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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130888, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474286

RESUMO

Food proteins and their constituent peptides impart huge health benefits besides their nutritional attributes. Sorghum bicolor protein hydrolysates (SPH) and derived bioactive peptides generated by simulated gastrointestinal digestion were studied for DPP-4 inhibitory properties using in vitro and in situ assays. Identified peptides, LSICGEESFGTGSDHIR (PEP1), SLGESLLQEDVEAHK (PEP2) and QLRDIVDK (PEP4) displayed potent DPP-4 inhibition with IC50 values of 73.5, 82.5 and 8.55 µM respectively. DPP-4 inhibition mechanism by the peptides was investigated by DPP4-peptide inhibition kinetics, molecular docking and microscale thermophoresis binding studies. The peptides bound to DPP-4 with micromolar affinities and PEP4 showed significantly increased affinity. The mixed type enzyme inhibition by peptides suggested that the peptides either block the active site of DPP-4 or changes the enzyme conformation via a secondary binding site. Overall, the results demonstrate that sorghum seeds are an adequate source of peptides with DPP-4 inhibitory properties that could be used in functional food formulations.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Sorghum , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 738, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcription factors, including trihelix transcription factors, play vital roles in various growth and developmental processes and in abiotic stress responses in plants. The trihelix gene has been systematically studied in some dicots and monocots, including Arabidopsis, tomato, chrysanthemum, soybean, wheat, corn, rice, and buckwheat. However, there are no related studies on sorghum. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 40 sorghum trihelix (SbTH) genes were identified based on the sorghum genome, among which 34 were located in the nucleus, 5 in the chloroplast, 1 (SbTH38) in the cytoplasm, and 1 (SbTH23) in the extracellular membrane. Phylogenetic analysis of the SbTH genes and Arabidopsis and rice trihelix genes indicated that the genes were clustered into seven subfamilies: SIP1, GTγ, GT1, GT2, SH4, GTSb8, and orphan genes. The SbTH genes were located in nine chromosomes and none on chromosome 10. One pair of tandem duplication gene and seven pairs of segmental duplication genes were identified in the SbTH gene family. By qPCR, the expression of 14 SbTH members in different plant tissues and in plants exposed to six abiotic stresses at the seedling stage were quantified. Except for the leaves in which the genes were upregulated after only 2 h exposure to high temperature, the 12 SbTH genes were significantly upregulated in the stems of sorghum seedlings after 24 h under the other abiotic stress conditions. Among the selected genes, SbTH10/37/39 were significantly upregulated, whereas SbTH32 was significantly downregulated under different stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified 40 trihelix genes in sorghum and found that gene duplication was the main force driving trihelix gene evolution in sorghum. The findings of our study serve as a basis for further investigation of the functions of SbTH genes and providing candidate genes for stress-resistant sorghum breeding programmes and increasing sorghum yield.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Planta ; 254(5): 97, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655341

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of forage sorghum oleosin genes in Arabidopsis oleosin-deficient mutant and yeast showed increased germination rate, triacylglycerol content, and protection against lipase-mediated TAG degradation. Plant lipids are an important source of ration for cattle or other livestock animals to fulfil their energy needs. Poor energy containing green forages are still one of the major sources of food for livestock animals, leaving the animals undernourished. This lowers the milk and meat production efficiency, thereby affecting human consumption. Oleosin, an essential oil body surface protein, is capable of enhancing and stabilizing the lipid content in plants. We identified and functionally characterized three forage sorghum oleosin genes (SbOle1, SbOle2, and SbOle3) in Arabidopsis and yeast. Phylogenetic analysis of SbOle proteins showed a close relationship with rice and maize oleosins. Expression analysis of SbOle genes determined a higher expression pattern in embryo followed by endosperm, while its expression in the non-seed tissues remained negligible. Overexpression of SbOle genes in Arabidopsis ole1-deficient mutants showed restoration of normal germination whereas control mutant seeds showed lower germination rates. Heterologous overexpression of SbOle in yeast cells resulted in increased TAG accumulation. Additionally, the TAG turnover assay showed the effectiveness of SbOle genes in reducing the yeast endogenous and rumen bacterial lipase-mediated TAG degradation. Taken together, our findings not only provide insights into forage sorghum oleosin for increasing the energy content in non-seed organs but also opened up the direction towards implication of oleosin in rumen protection of fodders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Sorghum , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bovinos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sementes/genética , Sorghum/genética , Triglicerídeos
4.
Planta ; 254(5): 90, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609619

