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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 383-391, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450508

RESUMO

Wax accumulation on the sorghum surface plays an important role in drought tolerance by preventing non-stomatal water loss. Thereby, the effect of post-flowering drought stress (PFDS) on the epicuticular wax (EW) amount, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, and grain yield in sorghum drought contrasting genotypes were investigated. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two water treatments (normal watering and water holding after 50% flowering stage), and three genotypes (Kimia and KGS23 as drought-tolerant and Sepideh as drought-susceptible). Scanning electron microscopy and GC-MS analyses were used to determine the wax crystals density and its compositions, respectively. In addition, based on literature reviews and publicly available datasets, six wax biosynthesis drought stress-responsive genes were chosen for expression analysis. The results showed that the amounts of EW and wax crystals density were increased in Kimia and Sepideh genotypes and no changed in KGS23 genotype under drought stress. Chemical compositions of wax were classified into six major groups including alkanes, fatty acids, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, and cyclic compounds. Alkanes increment in drought-tolerant genotypes led to make an effective barrier against the drought stress to control water losses. In addition, the drought-tolerant genotypes had higher levels of RWC compared to the drought-susceptible ones, resulted in higher yield produced under drought condition. According to the results, SbWINL1, FATB, and CER1 genes play important roles in drought-induced wax biosynthesis. The results of the present study revealed a comprehensive view of the wax and its compositions and some involved genes in sorghum under drought stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Folhas de Planta , Sorghum , Ceras , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água , Ceras/química , Ceras/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127604, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777562

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein fraction, and bioavailability of Fe and Zn in the grains of five sorghum landraces grown in Sudan. The results showed significant differences in all quality tests among the landraces. The Tetron landrace showed the highest percentage of crude protein and IVPD among the landraces. Additionally, most of the landrace grains had high contents of Fe and Zn with a high rate of bioavailability. The Kolom 4055 and Wad akar exhibited significantly higher total phenolic contents, with antioxidant activity of 79.3% and 83.4%, respectively. The glutelin content was relatively higher compared to the other fractions, irrespective of sorghum landraces. The principal components cumulatively accounted for 89.3% of the total variation among the five sorghum landraces. It can be concluded that these landraces could be used in the improvement of new value-added crops using the by-products of sorghum grains.


Assuntos
Sorghum/química , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Flavonoides/análise , Variação Genética , Glutens/análise , Ferro/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Sorghum/genética , Sudão , Zinco/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0233254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052910

RESUMO

Herbicide application is crucial for weed management in most crop production systems, but for sorghum herbicide options are limited. Sorghum is sensitive to residual protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides, such as fomesafen, and a long re-entry period is required before sorghum can be planted after its application. Improving sorghum for tolerance to such residual herbicides would allow for increased sorghum production and the expansion of herbicide options for growers. In this study, we observed sorghum tolerance to residual fomesafen. To investigate the underlying tolerance mechanism a genome-wide association mapping study was conducted using field-collected sorghum biomass panel (SBP) data, and a greenhouse assay was developed to confirm the field phenotypes. A total of 26 significant SNPs (FDR<0.05), spanning a 215.3 kb region on chromosome 3, were detected. The ten most significant SNPs included two in genic regions (Sobic.003G136800, and Sobic.003G136900) and eight SNPs in the intergenic region encompassing the genes Sobic.003G136700, Sobic.003G136800, Sobic.003G137000, Sobic.003G136900, and Sobic.003G137100. The gene Sobic.003G137100 (PPXI), which encodes the PPO1 enzyme, one of the targets of PPO-inhibiting herbicides, was located 12kb downstream of the significant SNP S03_13152838. We found that PPXI is highly conserved in sorghum and expression does not significantly differ between tolerant and sensitive sorghum lines. Our results suggest that PPXI most likely does not underlie the observed herbicide tolerance. Instead, the mechanism underlying herbicide tolerance in the SBP is likely metabolism-based resistance, possibly regulated by the action of multiple genes. Further research is necessary to confirm candidate genes and their functions.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Herbicidas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Protoporfirinogênio Oxidase/genética , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Protoporfirinogênio Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sorghum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorghum/genética
4.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20009, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016627

