer being the second-leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, few systemic drugs have been approved. Sorafenib, the first FDA-approved systemic drug for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is limited by resistance. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown. Since fibrinogen-like 1 (FGL1) is involved in HCC progression and upregulated after anticancer therapy, we investigated its role in regulating sorafenib resistance in HCC. FGL1 expression was assessed in six HCC cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, Hep3B, SNU387, SNU449, and SNU475) using western blotting. Correlations between FGL1 expression and sorafenib resistance were examined by cell viability, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays. FGL1 was knocked-down to confirm its effects on sorafenib resistance. FGL1 expression was higher in HepG2, Huh7, and Hep3B cells than in SNU387, SNU449, and SNU475 cells; high FGL1-expressing HCC cells showed a lower IC50 and higher sensitivity to sorafenib. In Huh7 and Hep3B cells, FGL1 knockdown significantly increased colony formation by 61% (p = 0.0013) and 99% (p = 0.0002), respectively, compared to that in controls and abolished sorafenib-induced suppression of colony formation, possibly by modulating ERK and autophagy signals. Our findings demonstrate that sorafenib resistance mediated by FGL1 in HCC cells, suggesting FGL1 as a potential sorafenib-resistance biomarker and target for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fibrinogênio/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia
11.
Food Chem ; 361: 130139, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062461

RESUMO

Globally consumed kimchi is manufactured through fermenting cruciferous vegetables containing indole glucosinolates (IG). But few reports describe the IG metabolism during the fermentation. Here, we show that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a breakdown product of IG, is transformed during the kimchi fermentation into 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,3'-diindolylmethane (LTr1). LTr1 was found to kill the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor mutations, by inhibiting the FLT3 phosphorylation and the expression of downstream proteins (STAT5, ERK, and AKT). In the immune-depleted mice xenografted with human MV4-11 cells, LTr1 was demonstrated to reduce the tumor growth and synergize with sorafenib, an anti-AML agent in clinic. The work updates the chemical and biological knowledge about kimchi, and in particular establishes LTr1 as an FLT3 inhibitor that is effective and synergistic with sorafenib in treating AML.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia
12.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3545-3554, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159680

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment affects malignancy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in the microenvironment. As recent studies indicated a difference between CAFs isolated from chemoresistant and non-resistant cancer tissues, therefore we investigated the intracellular mechanism in resistant HCC co-cultured CAFs and interactions between these CAFs with cancer cells. We established a sorafenib-resistant (SR) Huh7 (human HCC) cell line, and characterized it with cytokine assays, then developed CAFs by co-culturing human hepatic stellate cells with resistant or parental Huh7 cells. The 2 types of CAFs were co-cultured with parental Huh7 cells, thereafter the cell viability of these Huh7 cells was checked under sorafenib treatment. The SR Huh7 (Huh7SR ) cells expressed increased B-cell activating factor (BAFF), which promoted high expression of CAF-specific markers in Huh7SR -co-cultured CAFs, showed activated BAFF, BAFF-R, and downstream of the NFκB-Nrf2 pathway, and aggravated invasion, migration, and drug resistance in co-cultured Huh7 cells. When we knocked down BAFF expression in Huh7SR cells, the previously increased malignancy and BAFF/NFκB axis in Huh7SR -co-cultured CAFs reversed, and enhanced chemoresistance in co-cultured Huh7 cells returned as well. In conclusion, the BAFF/NFκB pathway was activated in CAFs co-cultured with cell-culture medium from resistant Huh7, which promoted chemoresistance, and increased the malignancy in co-cultured non-resistant Huh7 cells. This suggests that the BAFF/NFκB axis in CAFs might be a potential therapeutic target in chemoresistance of HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transfecção
13.
Exp Cell Res ; 406(1): 112633, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089726

RESUMO

Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that has been highlighted as a tumor suppressor due to its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties, whereas the clinical application of Sorafenib is restricted by the side effects it may cause. The past decade has witnessed the development of a series of sorafenib derivatives to improve the clinical performance of sorafenib. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely utilized in drug delivery systems due to their unique properties, including biocompatible nature, simple preparation, and easy surface modification. Herein, this study is aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of new sorafenib derivatives-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-New Sor) in tumor formation and metastasis as well as the underlying mechanisms. Initially, new sorafenib derivatives were constructed and combined with AuNPs to form AuNPs-New Sor, and the properties of synthesized AuNPs-New Sor were identified in a mouse model of tumorigenesis. The effect of AuNPs-New Sor on tumor vascular normalization was investigated by assessing vascular permeability and perfusion rate. Next, we evaluated the effect of AuNPs-New Sor on migration and viability of tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as on HUVEC angiogenesis in vitro. A melanoma mouse model was further established for in vivo substantiation of the anti-tumor effect of AuNPs-New Sor. According to the results, AuNPs could deliver new sorafenib derivatives into tumor tissues and downregulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), thereby suppressing tumor migration, EMT, and angiogenesis in vitro. In addition, AuNPs-New Sor displayed competitive anti-tumor activities in vivo. Taken together, AuNPs-New Sor may attenuate tumor development and angiogenesis through downregulation of EGFR and VEGFR-2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ouro/química , Células HCT116 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Células MCF-7 , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Sorafenibe/análogos & derivados , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072570