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Identification of molecular markers and characterization of nutrient transporters could help to improve the tolerance under abiotic and low nutrient stresses in sorghum ensuring higher yield to conserve food security Sorghum is an important cereal crop delivering food and energy security in the semi-arid tropics of the world. Adverse climatic conditions induced by global warming and low input agriculture system in developing countries demand for the improvement of sorghum to tolerate various abiotic stresses. In this review, we discuss the application of marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter characterization studies targeted towards improving the tolerance of sorghum under drought, salinity, cold, low phosphate and nitrogen stresses. Family members of some nutrient transporters such as nitrate transporter (NRT), phosphate transporter (PHT) and sulphate transporter (SULTR) were identified and characterized for improving the low nutrient stress tolerance in sorghum. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for drought, salinity and cold stresses with an intention to enhance the tolerance of sorghum under these stresses. A very few QTL and nutrient transporters have been identified and validated under low nitrogen and phosphorus stresses compared to those under drought, salinity and cold stresses. Marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter characterization have not yet been attempted in sorghum under other macro- and micro-nutrient stresses. We hope this review will raise awareness among plant breeders, scientists and biotechnologists about the importance of sorghum and need to conduct the studies on marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter under low nutrient stresses to improve the sorghum production.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Grão Comestível , Nutrientes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
Planta ; 254(5): 98, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657208

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Mota Maradi is a sorghum line that exhibits holistic salinity tolerance mechanisms, making it a viable potential donor in breeding efforts for improved sorghum lines. High soil salinity is one of the global challenges for crop growth and productivity. Understanding the salinity tolerance mechanisms in crops is necessary for genetic breeding of salinity-tolerant crops. In this study, physiological and molecular mechanisms in sorghum were identified through a comparative analysis between a Nigerien salinity-tolerant sorghum landrace, Mota Maradi, and the reference sorghum line, BTx623. Significant differences on physiological performances were observed, particularly on growth and biomass gain, photosynthetic rate, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, proline, and sucrose. Transcriptome profiling of the leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, and roots revealed contrasting differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Mota Maradi and BTx623 which supports the physiological observations from both lines. Among the DEGs, ion transporters such as HKT, NHX, AKT, HAK5, and KUP3 were likely responsible for the differences in Na+ and K+ accumulation. Meanwhile, DEGs involved in photosynthesis, cellular growth, signaling, and ROS scavenging were also identified between these two genotypes. Functional and pathway analysis of the DEGs has revealed that these processes work in concert and are crucial in elevated salinity tolerance in Mota Maradi. Our findings indicate how different complex processes work synergistically for salinity stress tolerance in sorghum. This study also highlights the unique adaptation of landraces toward their respective ecosystems, and their strong potential as genetic resources for future plant breeding endeavors.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Sorghum , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3240-3248, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658210

RESUMO

We explored the effects of addition of sorghum stubble rhizosphere soil on the growth of continuous cropping cucumber and rhizosphere microbial community in a pot experiment. The diffe-rences in soil bacterial and fungal community composition were analyzed with fluorescence quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing technology. There were four treatments: CK (no fertilization), T1(fertilizer only), T2(optimized fertilization), and T3(optimized fertilization + rhizosphere soil of sorghum stubble). The results showed that compared with other treatments, T3 promoted the growth and development of cucumber, and increased the abundance of 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes in soil. Compared with the T1 treatment, T2 and T3 significantly increased the richness and diversity of bacterial communities. There was no significant difference in fungal community richness and diversity among different treatments. Adding rhizosphere soil of sorghum stubble changed the composition of bacterial and fungal communities at both phylum and genus levels. For bacteria, it increased the abundances of Acidobacteria and Bacteroides, but decreased that of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospira and Bacillus. For fungi, it increased the abundance of Basidiomycota, Trichoderma and Pseudurotium, but decreased that of Fusarium and Metarhizium. Results of redundancy analysis showed that soil nitrate and organic matter were the key factors affecting the difference of bacterial and fungal community composition, respectively. In conclusion, addition of sorghum stubble rhizosphere soil improved the total abundance of soil microorganisms and bacterial diversity for continuous cropping cucumber. It increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Trichoderma, reduced that of pathogenic Fusarium, and maintained the survival rate of cucumber, thus provided a feasible solution for alleviating the barriers for the continuous cropping of cucumber.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Sorghum , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502220