RESUMO

Successful management and utilization of increasingly large genomic datasets is essential for breeding programs to accelerate cultivar development. To help with this, we developed a Sorghum bicolor Practical Haplotype Graph (PHG) pangenome database that stores haplotypes and variant information. We developed two PHGs in sorghum that were used to identify genome-wide variants for 24 founders of the Chibas sorghum breeding program from 0.01x sequence coverage. The PHG called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with 5.9% error at 0.01x coverage-only 3% higher than PHG error when calling SNPs from 8x coverage sequence. Additionally, 207 progenies from the Chibas genomic selection (GS) training population were sequenced and processed through the PHG. Missing genotypes were imputed from PHG parental haplotypes and used for genomic prediction. Mean prediction accuracies with PHG SNP calls range from .57-.73 and are similar to prediction accuracies obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing or targeted amplicon sequencing (rhAmpSeq) markers. This study demonstrates the use of a sorghum PHG to impute SNPs from low-coverage sequence data and shows that the PHG can unify genotype calls across multiple sequencing platforms. By reducing input sequence requirements, the PHG can decrease the cost of genotyping, make GS more feasible, and facilitate larger breeding populations. Our results demonstrate that the PHG is a useful research and breeding tool that maintains variant information from a diverse group of taxa, stores sequence data in a condensed but readily accessible format, unifies genotypes across genotyping platforms, and provides a cost-effective option for genomic selection.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Análise Custo-Benefício , Genoma , Genômica , Haplótipos , Sorghum/genética
5.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20013, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016639

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] is a major cereal crop consumed by millions of people in regions with high vitamin A deficiency. We quantified carotenoid concentrations in a diverse sorghum panel using high-performance liquid chromatography and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of grain carotenoids to identify genes underlying carotenoid variation. There was moderate variation for ß-carotene (00.8 µg g-1 ), lutein (0.3-9.4 µg g-1 ), and zeaxanthin (0.2-9.1 µg g-1 ), but ß-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene were nearly undetectable. Genotype had the largest effect size, at 81% for zeaxanthin, 62% for ß-carotene, and 53% for lutein. Using multiple models, GWAS identified several significant associations between carotenoids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which colocalized with known carotenoid genes that have not been previously implicated in carotenoid variation. Several of the candidate genes identified have also been identified in maize (Zea mays L.) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) carotenoid GWAS studies. Notably, an SNP inside the putative ortholog of maize zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) had the most significant association with zeaxanthin and with the ratio between lutein and zeaxanthin, suggesting that ZEP is a major gene controlling sorghum carotenoid variation. Overall findings suggest there is oligogenic inheritance for sorghum carotenoids and suitable variation for marker-assisted selection. The high carotenoid germplasm and significant associations identified in this study can be used in biofortification efforts to improve the nutritional quality of sorghum.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Biofortificação , Carotenoides , Grão Comestível , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Provitaminas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5442, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116128

RESUMO

Miscanthus is a perennial wild grass that is of global importance for paper production, roofing, horticultural plantings, and an emerging highly productive temperate biomass crop. We report a chromosome-scale assembly of the paleotetraploid M. sinensis genome, providing a resource for Miscanthus that links its chromosomes to the related diploid Sorghum and complex polyploid sugarcanes. The asymmetric distribution of transposons across the two homoeologous subgenomes proves Miscanthus paleo-allotetraploidy and identifies several balanced reciprocal homoeologous exchanges. Analysis of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus populations demonstrates extensive interspecific admixture and hybridization, and documents the origin of the highly productive triploid bioenergy crop M. × giganteus. Transcriptional profiling of leaves, stem, and rhizomes over growing seasons provides insight into rhizome development and nutrient recycling, processes critical for sustainable biomass accumulation in a perennial temperate grass. The Miscanthus genome expands the power of comparative genomics to understand traits of importance to Andropogoneae grasses.