RESUMO

Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is the first-line treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, this drug only provides a short improvement of patients' overall survival, and drug resistance is commonly developed. Thus, the identification of resistant factor(s) or biomarker(s) is needed to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies. Long, non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been viewed as attractive cancer biomarkers and drive many important cancer phenotypes. A lncRNA, ZFAS1 (ZNFX1 antisense RNA 1) has been found to promote HCC metastasis. This study found that sorafenib induced ZFAS1 expression specifically in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. Although ZFAS1 knockdown did not restore the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib, its expression may act as a resistant biomarker for sorafenib therapy. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that sorafenib tended to induce pathways related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. In vitro experimental evidence suggested that sorafenib induced protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent ZFAS1 expression, and sorafenib resistance could be overcome by PERK/ATF inhibitors. Therefore, PERK/ATF4/ZFAS1 signaling axis might be an attractive therapeutic and prognostic biomarker for sorafenib therapy in HCC.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(9): e10390, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076140

RESUMO

Sorafenib (SOR) resistance is still a significant challenge for the effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of sorafenib resistance remains unclear. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as playing a role in impairing the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatment. We examined the mechanism behind the role of miR-92b in mediating sorafenib resistance in HCC cells. We detected that miR-92b expression was significantly upregulated in SOR-resistant HepG2/SOR cells compared to parental HepG2/WT cells. After transfection with miR-92b inhibitor, the proliferation of HepG2/SOR cells was remarkably weakened and rates of apoptosis significantly increased. PTEN was considered to be a functional target of miR-92b according to a luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of PTEN significantly impaired the ability of miR-92b inhibitor on increasing sorafenib sensitivity of HepG2/SOR cells. Furthermore, we confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence that miR-92b can mediate sorafenib resistance by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in HCC cells by directly targeting PTEN. These findings further validate the mechanism of miR-92b in SOR resistance in HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Sorafenibe , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 14015-14038, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib can improve the survival of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. However, its benefits are modest, as patients eventually become resistant, and the mechanisms remain elusive. NUPR1, a stress-induced protein, has been reported in malignancies and functions as an oncogene by modulating the stress response, facilitating survival in harsh environments and conferring drug resistance. However, its role in ccRCC has not been explored. METHODS: The expression and clinical significance of NUPR1 were analyzed in ccRCC patients in in-house patients and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohorts. The biological functions of NUPR1 were investigated. Xenografts were performed to confirm the effects of NUPR1 on tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanism of NUPR1 was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: NUPR1 expression was upregulated in tumor tissue. Further analysis showed that NUPR1 overexpression was associated with an aggressive phenotype and predicted a poor prognosis. Depletion of NUPR1 suppressed tumorigenesis and sensitized cells to sorafenib treatment. Finally, mechanistic investigations indicated that NUPR1 promoted tumorigenesis in ccRCC by increasing stemness and activating the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that NUPR1 may serve as a predictor of ccRCC. Notably, NUPR1 silencing reversed sorafenib resistance in ccRCC. These findings provide a novel potential therapeutic target in the clinical management of ccRCC.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Mol Pharmacol ; 100(1): 32-45, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990407

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The multitarget inhibitor sorafenib is a first-line treatment of patients with advanced unresectable HCC. Recent clinical studies have evidenced that patients treated with sorafenib together with the antidiabetic drug metformin have a survival disadvantage compared with patients receiving sorafenib only. Here, we examined whether a clinically relevant dose of metformin (50 mg/kg per day) could influence the antitumoral effects of sorafenib (15 mg/kg per day) in a subcutaneous xenograft model of human HCC growth using two different sequences of administration, i.e., concomitant versus sequential dosing regimens. We observed that the administration of metformin 6 hours prior to sorafenib was significantly less effective in inhibiting tumor growth (15.4% tumor growth inhibition) than concomitant administration of the two drugs (59.5% tumor growth inhibition). In vitro experiments confirmed that pretreatment of different human HCC cell lines with metformin reduced the effects of sorafenib on cell viability, proliferation, and signaling. Transcriptomic analysis confirmed significant differences between xenografted tumors obtained under the concomitant and the sequential dosing regimens. Taken together, these observations call into question the benefit of parallel use of metformin and sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC and diabetes, as the interaction between the two drugs could ultimately compromise patient survival. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: When drugs are administered sequentially, metformin alters the antitumor effect of sorafenib, the reference treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, in a preclinical murine xenograft model of liver cancer progression as well as in hepatic cancer cell lines. Defective activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway as well as major transcriptomic changes are associated with the loss of the antitumor effect. These results echo recent clinical work reporting a poorer prognosis for patients with liver cancer who were cotreated with metformin and sorafenib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 426, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931597