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, playing a role in developmental and metabolic processes in plants. To understand the local and systemic responses of sorghum to inorganic phosphorus (Pi) starvation and the potential of straw and ash for reutilisation in agriculture, we compared two grain (Razinieh) and sweet (Della) sorghum varieties with respect to their morpho-physiological and molecular responses. We found that Pi starvation increased the elongation of primary roots, the formation of lateral roots, and the accumulation of anthocyanin. In Razinieh, lateral roots were promoted to a higher extent, correlated with a higher expression of SbPht1 phosphate transporters. Infrared spectra of straw from mature plants raised to maturity showed two prominent bands at 1371 and 2337 cm-1, which could be assigned to P-H(H2) stretching vibration in phosphine acid and phosphinothious acid, and their derivates, whose abundance correlated with phosphate uptake of the source plant and genotype (with a higher intensity in Razinieh). The ash generated from these straws stimulated the shoot elongation and root development of the rice seedlings, especially for the material derived from Razinieh raised under Pi starvation. In conclusion, sorghum growing on marginal lands has potential as a bio-economy alternative for mineral phosphorus recycling.


Assuntos
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110612, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507756

RESUMO

Sorghum derived 3-deoxyanthocyanins (3-DXA) are of growing interest as natural food colors due to their unique stability compared to anthocyanins, but are generally difficult to extract. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) can dramatically improve extraction efficiency of 3-DXA from sorghum tissue. However, condensed tannins common in some sorghums could impact MAE extractability and color properties of 3-DXA. The objective of this work was to determine how presence of condensed tannins affect MAE extractability, stability, and color properties of sorghum 3-DXA. Sorghums of varying 3-DXA profile and tannin content, as well as purified tannins, were subjected to MAE and pigment yield and profile, aqueous color properties and stability at pH 1 - 5 monitored over time using, UV-vis spectroscopy, colorimetry, and UPLC-MS. The relative yield of 3-DXA from tannin sorghums was higher (3 - 10-fold) after MAE than from non-tannin sorghum (2-fold). During MAE, condensed tannins underwent extensive oxidative depolymerization to anthocyanidins (cyanidin and 7-O-methylcyanidin), which caused the tannin-sorghum pigment extracts to have a redder hue (12-43H°) compared to the non-tannin pigment extract (58H°). The tannin-derived anthocyanidins transformed over time into xanthylium pigments, resulting in increased extract H°. Tannins enhanced both color intensity (pH 1) and stability (pH 3-5) of the 3-DXA over 14 days, indicating they acted as copigments. The presence of tannins in sorghum enhances MAE extractability of 3-DXA from sorghum tissue, and could also potentially enhance their functionality in aqueous food systems. However, the initial changes in extract hue properties due to tannin-derived anthocyanidins should be considered.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Taninos , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Micro-Ondas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Planta ; 254(4): 80, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546416

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A greater rate of phloem unloading and storage in the stem, not a higher rate of sugar production by photosynthesis or sugar export from leaves, is the main factor that results in sugar accumulation in sweet dwarf sorghum compared to grain sorghum. At maturity, the stem internodes of sweet sorghum varieties accumulate high concentrations of fermentable sugars and represent an efficient feedstock for bioethanol production. Although stem sugar accumulation is a heritable trait, additional factors that drive sugar accumulation in sorghum have not been identified. To identify the constraints on stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum, we used a combination of carbon-11 (11C) radiotracer, physiological and biochemical approaches, and compared a grain sorghum and sweet dwarf sorghum line that have similar growth characteristics including height. Photosynthesis did not increase during development or differ between the sorghum lines. During the developmental transition to the reproductive stage, export of 11C from leaves approximately doubled in both sorghum lines, but 11C export in the sweet dwarf line did not exceed that of the grain sorghum. Defoliation to manipulate relative sink demand did not result in increased photosynthetic rates, indicating that the combined accumulation of C by all sink tissues was limited by the maximum photosynthetic capacity of source leaves. Nearly 3/4 of the 11C exported from leaves was transported to the lower stem in sweet sorghum within 2 h, whereas in grain sorghum nearly 3/4 of the 11C was in the panicle. Accordingly, the transcripts of several sucrose transporter (SUT) genes were more abundant in the stem internodes of the sweet dwarf line compared to the grain sorghum. Overall, these results indicate that sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum stems is influenced by the interplay of different sink tissues for the same sugars, but is likely driven by elevated sugar phloem unloading and uptake capacity in mature stem internodes.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Carbono , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Açúcares
10.
Planta ; 254(4): 81, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554320