Assuntos
Poaceae/genética , Biomassa , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliploidia , Saccharum/genética , Estações do Ano , Sorghum/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804948

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors regulate diverse biological processes in plants, including abiotic and biotic stress responses, and constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants. Although the past decade has seen significant progress towards identifying and functionally characterizing WRKY genes in diverse species, little is known about the WRKY family in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench). Here we report the comprehensive identification of 94 putative WRKY transcription factors (SbWRKYs). The SbWRKYs were divided into three groups (I, II, and III), with those in group II further classified into five subgroups (IIa-IIe), based on their conserved domains and zinc finger motif types. WRKYs from the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used for the phylogenetic analysis of all SbWRKY genes. Motif analysis showed that all SbWRKYs contained either one or two WRKY domains and that SbWRKYs within the same group had similar motif compositions. SbWRKY genes were located on all 10 sorghum chromosomes, and some gene clusters and two tandem duplications were detected. SbWRKY gene structure analysis showed that they contained 0-7 introns, with most SbWRKY genes consisting of two introns and three exons. Gene ontology (GO) annotation functionally categorized SbWRKYs under cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. A cis-element analysis showed that all SbWRKYs contain at least one stress response-related cis-element. We exploited publicly available microarray datasets to analyze the expression profiles of 78 SbWRKY genes at different growth stages and in different tissues. The induction of SbWRKYs by different abiotic stresses hinted at their potential involvement in stress responses. qRT-PCR analysis revealed different expression patterns for SbWRKYs during drought stress. Functionally characterized WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and other species will provide clues for the functional characterization of putative orthologs in sorghum. Thus, the present study delivers a solid foundation for future functional studies of SbWRKY genes and their roles in the response to critical stresses such as drought.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730265

RESUMO

Mature sorghum herbage is known to contain several water-soluble secondary metabolites (allelochemicals). In this study, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with allelochemical characteristics in sorghum using linkage mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping. A sorghum diversity research set (SDRS) of 107 accessions was used in LD mapping whereas, F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Japanese and African landraces were used in linkage mapping. The QTLs were further confirmed by positional (targeted) association mapping with Q+K model. The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts (WSE) was tested on germination and root length of lettuce seedlings in four concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). A Significant range of variations was observed among genotypes in both types of mapping populations (P < 0.05). A total of 181 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from antecedently reported map have been used for genotyping of SDRS. A genetic linkage map of 151 sorghum SSR markers was also developed on 134 F2 individuals. The total map length was 1359.3 cM, with an average distance of 8.2 cM between adjacent markers. LD mapping identified three QTLs for inhibition effect on germination and seven QTLs for root length of lettuce seedlings. Whereas, a total of six QTLs for inhibition of germination and ten QTLs for root length were detected in linkage mapping approach. The percent phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 6.9% to 27.3% in SDRS and 9.9% to 35.6% in F2:3 lines. Regional association analysis identified four QTLs, three of them are common in other methods too. No QTL was identified in the region where major gene for sorgoleone (SOR1) has been cloned previously on chromosome 5.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética , Ligação Genética , Germinação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/fisiologia
9.
Am J Bot ; 107(7): 983-992, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648285

