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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251883, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350313

RESUMO

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


Resumo O menor teor de lignina em espécies de plantas com potencial energético resulta na maior facilidade de quebra da celulose, disponibilizando glicose para geração de etanol. Porém, maiores teores de lignina representa um fator de resistência ao ataque de insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como importantes pragas do sorgo energia, Diatraea saccharalis e Spodoptera frugiperda, se comportam quanto à alimentação e desempenho em sorgo bmr-6, um genótipo mutante com menor concentração de lignina. Foram realizados experimentos em laboratório e casa de vegetação, avaliando o desenvolvimento destas pragas nos híbridos de sorgo biomassa bmr 007, 008, TX635 e seus respectivos genótipos isogênicos convencionais (sem o gene bmr). O teor de lignina foi maior nos híbridos não bmr, mas nos parâmetros avaliados nos insetos, houve variação entre os tratamentos, não sendo consistente em apenas um híbrido e nem por ser ou não bmr. A menor sobrevivência de S. frugiperda foi verificada no híbrido BR008 tanto bmr quanto não bmr. As notas de injúria por S. frugiperda no sorgo em casa de vegetação foram altas (>7) em todos os tratamentos. Para D. saccharalis, não houve diferença significativa para a sobrevivência larval em laboratório, mas em casa de vegetação o híbrido BR007 tanto bmr quanto não bmr proporcionaram maior sobrevivência. Diante da necessidade de diversificar a matriz energética e o fato de que não foi comprovada neste estudo maior suscetibilidade dos híbridos bmr a ambas as pragas, estes resultados são promissores para o cultivo desses híbridos de sorgo biomassa para produção de biocombustíveis.


Assuntos
Animais , Saccharum/genética , Sorghum/genética , Mariposas , Spodoptera , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253083, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360201

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) use efficiency is crucial for sorghum production. P acquisition efficiency is the most important component of P use efficiency. The early-stage evaluation of plant development is a useful tool for identifying P-efficient genotypes. This study aimed to identify sorghum hybrids that are efficient in P use efficiency and assess the genetic diversity among hybrids based on traits related to P acquisition efficiency. Thus, 38 sorghum hybrids and two inbred lines (checks) were evaluated under low and high P in a paper pouch system with nutrient solution. Biomass and root traits related to P efficiency were measured. There was no interaction between genotypes and P levels concerning all evaluated traits. The biomass and root traits, except root diameter, presented smaller means under low P than high P. Efficient and inefficient hybrids under each P level were identified. The genetic diversity assessment grouped these genotypes in different clusters. The hybrids AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540, and DKB 590 were superior under low-P and high-P. Hybrids SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 presented the lowest means than all other hybrids, under both conditions. The evaluated hybrids showed phenotypic diversity for traits related to P acquisition, such as root length and root surface area, which can be useful for establishing selection strategies for sorghum breeding programs and increasing P use efficiency.


A eficiência do uso do fósforo (P) é fundamental para a produção de sorgo. A avaliação no estágio inicial do desenvolvimento da planta é uma ferramenta útil para a identificação de genótipos eficientes de P. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar híbridos de sorgo que sejam eficientes ao uso de P e avaliar a diversidade genética entre os híbridos com base em características relacionadas à eficiência de aquisição de P. Assim, 38 híbridos de sorgo e duas linhagens (testemunhas) foram avaliados sob baixo e alto P em sistema de pastas de papel com solução nutritiva. Características de biomassa e de raiz relacionadas à eficiência de P foram mensuradas. Não houve interação entre genótipos e níveis de P em todas as características avaliadas. As características de biomassa e raiz, exceto o diâmetro da raiz, apresentaram médias menores sob baixo P em comparação com alto P. Híbridos eficientes e ineficientes sob cada nível de P foram identificados e agrupados quanto à diversidade genética. Os híbridos AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540 e DKB 590 foram superiores sob baixo-P e alto-P. Os híbridos SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 apresentaram as menores médias que todos os outros híbridos, em ambas condições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diversidade fenotípica para características relacionadas à aquisição de P, como comprimento e área superficial da raiz, o que pode ser útil para estabelecer estratégias de seleção para programas de melhoramento de sorgo e aumentar a eficiência de uso do P.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Variação Genética , Hidroponia , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 110(1): 40, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627388