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: SbCASP4 improves the salt tolerance of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Mocnch] by enhancing the root apoplastic barrier and blocking the transport of sodium ions to the shoot. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Mocnch] is a C4 crop with high biomass and tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, and waterlogging. Sweet sorghum is widely used in bioenergy production, as a forage crop, and in liquors and beer. Root salt exclusion has been reported to underlie the salt tolerance of sweet sorghum. The Casparian strip has a key role in root salt exclusion, and the membrane domain protein (CASP) family participates in Casparian strip aggregation. However, the function and the regulatory mechanisms of SbCASP in response to salt stress in sweet sorghum are unclear. In the current study, we cloned SbCASP4 and determined that it is induced by salt stress and expressed in the endodermis cells of sweet sorghum. Histochemical staining and physiological indicators showed that heterologous expression of SbCASP4 significantly increased the tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with wild type and casp5 mutants, under 50 mM NaCl treatment, SbCASP4-expression lines had the less leaf Na+, lower PI accumulation in stele, smaller oxidative damage and higher salinity threshold, longer root length and higher expression levels of the genes related to Casparian strip formation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Sorghum , Arabidopsis/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10952-10961, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495670

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes encode enzymes that catalyze various growth-, development-, and stress-related reactions. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a type of C4 plant and an important cash crop. However, systematic identification and analysis of functional differentiation and evolution of CYP genes have not been carried out in this species. In the present study, we revealed that the sorghum genome contains 351 CYP genes, which can be divided into nine classes. These genes are from ancestors and repeated segments, rather than tandem repeats. Based on collinearity results, a large number of CYPs were extended before cotyledon differentiation, during the emergence of Gramineae, suggesting that genomewide duplication events and stress adaptation processes were important for the expansion of CYP genes. Their gene structure and motifs contain conserved regions and include various changes and loci. The expression characteristics and functional annotation of CYP genes indicated tissue specificity and selective expression. Overall, we identified all CYP genes in the sorghum genome and preliminarily explored their naming, structure, evolution, expression, and functional differentiation. The results advanced our understanding of plant gene family evolution and functional differentiation.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Cotilédone , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Genes de Plantas , Poaceae , Sorghum/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575989

RESUMO

Sorghum is one of the staple crops for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA). The future climate in these sorghum production regions is likely to have unexpected short or long episodes of drought and/or high temperature (HT), which can cause significant yield losses. Therefore, to achieve food and nutritional security, drought and HT stress tolerance ability in sorghum must be genetically improved. Drought tolerance mechanism, stay green, and grain yield under stress has been widely studied. However, novel traits associated with drought (restricted transpiration and root architecture) need to be explored and utilized in breeding. In sorghum, knowledge on the traits associated with HT tolerance is limited. Heat shock transcription factors, dehydrins, and genes associated with hormones such as auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid and compatible solutes are involved in drought stress modulation. In contrast, our understanding of HT tolerance at the omic level is limited and needs attention. Breeding programs have exploited limited traits with narrow genetic and genomic resources to develop drought or heat tolerant lines. Reproductive stages of sorghum are relatively more sensitive to stress compared to vegetative stages. Therefore, breeding should incorporate appropriate pre-flowering and post-flowering tolerance in a broad genetic base population and in heterotic hybrid breeding pipelines. Currently, more than 240 QTLs are reported for drought tolerance-associated traits in sorghum prospecting discovery of trait markers. Identifying traits and better understanding of physiological and genetic mechanisms and quantification of genetic variability for these traits may enhance HT tolerance. Drought and HT tolerance can be improved by better understanding mechanisms associated with tolerance and screening large germplasm collections to identify tolerant lines and incorporation of those traits into elite breeding lines. Systems approaches help in identifying the best donors of tolerance to be incorporated in the SSA and SA sorghum breeding programs. Integrated breeding with use of high-throughput precision phenomics and genomics can deliver a range of drought and HT tolerant genotypes that can improve yield and resilience of sorghum under drought and HT stresses.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sorghum , Desidratação/genética , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Planta ; 254(4): 63, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477992