RESUMO

PREMISE: Soil salinity negatively impacts plant function, development, and yield. To overcome this impediment to agricultural productivity, variation in morphological and physiological response to salinity among genotypes of important crops should be explored. Sorghum bicolor is a staple crop that has adapted to a variety of environmental conditions and contains a significant amount of standing genetic diversity, making it an exemplary species to study variation in salinity tolerance. METHODS: Twenty-one diverse Sorghum accessions were treated with nonsaline water or 75 mM sodium chloride. Salinity tolerance was assessed via changes in biomass between control and salt-treated individuals. Accessions were first rank-ordered for salinity tolerance, and then individuals spanning a wide range of responses were analyzed for foliar proline and ion accumulation. Tolerance rankings were then overlaid on a neighbor-joining tree. RESULTS: We found that, while proline is often a good indicator of osmotic adjustment and is historically associated with increased salt tolerance in many species, proline accumulation in sorghum reflects a stress response injury rather than acclimation. When combining ion profiles with stress tolerance indices, the variation observed in tolerance was not a sole result of Na+ accumulation, but rather reflected accession-specific mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant variation in salinity tolerance among Sorghum accessions that may be a result of the domestication history of Sorghum. When we compared our results with known phylogenetic relationships within sorghum, the most parsimonious explanation for our findings is that salinity tolerance was acquired early during domestication and subsequently lost in accessions growing in areas varying in soil salinity.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Filogenia , Potássio , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Curr Protoc Plant Biol ; 5(2): e20112, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501639

RESUMO

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) fulfills the demand for bioenergy resources and also provides substantial diet calories to the world's population. Therefore, many biological studies use sorghum as a research model for improvement of the domesticated food and bioenergy crops. Furthermore, leveraging genome editing systems in a plethora of grass plant species has been extensively studied with no exception in sorghum. However, a protocol that details the genome editing strategies using CRISPR/Cas9 and that combines an efficient tissue culture and transformation platform in sorghum based on Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer has yet to be reported. This protocol outlines the steps and workflow from design of sorghum CRISPR target sites using BTx623 as a reference genome, construction of sorghum CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids, tissue culture, to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutants. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector to analysis of CRISPR-edited plants Basic Protocol 2: Stable transformation of sorghum Support Protocol: Management of sorghum plants in a greenhouse.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Sorghum/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Mutagênese
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16649-16659, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586957

RESUMO

Low availability of nitrogen (N) is often a major limiting factor to crop yield in most nutrient-poor soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are beneficial symbionts of most land plants that enhance plant nutrient uptake, particularly of phosphate. A growing number of reports point to the substantially increased N accumulation in many mycorrhizal plants; however, the contribution of AM symbiosis to plant N nutrition and the mechanisms underlying the AM-mediated N acquisition are still in the early stages of being understood. Here, we report that inoculation with AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis remarkably promoted rice (Oryza sativa) growth and N acquisition, and about 42% of the overall N acquired by rice roots could be delivered via the symbiotic route under N-NO3 - supply condition. Mycorrhizal colonization strongly induced expression of the putative nitrate transporter gene OsNPF4.5 in rice roots, and its orthologs ZmNPF4.5 in Zea mays and SbNPF4.5 in Sorghum bicolor OsNPF4.5 is exclusively expressed in the cells containing arbuscules and displayed a low-affinity NO3 - transport activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Moreover, knockout of OsNPF4.5 resulted in a 45% decrease in symbiotic N uptake and a significant reduction in arbuscule incidence when NO3 - was supplied as an N source. Based on our results, we propose that the NPF4.5 plays a key role in mycorrhizal NO3 - acquisition, a symbiotic N uptake route that might be highly conserved in gramineous species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Sorghum/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516348

RESUMO

Shoot fly (Atherigona naqvii) is one of the major insects affecting spring maize in North India and can cause yield loss up to 60 per cent. The genetics of insect resistance is complex as influenced by genotypic background, insect population and climatic conditions. Therefore, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a highly effective approach for studying genetically complex forms of insect resistance. The objective of the present study was to dissect the genetic basis of resistance and identification of genomic regions associated with shoot fly resistance. A total of 107 F2 population derived from the cross CM143 (resistant) x CM144 (susceptible) was genotyped with 120 SSR markers. Phenotypic data were recorded on replicated F2:3 progenies for various component traits imparting resistance to shoot fly at different time intervals. Resistance to shoot fly was observed to be under polygenic control as evidenced by the identification of 19 putative QTLs governed by overdominance to partial dominance and additive gene actions. The major QTLs conditioning shoot fly resistance viz., qDH9.1 (deadheart) and qEC9.1 (oviposition) explaining 15.03 and 18.89 per cent phenotypic variance, respectively were colocalized on chromosome 9. These QTLs are syntenic to regions of chromosome 10 of sorghum which were also accounted for deadheart and oviposition suggesting that the same gene block may be responsible for shoot fly resistance. The candidate genes such as cysteine protease, subtilisin-chymotrypsin inhibitor, cytochrome P450 involved in synthesis of alleochemicals, receptor kinases, glossy15 and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway were identified within the predicted QTL regions. This is the first reported mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to shoot fly in maize, and the markers identified here will be a valuable resource for developing elite maize cultivars with resistance to shoot fly.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Sorghum/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Índia , Insetos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285108