RESUMO

Predictive models were generated to evaluate the degree to which nine metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were absorbed by the leaves, stems and roots of forage sorghum in growing media comprising soil admixed with poultry manure concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g/kg. The data revealed that the greatest contents of the majority of the metals were evident in the roots rather than in the stems and leaves. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) < 1 was calculated for Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn; BAF values for Co, Cu, Mn and Cd were 3.99, 2.33, 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, i.e., > 1. Translocation factor values were < 1 for all metals with the exception of Co, Cr and Ni, which displayed values of 1.20, 1.67 and 1.35 for the leaves, and 1.12, 1.23 and 1.24, respectively, for the stems. The soil pH had a negative association with metal tissues in plant parts. A positive relationship was observed with respect to plant metal contents, electrical conductivity and organic matter quantity. The designed models exhibited a high standard of data precision; any variations between the predicted and experimentally observed contents for the nine metals in the three plant tissue components were nonsignificant. Thus, it was concluded that the presented predictive models constitute a pragmatic tool to establish the safety from risk to human well-being with respect to growing forage sorghum when cultivating media fortified with poultry manure.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Animais , Humanos , Solo/química , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Aves Domésticas , Cádmio , Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679502

RESUMO

Non-destructive measurements of internal morphological structures in plant materials such as seeds are of high interest in agricultural research. The estimation of pericarp thickness is important to understand the grain quality and storage stability of seeds and can play a crucial role in improving crop yield. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of fiber-based Bessel beam Fourier domain (FD) optical coherence microscopy (OCM) with a nearly constant high lateral resolution maintained at over ~400 µm for direct non-invasive measurement of the pericarp thickness of two different sorghum genotypes. Whereas measurements based on axial profiles need additional knowledge of the pericarp refractive index, en-face views allow for direct distance measurements. We directly determine pericarp thickness from lateral sections with a 3 µm resolution by taking the width of the signal corresponding to the pericarp at the 1/e threshold. These measurements enable differentiation of the two genotypes with 100% accuracy. We find that trading image resolution for acquisition speed and view size reduces the classification accuracy. Average pericarp thicknesses of 74 µm (thick phenotype) and 43 µm (thin phenotype) are obtained from high-resolution lateral sections, and are in good agreement with previously reported measurements of the same genotypes. Extracting the morphological features of plant seeds using Bessel beam FD-OCM is expected to provide valuable information to the food processing industry and plant breeding programs.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Sorghum , Microscopia/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Grão Comestível , Genótipo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 136(1): 1-14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656365

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SbMYBHv33 negatively regulated biomass accumulation and salt tolerance in sorghum and Arabidopsis by regulating reactive oxygen species accumulation and ion levels. Salt stress is one of the main types of environmental stress leading to a reduction in crop yield worldwide. Plants have also evolved a variety of corresponding regulatory pathways to resist environmental stress damage. This study aimed to identify a SbMYBHv33 transcription factor that downregulates in salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) in the salt-tolerant inbred line sorghum M-81E. The findings revealed that overexpression of SbMYBHv33 in sorghum significantly reduced sorghum biomass accumulation at the seedling stage and also salinity tolerance. Meanwhile, a heterologous transformation of Arabidopsis with SbMYBHv33 produced a similar phenotype. The loss of function of the Arabidopsis homolog of SbMYBHv33 resulted in longer roots and increased salt tolerance. Under normal conditions, SbMYBHV33 overexpression promoted the expression of ABA pathway genes in sorghum and inhibited growth. Under salt stress conditions, the gene expression of SbMYBHV33 decreased in the overexpressed lines, and the promotion of these genes in the ABA pathway was attenuated. This might be an important reason for the difference in growth and stress resistance between SbMYBHv33-overexpressed sorghum and ectopic expression Arabidopsis. Hence, SbMYBHv33 is an important component of sorghum growth and development and the regulation of salt stress response, and it could negatively regulate salt tolerance and biomass accumulation in sorghum.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Sorghum , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Sorghum/genética , Biomassa , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Food Microbiol ; 111: 104206, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681402