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that ferroptosis plays an important role in tumor growth inhibition. Sorafenib, originally identified as an inhibitor of multiple oncogenic kinases, has been shown to induce ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, some hepatoma cell lines are less sensitive to sorafenib-induced ferroptotic cell death. Glutathione S-transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), an enzyme in the catabolism of phenylalanine, suppresses the expression of the master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). This study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of GSTZ1 in sorafenib-induced ferroptosis in HCC. GSTZ1 was significantly downregulated in sorafenib-resistant hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, GSTZ1 depletion enhanced the activation of the NRF2 pathway and increased the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) level, thereby suppressing sorafenib-induced ferroptosis. The combination of sorafenib and RSL3, a GPX4 inhibitor, significantly inhibited GSTZ1-deficient cell viability and promoted ferroptosis and increased ectopic iron and lipid peroxides. In vivo, the combination of sorafenib and RSL3 had a synergic therapeutic effect on HCC progression in Gstz1-/- mice. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that GSTZ1 enhanced sorafenib-induced ferroptosis by inhibiting the NRF2/GPX4 axis in HCC cells. Combination therapy of sorafenib and GPX4 inhibitor RSL3 may be a promising strategy in HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ferroptose , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947048

RESUMO

Hemistepta lyrata (Bunge) Bunge is a biennial medicinal plant possessing beneficial effects including anti-inflammation, and hemistepsin A (HsA) isolated from H. lyrata has been known as a hepatoprotective sesquiterpene lactone. In this report, we explored the cytotoxic effects of H. lyrata on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and investigated the associated bioactive compounds and their relevant mechanisms. From the viability results of HCC cells treated with various H. lyrata extracts, HsA was identified as the major compound contributing to the H. lyrata-mediated cytotoxicity. HsA increased expression of cleaved PARP and cells with Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V binding, and TUNEL staining, which imply HsA induces apoptosis. In addition, HsA provoked oxidative stress by decreasing the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and accumulating reactive oxygen species and glutathione-protein adducts. Moreover, HsA inhibited the transactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by its dephosphorylation at Y705 and glutathione conjugation. Stable expression of a constitutive active mutant of STAT3 prevented the reduction of cell viability by HsA. Finally, HsA enhanced the sensitivity of sorafenib-mediated cytotoxicity by exaggerating oxidative stress and Y705 dephosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, HsA will be a promising candidate to induce apoptosis of HCC cells via downregulating STAT3 and sensitizing conventional chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/biossíntese , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3385-3405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040370

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related death. Sorafenib, which is the first-line therapy for this disease, is associated with reduced therapeutic efficacy that could potentially be overcome by combination with selumetinib. In this context, the main goal of this work was to develop a new nanosystem, composed of a polymeric core coated by a lipid bilayer containing the targeting ligand GalNAc, to specifically and efficiently co-deliver both drugs into HCC cells, in order to significantly increase their therapeutic efficacy. Methods: The physicochemical characterization of hybrid nanosystems (HNP) and their components was performed by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular binding, uptake and specificity of HNP were evaluated through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The therapeutic activity was evaluated namely through: cell viability by the Alamar Blue assay; cell death by flow cytometry using FITC-Annexin V; caspases activity by luminescence; mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry; and molecular target levels by Western blot. Results: The obtained data show that these hybrid nanosystems present high stability and loading capacity of both drugs, and suitable physicochemical properties, namely in terms of size and surface charge. Moreover, the generated formulation allows to circumvent drug resistance and presents high specificity, promoting great cell death levels in HCC cells, but not in non-tumor cells. This potentiation of the antitumor effect of co-loaded drugs was carried out by an increased programmed cell death, being associated with a strong reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential, a significant increase in the activity of caspases 3/7 and caspase 9, and much greater number of annexin V-positive cells. Conclusion: The developed formulation resulted in a high and synergistic antitumor effect, revealing a translational potential to improve therapeutic approaches against HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
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