RESUMO

Five experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in three sorghum varieties compared with corn and to determine the effects of sorghum varieties on nursery pig growth. In exp. 1, 48 barrows (initially 18.6 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial evaluating two levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 units/kg) and four grain sources (corn, high-lysine, red, or white sorghum). Added phytase improved (P < 0.05) STTD of P in all ingredients, but was not different among the grains. In exp. 2, the DE and ME in the three sorghum varieties were not different from corn. In exp. 3, 10 growing barrows (initially 25.9 kg) with a T-cannula in the terminal ileum were used. Standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met, Thr, and Val were greater (P < 0.05) in corn than in the sorghum-based diets with no differences among the sorghum varieties. In exp. 4, 160 pigs (initially 6.3 kg) were randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments with five pigs per pen and eight replicate pens per treatment in a 20-d experiment. Dietary treatments included corn or the three sorghum varieties, where the varieties of sorghum replaced corn on an SID Lys basis. No differences among treatments were observed in any growth performance parameters. In exp. 5, treatments consisted of a corn-based diet, a diet based on conventional sorghum (a mixture of red and white sorghum), and four diets with high-lysine sorghum containing increasing amounts of feed-grade AA, replacing soybean meal. Overall, pigs fed the high-lysine sorghum diet with the greatest amount of added feed-grade AA had the poorest gain:feed ratio (G:F; P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all the other experimental diets. Within those fed the high-lysine sorghum and feed-grade AA, average daily gain, final body weight (linear, P < 0.10), and G:F (linear, P < 0.01) decreased as feed-grade AA increased. In summary, no differences in STTD of P or in DE and ME were observed among the grain sources. The SID AA values for the three sorghum varieties were not different; however, they were all lower than for corn. These results indicate that these varieties of sorghum can successfully replace corn in nursery pig diets if diets are formulated to account for differences in AA digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Sorghum/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Sorghum/metabolismo , Soja/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
J Plant Physiol ; 246-247: 153142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112957

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors have been suggested to play important roles in response and adaptation to drought stress. However, how sorghum WRKY transcription factors function in drought stress is still unclear. Here, we identify a WRKY transcription factor of sorghum, SbWRKY30, which is induced significantly by drought stress. SbWRKY30 is mainly expressed in sorghum taproot and leaf. SbWRKY30 has transcriptional activation activity and functions in the nucleus. Heterologous expression of SbWRKY30 confers tolerance to drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice by affecting root architecture. In addition, SbWRKY30 transgenic Arabidopsis and rice plants have higher proline contents and SOD, POD, and CAT activities but lower MDA contents than wild-type plants after drought stress. As a homologous gene of the drought stress-responsive gene RD19 of Arabidopsis, SbRD19 overexpression in Arabidopsis improved the drought tolerance of plants relative to wild-type plants. Further analysis demonstrated that SbWRKY30 could induce SbRD19 expression through binding to the W-box element in the promoter of SbRD19. These results suggest that SbWRKY30 functions as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Therefore, SbWRKY30 may serve as a promising candidate gene for molecular breeding to generate drought-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(3): 269-285, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170550