RESUMO

The conversion of phenolic compounds by lactobacilli in food fermentations contributes to food quality. The metabolism of phenolics by lactobacilli has been elucidated in the past years but information on the contribution of specific enzymes in food fermentations remains scarce. This study aimed to address this gap by disruption of genes coding for the hydroxycimmanic acid reductase Par1, the hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase Pad, the hydrocinnamic esterase EstR, and strains with disruption of all three genes in Furfurilactobacillus milii FUA3583. The conversion of phenolics by Ff. milii and its isogenic mutants in sorghum fermentations was studied by LC-UV and LC-UV-MS/MS analyses. Ff. milii FUA3583 converted hydroxycinnamic acids predominantly with Par1. Vinylphenols were detected only in mutants lacking par1. A phenotype for the estR defective mutant was not identified. The formation of pyrano-3-deoxyanthocyanidins was observed only after fermentation with strains expressing Pad. Specifically, formation of these compounds was low with Ff. milii FUA3583, substantially increased in the Par1 mutant and abolished in all mutants with disrupted pad. Competition experiments with Ff. milii FUA3583 and its isogenic mutants demonstrated that expression of one of the two metabolic pathways for hydroxycinnamic acids increases the ecological fitness of the strain. Disruption of EstR in a Δpar1Δpar2Δpad background improved ecological fitness, indirectly demonstrating a phenotype of the esterase in Ff. milii. The documentation of the functionality of genes coding for conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids may support the selection of starter cultures for improved quality of fermented cereal products.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos , Sorghum , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(1): e0180722, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602332

RESUMO

Metagenomics offers the possibility to screen for versatile biocatalysts. In this study, the microbial community of the Sorghum bicolor rhizosphere was spiked with technical cashew nut shell liquid, and after incubation, the environmental DNA (eDNA) was extracted and subsequently used to build a metagenomic library. We report the biochemical features and crystal structure of a novel esterase from the family IV, EH0, retrieved from an uncultured sphingomonad after a functional screen in tributyrin agar plates. EH0 (optimum temperature [Topt], 50°C; melting temperature [Tm], 55.7°C; optimum pH [pHopt], 9.5) was stable in the presence of 10 to 20% (vol/vol) organic solvents and exhibited hydrolytic activity against p-nitrophenyl esters from acetate to palmitate, preferably butyrate (496 U mg-1), and a large battery of 69 structurally different esters (up to 30.2 U mg-1), including bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-terephthalate (0.16 ± 0.06 U mg-1). This broad substrate specificity contrasts with the fact that EH0 showed a long and narrow catalytic tunnel, whose access appears to be hindered by a tight folding of its cap domain. We propose that this cap domain is a highly flexible structure whose opening is mediated by unique structural elements, one of which is the presence of two contiguous proline residues likely acting as possible hinges, which together allow for the entrance of the substrates. Therefore, this work provides a new role for the cap domain, which until now was thought to be an immobile element that contained hydrophobic patches involved in substrate prerecognition and in turn substrate specificity within family IV esterases. IMPORTANCE A better understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes allows revelation of key structural motifs or elements. Here, we studied the structural basis of the substrate promiscuity of EH0, a family IV esterase, isolated from a sample of the Sorghum bicolor rhizosphere microbiome exposed to technical cashew nut shell liquid. The analysis of EH0 revealed the potential of the sorghum rhizosphere microbiome as a source of enzymes with interesting properties, such as pH and solvent tolerance and remarkably broad substrate promiscuity. Its structure resembled those of homologous proteins from mesophilic Parvibaculum and Erythrobacter spp. and hyperthermophilic Pyrobaculum and Sulfolobus spp. and had a very narrow, single-entry access tunnel to the active site, with access controlled by a capping domain that includes a number of nonconserved proline residues. These structural markers, distinct from those of other substrate-promiscuous esterases, can help in tuning substrate profiles beyond tunnel and active site engineering.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sorghum , Esterases/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Ésteres/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
8.
Planta ; 257(2): 44, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690717

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Zinc deficiency altered shoot and root growth, plant biomass, yield, and ZIP family transporter gene expression in sorghum. Zinc (Zn) deficiency affects several crop plants' growth and yield, including sorghum. We have evaluated the sorghum under various concentrations of Zn supply for phenotypic changes, Zn content, and expression of Zn-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP) family genes. Zn deficiency reduced the shoot and root growth, plant biomass, and yield by > 50%. The length and number of lateral roots were increased by more than 50% under deficient Zn compared to sufficient Zn. Ten SbZIP family transporter genes showed dynamic expression in shoot and root tissues of sorghum under deficient and sufficient Zn. SbZIP2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were expressed in all tissues under deficient and sufficient Zn. SbZIP2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were highly induced in shoot tissues by deficient Zn. The expression level of SbZIP6, 7, 8, and 9 was higher in root tissues under deficient Zn. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that most SbZIP family proteins are closely associated with the ZmZIP family of maize. The functional residues His177 and Gly182 are fully conserved in all SbZIP family transporters, as revealed by homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment. This study may provide a foundation for improving the Zn-use efficiency of sorghum.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Zinco , Zinco/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 727, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639688