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of stay-green (SG) characteristic in sorghum under water stress was related to N supply. SG genotype performed better than a non-stay-green (NSG) genotype at medium and high N levels. The differences in physiological parameters between SG and NSG genotypes were not significant at low N level and severe water stress. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] with stay-green (SG) trait has the potential to produce more biomass and use soil water and nitrogen (N) more efficiently under post-flowering water stress. Previous studies were mostly conducted without N deficiency and more information is needed for interactions among soil N availability, SG genotype, and post-flowering water stress. In this study, the differences in leaf growth and senescence, shoot and root biomass, evapotranspiration (ET), water use efficiency (WUE), leaf photosynthetic responses, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) between a SG genotype (BTx642) and a non-stay-green (NSG) genotype (Tx7000) were examined. The two genotypes were grown at three N levels (Low, LN; Medium, MN; High, HN) and under three post-flowering water regimes (No water deficit, ND; Moderate water deficit, MD; Severe water deficit, SD). The genotypic difference was generally significant while it frequently interacted with N levels and water regimes. At medium and high N levels, SG genotype consistently had greater green leaf area, slower senescence rate, more shoot biomass and root biomass, and greater WUE and NUE than the NSG genotype under post-flowering drought. However, differences in several variables (e.g., leaf senescence, ET, WUE and NUE) between genotypes were not significant under SD at LN. At HN and MN, photosynthetic function of SG genotype was better maintained under drought. At LN, SG genotype maintained greater green leaf area but had lower photosynthetic activity than the NSG genotype. Nonetheless, adequate N supply is important for SG genotype under drought and greater root biomass may contribute to greater NUE in SG genotype.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Secas , Grão Comestível , Nitrogênio , Sorghum/genética , Água
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361052

RESUMO

Colon cancer (CC) is considered a high-risk cancer in developed countries. Its etiology is correlated with a high consumption of red meat and low consumption of plant-based foods, including whole grains. Sorghum bran is rich in polyphenols. This study aimed to determine whether different high-phenolic sorghum brans suppress tumor formation in a genetic CC rodent model and elucidate mechanisms. Tissue culture experiments used colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HCT-116 and Caco-2 and measured protein expression, and protein activity. The animal model used in this study was APC Min+/mouse model combined with dextram sodium sulfate. High phenolic sorghum bran extract treatment resulted in the inhibition of proliferation and induced apoptosis in CC cell lines. Treatment with high phenolic sorghum bran extracts repressed TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB transactivation and IGF-1-stimulated PI3K/AKT pathway via the downregulation of ß-catenin transactivation. Furthermore, high-phenolic sorghum bran extracts activated AMPK and autophagy. Feeding with high-phenolic sorghum bran for 6 weeks significantly suppressed tumor formation in an APC Min/+ dextran sodium sulfate promoted CC mouse model. Our data demonstrates the potential application of high-phenolic sorghum bran as a functional food for the prevention of CC.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sorghum/química , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443387

RESUMO

Sorghum is the major raw material for the production of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor) and has a great effect on the flavor of Baijiu. Volatiles in cooked glutinous and non-glutinous sorghum samples were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed via comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). A total of 145 volatile compounds and 52 potent odorant compounds were identified from both sorghum types according to the retention index, MS, aroma, and standards. Based on their aroma features, the compounds were grouped into eight general categories, and the intensities of each aroma group were summed. Moreover, most of the compounds detected in the cooked sorghums were also detected in commercial Chinese Baijiu, indicating that the aroma compounds produced during the sorghum cooking process have a direct and significant influence on the final flavor quality of Baijiu.


Assuntos
Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Sorghum/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Planta ; 254(3): 47, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374841

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Various phenolic compounds of sorghum are effective in the management of abiotic stress (salt, nutrients) and biotic stress (caused by birds, fungi and aphids). The health and industrial application of phenolics is mainly contributed by inherent antioxidant and nutraceutical potential. In a natural environment, plant growth is affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. In every ecosystem, the presence of a wide range of harmful biological agents (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, mites, and insects) and undesirable environmental factors (drought, salinity, heat, excessive or low rainfall, etc.) may cause a heavy loss in crop productivity. Being sessile during evolution, plants have evolved multiple defense mechanisms against various types of microbial pathogens and environmental stresses. A plant's natural defense system produces some compounds named secondary metabolites, which include phenolics, terpenes, and nitrogen. The phenolic profile of grain sorghum, the least utilized staple crop, is unique, more diverse, and more abundant than in any other common cereal grain. It mainly contains phenolic acids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and condensed tannins. Sorghum polyphenols play a major role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses and have many additional health benefits along with various industrial applications. The objective of this review is to discuss the phenolic compounds derived from grain sorghum and describe their role in plant defense, human health, and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Secas , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível , Humanos , Polifenóis , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125695, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364087