RESUMO

Ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) of the monolignol pathway catalyzes the hydroxylation of coniferyl alcohol, coniferaldehyde and ferulic acid to produce 5-hydroxyconiferyl moieties, which lead to the formation of sinapic acid and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. In contrast, guaiacyl (G) lignin, the other major type of lignin monomer, is derived from polymerization of coniferyl alcohol. In this study, the effects of manipulating S-lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were evaluated. Overexpression of sorghum F5H (SbF5H), under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, increased both S-lignin levels and the ratio of S/G lignin, while plant growth and development remained relatively unaffected. Maüle staining of stalk and leaf midrib sections from SbF5H overexpression lines indicated that the lignin composition was altered. Ectopic expression of SbF5H did not affect the gene expression of other monolignol pathway genes. In addition, brown midrib 12-ref (bmr12-ref), a nonsense mutation in the sorghum caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) was combined with 35S::SbF5H through cross-pollination to examine effects on lignin synthesis. The stover composition from bmr12 35S::SbF5H plants more closely resembled bmr12 stover than 35S::SbF5H or wild-type (WT) stover; S-lignin and total lignin concentrations were decreased relative to WT or 35S::SbF5H. Likewise, expression of upstream monolignol biosynthetic genes was increased in both bmr12 and bmr12 35S::SbF5H relative to WT or 35S::SbF5H. Overall, these results indicated that overexpression of SbF5H did not compensate for the loss of COMT activity. KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of F5H in sorghum increases S-lignin without increasing total lignin content or affecting plant growth, but it cannot compensate for the loss of COMT activity in monolignol synthesis.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sorghum/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033366