RESUMO

Open burning of agricultural residues causes numerous complications including particulate matter pollution in the air, soil degradation, global warming and many more. Since they possess bio-conversion potential, agro-industrial residues including sugarcane bagasse (SCB), rice straw (RS), corncob (CC) and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) were chosen for the study. Yeast strains, Candida tropicalis, C. shehatae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus were compared for their production potential of bioethanol and phenylacetylcarbinol (PAC), an intermediate in the manufacture of crucial pharmaceuticals, namely, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine. Among the substrates and yeasts evaluated, RS cultivated with C. tropicalis produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher ethanol concentration at 15.3 g L-1 after 24 h cultivation. The product per substrate yield (Yeth/s) was 0.38 g g-1 with the volumetric productivity (Qp) of 0.64 g L-1 h-1 and fermentation efficiency of 73.6% based on a theoretical yield of 0.51 g ethanol/g glucose. C. tropicalis grown in RS medium produced 0.303 U mL-1 pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), a key enzyme that catalyzes the production of PAC, with a specific activity of 0.400 U mg-1 protein after 24 h cultivation. This present study also compared the whole cells biomass of C. tropicalis with its partially purified PDC preparation for PAC biotransformation. The whole cells C. tropicalis PDC at 1.29 U mL-1 produced an overall concentration of 62.3 mM PAC, which was 68.4% higher when compared to partially purified enzyme preparation. The results suggest that the valorization of lignocellulosic residues into bioethanol and PAC will not only aid in mitigating the environmental challenge posed by their surroundings but also has the potential to improve the bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Oryza , Saccharum , Sorghum , Celulose/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Candida tropicalis/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(2): 1035-1045, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602944

RESUMO

Mesotrione is effective in controlling a wide spectrum of weeds in corn but not registered for postemergence use in sorghum because of crop injury. We screened a sorghum germplasm collection and identified two mesotrione-resistant sorghum genotypes (G-1 and G-10) and one susceptible genotype (S-1) in an in vitro plate assay. A mesotrione dose-response assay under greenhouse and field conditions confirmed that G-1 and G-10 are highly resistant compared to S-1. We found enhanced metabolism of mesotrione in G-1 and G-10 using HPLC assay, and a significant reduction in biomass accumulation was found in G-1 and G-10 plants pretreated with cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitors malathion or piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of CYPs in the metabolism of mesotrione. Genetic analyses using F1 and F2 progenies generated by crossing G-1 and G-10 separately with S-1 revealed that mesotrione resistance in sorghum is controlled by a single dominant gene along with several genes with minor effects.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Sorghum/genética , Poaceae , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450
11.
Plant Sci ; 327: 111556, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481362

RESUMO

Sorghum is one of the five most productive crops worldwide, but its yield is seriously limited by phosphate (Pi) availability. Although inorganic Pi signalling is well studied in Arabidopsis and rice, it remains largely unknown in sorghum. The sorghum sbpho2 mutant was identified, showing leaf necrosis and short roots. Map-based cloning identified SbPHO2 as Sobic.009G228100, an E2 conjugase gene that is a putative orthologue of the PHO2 genes in rice and Arabidopsis, which play important roles in Pi signalling. Pi starvation experiments and transformation of SbPHO2 into the rice ospho2 mutant further revealed that SbPHO2 is likely involved in Pi accumulation and root architecture alteration in sorghum. qRTPCR results showed that SbPHO2 was expressed in almost the entire plant, especially in the leaves. Furthermore, some typical Pi starvation-induced genes were induced in sbpho2 even under Pi-sufficient conditions, including Pi transporters, SPXs, phosphatases and lipid composition alteration-related genes. In addition to P accumulation in the shoots of sbpho2, concentrations of N, K, and other metal elements were also altered significantly in the sbpho2 plants. Nitrate uptake was also suppressed in the sbpho2 mutant. Consistent with this finding, the expression of several nitrate-, potassium- and other metal element-related genes was also altered in sbpho2. Furthermore, the results indicated that N-dependent control of the P starvation response is regulated via SbPHO2 in sorghum. Our results suggest that SbPHO2 participates in the regulation of the absorption of multiple nutrients, although PHO2 is a crucial and conserved component of Pi starvation signalling.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas
12.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102300, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502566