RESUMO

Hydrogen bond donor (HBD) in ChCl-based deep eutectic solvent (DESs) had significant influence on the Sorghum straw (SS) pretreatment. Lactic acid (LAC) was chosen as the appropriate HBD for preparing ChCl-based DES to pretreat Sorghum straw (SS). Furthermore, sequential pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide (0.75 wt%) for 1 h at 121 °C and ChCl:LAC soaking at 140 °C for 40 min was applied to pretreat SS for removing lignin (78.4%) and xylan (67.6%). Hydrolysis for 72 h, the reducing sugar yield reached 94.9%. Moreover, relationships of delignification and xylan removal with saccharification were explored after pretreatment. Finally, the fermentability of SS-hydrolysates was verified by bioethanol fermentation by S. cerevissiae with the yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose. No significant inhibition was observed on ethanol fermentation. Obviously, establishment of high-efficient combination pretreatment with alkali extraction and ChCl:LAC soaking was successfully demonstrated for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of SS.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Álcalis , Lignina , Solventes , Xilanos
18.
Planta ; 254(3): 43, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355288

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A synthetic peptide from the C-terminal end of C4-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is implicated in the proteolysis of the enzyme, and Glc-6P or phosphorylation of the enzyme modulate this effect. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a cytosolic, homotetrameric enzyme that performs a variety of functions in plants. Among them, it is primarily responsible for CO2 fixation in the C4 photosynthesis pathway (C4-PEPC). Here we show that proteolysis of C4-PEPC by cathepsin proteases present in a semi-purified PEPC fraction was enhanced by the presence of a synthetic peptide containing the last 19 amino acids from the C-terminal end of the PEPC subunit (pC19). Threonine (Thr)944 and Thr948 in the peptide are important requirements for the pC19 effect. C4-PEPC proteolysis in the presence of pC19 was prevented by the PEPC allosteric effector glucose 6-phosphate (Glc-6P) and by phosphorylation of the enzyme. The role of these elements in the regulation of PEPC proteolysis is discussed in relation to the physiological context.


Assuntos
Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase , Sorghum , Glucose-6-Fosfato , Peptídeos , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fotossíntese , Proteólise , Sorghum/metabolismo
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104908, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446212

RESUMO

Histone acetylation plays important roles in eukaryotic chromatin modification and gene expression regulation. Acetylation levels are modulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which function as key epigenetic factors that regulate gene expression in response to various stresses. HDT701, a member of the HD2 subfamily of HDACs, plays crucial roles in plant responses to abiotic stress and pathogen infection. Here, we analysed the expression pattern of SbHDT701 in sorghum. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that expression of SbHDT701 was tissue-specific, and up-regulated under drought (d-mannitol) and salt (NaCl) stresses. We also determined the optimal expression conditions for SbHDT701 protein accumulation, and successfully expressed and purified SbHDT701 protein. Besides, overexpression of SbHDT701 in could promote the growth of recombinant cells under abiotic stress. SbHDT701 expression in Escherichia coli also increased acetylation modification levels following treatment with 750 mM NaCl, and 100 mM or 300 mM d-mannitol. In summary, the sorghum HDAC SbHDT701 mediates stress responses by enhancing acetylation modification levels.


Assuntos
Histona Desacetilases , Sorghum , Acetilação , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 391, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As effects of global climate change intensify, the interaction of biotic and abiotic stresses increasingly threatens current agricultural practices. The secondary cell wall is a vanguard of resistance to these stresses. Fusarium thapsinum (Fusarium stalk rot) and Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot) cause internal damage to the stalks of the drought tolerant C4 grass, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), resulting in reduced transpiration, reduced photosynthesis, and increased lodging, severely reducing yields. Drought can magnify these losses. Two null alleles in monolignol biosynthesis of sorghum (brown midrib 6-ref, bmr6-ref; cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD; and bmr12-ref; caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, COMT) were used to investigate the interaction of water limitation with F. thapsinum or M. phaseolina infection. RESULTS: The bmr12 plants inoculated with either of these pathogens had increased levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) across both watering conditions and significantly reduced lesion sizes under water limitation compared to adequate watering, which suggested that drought may prime induction of pathogen resistance. RNA-Seq analysis revealed coexpressed genes associated with pathogen infection. The defense response included phytohormone signal transduction pathways, primary and secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes, and genes encoding components of the spliceosome and proteasome. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition of the secondary cell wall affect immunity by influencing phenolic composition and phytohormone signaling, leading to the action of defense pathways. Some of these pathways appear to be activated or enhanced by drought. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis and modification in SA and JA signal transduction may be involved in priming a stronger defense response in water-limited bmr12 plants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Secas , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/genética , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais , Estados Unidos , Água/metabolismo
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