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies produce a huge amount of biological data, which poses various issues such as requirements of high processing time and large memory. This research focuses on the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genome sequences. Currently, SNPs detection algorithms face several issues, e.g., computational overhead cost, accuracy, and memory requirements. In this research, we propose a fast and scalable workflow that integrates Bowtie aligner with Hadoop based Heap SNP caller to improve the SNPs detection in genome sequences. The proposed workflow is validated through benchmark datasets obtained from publicly available web-portals, e.g., NCBI and DDBJ DRA. Extensive experiments have been performed and the results obtained are compared with Bowtie and BWA aligner in the alignment phase, while compared with GATK, FaSD, SparkGA, Halvade, and Heap in SNP calling phase. Experimental results analysis shows that the proposed workflow outperforms existing frameworks e.g., GATK, FaSD, Heap integrated with BWA and Bowtie aligners, SparkGA, and Halvade. The proposed framework achieved 22.46% more efficient F-score and 99.80% consistent accuracy on average. More, comparatively 0.21% mean higher accuracy is achieved. Moreover, SNP mining has also been performed to identify specific regions in genome sequences. All the frameworks are implemented with the default configuration of memory management. The observations show that all workflows have approximately same memory requirement. In the future, it is intended to graphically show the mined SNPs for user-friendly interaction, analyze and optimize the memory requirements as well.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Humano , Genoma de Planta , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sorghum/genética , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Humanos , Software
18.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 112, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), one paramount breeding objective is to increase grain quality. The nutritional quality and end use value of sorghum grains are primarily influenced by the proportions of tannins, starch and proteins, but the genetic basis of these grain quality traits remains largely unknown. This study aimed to dissect the natural variation of sorghum grain quality traits and identify the underpinning genetic loci by genome-wide association study. RESULTS: Levels of starch, tannins and 17 amino acids were quantified in 196 diverse sorghum inbred lines, and 44 traits based on known metabolic pathways and biochemical interactions amongst the 17 amino acids calculated. A Genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 3,512,517 SNPs from re-sequencing data identified 14, 15 and 711 significant SNPs which represented 14, 14, 492 genetic loci associated with levels of tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum grains, respectively. Amongst these significant SNPs, two SNPs were associated with tannin content on chromosome 4 and colocalized with three previously identified loci for Tannin1, and orthologs of Zm1 and TT16 genes. One SNP associated with starch content colocalized with sucrose phosphate synthase gene. Furthermore, homologues of opaque1 and opaque2 genes associated with amino acid content were identified. Using the KEGG pathway database, six and three candidate genes of tannins and starch were mapped into 12 and 3 metabolism pathways, respectively. Thirty-four candidate genes were mapped into 16 biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of amino acids. We finally reconstructed the biosynthetic pathways for aspartate and branched-chain amino acids based on 15 candidate genes identified in this study. CONCLUSION: Promising candidate genes associated with grain quality traits have been identified in the present study. Some of them colocalized with previously identified genetic regions, but novel candidate genes involved in various metabolic pathways which influence grain quality traits have been dissected. Our study acts as an entry point for further validation studies to elucidate the complex mechanisms controlling grain quality traits such as tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/química , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/normas , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorghum/genética , Amido/análise , Taninos/análise
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 67, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exserohilum turcicum is an important pathogen of both sorghum and maize, causing sorghum leaf blight and northern corn leaf blight. Because the same pathogen can infect and cause major losses for two of the most important grain crops, it is an ideal pathosystem to study plant-pathogen evolution and investigate shared resistance mechanisms between the two plant species. To identify sorghum genes involved in the E. turcicum response, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS). RESULTS: Using the sorghum conversion panel evaluated across three environments, we identified a total of 216 significant markers. Based on physical linkage with the significant markers, we detected a total of 113 unique candidate genes, some with known roles in plant defense. Also, we compared maize genes known to play a role in resistance to E. turcicum with the association mapping results and found evidence of genes conferring resistance in both crops, providing evidence of shared resistance between maize and sorghum. CONCLUSIONS: Using a genetics approach, we identified shared genetic regions conferring resistance to E. turcicum in both maize and sorghum. We identified several promising candidate genes for resistance to leaf blight in sorghum, including genes related to R-gene mediated resistance. We present significant advancements in the understanding of host resistance to E. turcicum, which is crucial to reduce losses due to this important pathogen.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Zea mays/genética , Meio Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 145, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The glyoxalase pathway is evolutionarily conserved and involved in the glutathione-dependent detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic by-product of glycolysis. It acts via two metallo-enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII), to convert MG into D-lactate, which is further metabolized to pyruvate by D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDH). Since D-lactate formation occurs solely by the action of glyoxalase enzymes, its metabolism may be considered as the ultimate step of MG detoxification. By maintaining steady state levels of MG and other reactive dicarbonyl compounds, the glyoxalase pathway serves as an important line of defence against glycation and oxidative stress in living organisms. Therefore, considering the general role of glyoxalases in stress adaptation and the ability of Sorghum bicolor to withstand prolonged drought, the sorghum glyoxalase pathway warrants an in-depth investigation with regard to the presence, regulation and distribution of glyoxalase and D-LDH genes. RESULT: Through this study, we have identified 15 GLYI and 6 GLYII genes in sorghum. In addition, 4 D-LDH genes were also identified, forming the first ever report on genome-wide identification of any plant D-LDH family. Our in silico analysis indicates homology of putatively active SbGLYI, SbGLYII and SbDLDH proteins to several functionally characterised glyoxalases and D-LDHs from Arabidopsis and rice. Further, these three gene families exhibit development and tissue-specific variations in their expression patterns. Importantly, we could predict the distribution of putatively active SbGLYI, SbGLYII and SbDLDH proteins in at least four different sub-cellular compartments namely, cytoplasm, chloroplast, nucleus and mitochondria. Most of the members of the sorghum glyoxalase and D-LDH gene families are indeed found to be highly stress responsive. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the role of glyoxalases as well as that of D-LDH in the complete detoxification of MG in sorghum. In particular, we propose that D-LDH which metabolizes the specific end product of glyoxalases pathway is essential for complete MG detoxification. By proposing a cellular model for detoxification of MG via glyoxalase pathway in sorghum, we suggest that different sub-cellular organelles are actively involved in MG metabolism in plants.


Assuntos
Lactato Desidrogenases/genética , Lactoilglutationa Liase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Sorghum/enzimologia , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lactato Desidrogenases/classificação , Lactoilglutationa Liase/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tioléster Hidrolases/classificação
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