RESUMO

A 28-day battery cage study was conducted to test the efficacy of tannin-free grain sorghum varieties fed to Cobb 500 male broiler chickens (n = 512) and challenged with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Clostridium perfringens (CP). Birds were fed 1 of 8 treatments (corn, red/bronze, white/tan, or U.S. No. 2 sorghum) and were grouped by challenge method (challenged with EM/CP or unchallenged). On d 14, birds in the challenge group were orally inoculated with ∼5,000 oocysts of EM, and on d 19, 20, and 21, birds were given a broth culture of CP with ∼108 CFU/mL once daily. On d 21, three birds were scored for the degree/presence of necrotic enteritis (NE) lesions. Birds and feed were group weighed (d 0, 14, 21, and 28) to calculate average feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), and adjusted feed conversion ratio (AdjFCR). Intestinal integrity was assessed through histological analysis of intestinal tissues, and change in transcriptome was determined using mRNA-sequencing on intestinal mucosa. Relative concentrations of secondary metabolites in grain sorghum were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Data were analyzed as a 2-way ANOVA with factors of treatment, challenge and their interaction. Regardless of challenge from 14 to 21 d, birds on the corn, white/tan, and U.S. No. 2 treatments were more efficient than those fed red/bronze treatment (P = 0.0026). From 14 to 28 d, BWG was significantly higher for the white/tan treatment (P = 0.024) compared to the red/bronze treatment. At 21 d, a significant interaction was observed for lesion score (P = 0.0001) in which, challenged birds fed red/bronze and white/tan treatments had reduced intestinal lesions compared to U.S. No. 2 and corn treatments. No differences among treatments were observed in jejunum morphology, but differential expression analysis showed an upregulation in defense response to bacteria and biotic stress in the challenged red/bronze treatment compared to the challenged corn. This study demonstrated improved gut health and minimal impact on growth and efficiency of broilers fed select grain sorghum varieties when challenged with EM/CP.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Sorghum , Animais , Masculino , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Taninos , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 63(2): 159-177, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328387

RESUMO

Sorghum requires fewer inputs for sustainable cultivation in harsh climates and has the potential to be utilized in modern food product innovations. Moreover, consumption of sorghum may elicit favorable health effects similar to other commonly consumed cereals, like wheat. Animal and human research exploring health effects of sorghum consumption indicates potential beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid regulation, oxidative stress modulation, appetite regulation and weight management. However, a recent appraisal of the strength of evidence has not been conducted. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of sorghum consumption on metabolic indicators of chronic disease, including blood lipid and blood glucose levels, markers of oxidative stress, and factors associated with weight management. Using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed and MEDLINE databases, a systematic review of intervention studies published up to May 2020 was conducted and 16 interventional studies met the criteria for inclusion. Evidence for favorable effects of sorghum consumption on indicators of chronic disease, including blood glucose responses, markers of oxidative stress, satiety measures and weight management was demonstrated. Evidence from this systematic review may assist to promote sorghum's potential health benefits globally, including in food markets where it is underutilized, stimulating more sorghum-based food innovations in the future.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Humanos , Glicemia , Doença Crônica
14.
Plant Sci ; 327: 111555, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481363

RESUMO

Stem structural failure, or lodging, affects many crops including sorghum, and can cause large yield losses. Lodging is typically caused by mechanical forces associated with severe weather like high winds, but exposure to sub-catastrophic forces may strengthen stems and improve lodging resistance. The responses of sorghum internodes at different developmental stages were examined at 2 and 26 h after initiating moderate mechanical stimulation with an automated apparatus. Transcriptome profiling revealed that mechanical stimulation altered the expression of over 900 genes, including transcription factors, cell wall-related and hormone signaling-related genes. IAA, GA1 and ABA abundances generally declined following mechanical stimulation, while JA increased. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) identified three modules significantly enriched in GO terms associated with cell wall biology, hormone signaling and general stress responses, which were highly correlated with mechanical stimulation and with biomechanical and geometrical traits documented in a separate study. Additionally, mechanical stimulation-triggered responses were dependent on the developmental stage of the internode and the duration of stimulation. This study provides insights into the underlying mechanisms of plant hormone-regulated thigmomorphogenesis in sorghum stems. The critical biological processes and hub genes described here may offer opportunities to improve lodging resistance in sorghum and other crops.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Transcriptoma , Sorghum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Hormônios/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20971, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470926

RESUMO

A comparative sustainability study of bioethanol production from selected starchy feedstocks that are abundantly available was carried out in this work. This is to ensure the safe, reliable, and efficient production and consumption of fuel-grade bioethanol. The analysis utilised the established economic minimum bioethanol plant capacity of 158,000 m3/annum. The processing flowsheet model utilised was the same for each feedstock. The sustainability study's economic, environmental, and energy perspectives were investigated. The economic and environmental indices were assessed using Superpro Designer and openLCA sustainability software, respectively. Exergy and lost work were subsequently estimated manually with Microsoft Excel. The economic analyses showed that the plants using cassava and sweet potato initially had the highest return on investment (ROI) of 64.41 and 41.96% respectively at a minimum of 80% plants' capacity utilisation. The break-even point occurs at a bioethanol price of $3.27 per gallon, beyond which positive net present values were obtained for the four processes. The least profitable plant was based on sorghum recording an ROI value of 34.11%. The environmental assessment on the four selected feedstocks showed that the processes based on cassava, corn, sweet potato, and sorghum recorded encouraging global warming potential (GWP) of 0.2452, 0.2067, 2.5261, and 0.2099 kg CO2 equivalent respectively. Cassava and corn emerged as the two most economically viable feedstocks when economic parameters were adjusted to include pollutants emission/discharge costs but with a slight decrease in profitability indices. The lost work analyses showed that distillation columns were the least energy-efficient units in the four bioethanol production routes assessed, recording loss work of about 61, 68, 34, and 49 MW for cassava, sweet potato, corn, and sorghum processing plants respectively. However, the net energy balance (NEB) and energy renewability results of the four production routes showed that the processes utilising the four selected starchy biomass feedstocks are more sustainable compared to fossil fuels.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Sorghum , Etanol , Biomassa , Grão Comestível , Amido , Biocombustíveis
16.
PeerJ ; 10: e14448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530409

RESUMO

The establishment of new symbiotic interactions between introduced species may facilitate invasion success. For instance, tawny crazy ant (Nylanderia fulva Mayr) is known to be an opportunistic tender of honeydew producing insects and this ants' symbiotic interactions have exacerbated agricultural damage in some invaded regions of the world. The invasive sorghum aphid (Melanaphis sorghi Theobald) was first reported as a pest in the continental United States-in Texas and Louisiana-as recent as 2013, and tawny crazy ant (TCA) was reported in Texas in the early 2000s. Although these introductions are relatively recent, TCA workers tend sorghum aphids in field and greenhouse settings. This study quantified the tending duration of TCA workers to sorghum aphids and the impact of TCA tending on aphid biomass. For this study aphids were collected from three different host plant species (i.e., sugarcane, Johnson grass, and sorghum) and clone colonies were established. Sorghum is the main economic crop in which these aphids occur, hence we focused our study on the potential impacts of interactions on sorghum. Quantification of invasive ant-aphid interactions, on either stems or leaves of sorghum plants, were conducted in greenhouse conditions. Our results show that although these two invasive insect species do not have a long coevolutionary history, TCA developed a tending interaction with sorghum aphid, and aphids were observed excreting honeydew after being antennated by TCA workers. Interestingly, this relatively recent symbiotic interaction significantly increased overall aphid biomass for aphids that were positioned on stems and collected from Johnson grass. It is recommended to continue monitoring the interaction between TCA and sorghum aphid in field conditions due to its potential to increase aphid populations and sorghum plant damage.


Assuntos
Formigas , Afídeos , Sorghum , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Grão Comestível
17.
Planta ; 257(1): 22, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538118

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Quantification of cuticular waxes coupled with insect bioassays and feeding behavior analysis demonstrate that long-chain C32 fatty alcohol impacts host plant selection by aphids. Cuticular waxes constitute the first point of contact between plants and their environment, and it also protect plants from external stresses. However, the role of waxes in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) against sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari), a relatively new and devastating pest of sorghum in the U.S., is not fully understood. In this study, we monitored sugarcane aphid behavior on two genotypes of young sorghum plants with different wax chemistry: a wild-type plant (bloom) with lower C32 alcohol cuticular wax, and a mutant plant (bloomless) with 1.6 times the amount of wax compared to wild-type plants. No-choice aphid bioassays revealed that sugarcane aphid reproduction did not vary between wild-type and the bloomless plants. Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) monitoring indicated that the sugarcane aphids spent comparable amount of time feeding from the sieve elements of the wild-type and bloomless plants. However, aphids spent more time feeding on the xylem sap of the bloomless plants compared to the wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid choice assays revealed that the sugarcane aphids preferred to settle on bloomless compared to wild-type plants. Overall, our results suggest that cuticular waxes on young sorghum leaves play a critical role in influencing host plant selection by sugarcane aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Saccharum , Sorghum , Animais , Sorghum/genética , Ceras , Comportamento Alimentar , Grão Comestível
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22537, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581623

RESUMO

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.25) plays a crucial role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the current knowledge about PAL proteins in sorghum is essentially lacking. Thus, in this study we aimed to analyze the PAL family genes in sorghum using a genome-wide approach and to explore the role of PAL genes in host plant resistance to aphids via SA-mediated defense signaling. Here, we report gene structural features of 8 PAL (SbPAL) genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), their phylogeny, protein motifs and promoter analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the SbPAL genes were induced by sugarcane aphid (SCA) infestation and SbPAL exhibited differential gene expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes. PAL activity assays further validated upregulated expression of the SbPAL genes in a resistant genotype. In addition, exogenous application of SA reduced plant damage and suppressed aphid population growth and fecundity in susceptible genotype, suggesting that those SbPAL genes act as positive regulator of the SA-mediated defense signaling pathway to combat aphid pests in sorghum. This study provides insights for further examination of the defense role of PAL in sorghum against other pests and pathogens.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Sorghum , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7731, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513676

RESUMO

A number of crop wild relatives can tolerate extreme stress to a degree outside the range observed in their domesticated relatives. However, it is unclear whether or how the molecular mechanisms employed by these species can be translated to domesticated crops. Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is a self-incompatible and multiply stress-tolerant wild relative of maize and sorghum. Here, we describe the sequencing and pseudomolecule level assembly of a vegetatively propagated accession of P. vaginatum. Phylogenetic analysis based on 6,151 single-copy syntenic orthologues conserved in 6 related grass species places paspalum as an outgroup of the maize-sorghum clade. In parallel metabolic experiments, paspalum, but neither maize nor sorghum, exhibits a significant increase in trehalose when grown under nutrient-deficit conditions. Inducing trehalose accumulation in maize, imitating the metabolic phenotype of paspalum, results in autophagy dependent increases in biomass accumulation.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Sorghum , Paspalum/genética , Paspalum/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Filogenia , Sorghum/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética
20.
Planta ; 257(1): 8, 2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481955

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: When gene editing was applied to knockout beta-kafirin, there was a compensatory increase of gamma-kafirin which does not occur in domesticated null varieties, so enhanced grain quality was not achieved. Sorghum bicolor is an important animal feedstock cereal crop throughout Australia and the southern United States, where its use as a food product is limited by issues with low calorific and nutritive value. Qualities such as reduced digestibility and low essential amino acid content are directly attributed to the kafirin grain storage proteins, the major components of protein bodies within the endosperm. Specifically, the ß- and γ-kafirins have few protease cleavage sites and high levels of cysteine residues which lead to a highly cross-linked shell of intra- and inter-molecular disulphide linkages that encapsulate the more digestible α- and δ-kafirins in the core of the protein bodies. Naturally occurring ß-kafirin mutants exist and are known to have improved grain quality, with enhanced protein contents and digestibility, traits which are often attributed to the lack of this cysteine-rich kafirin in the mature grain. However, when CRISPR/Cas9 editing was used to create ß-kafirin knockout lines, there was no improvement to grain quality in the Tx430 background, although they did have unique protein composition and changes to protein body morphology in the vitreous endosperm. One explanation of the divergence in quality traits found the lines lacking ß-kafirin are due to a drastic increase of γ-kafirin which was only found in the gene edited lines. This study highlights that in some germplasm, there is a level of redundancy between the peripheral kafirins, and that improvement of grain protein digestibility cannot be achieved by simply removing the ß-kafirin protein in all genetic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Sorghum/genética , Cisteína , Austrália
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