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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127523, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721833

RESUMO

Non-wheat cereals have become popular in the diet due to their nutritional benefits, but their application is limited by properties of their proteins. Some of these flours can be conventionally processed, but the final products are not of acceptable quality. Modification of physico-chemical properties of non-wheat flours by dry heat and extrusion represent the alternative process which can transform the flours into an adequate raw material for the bakery and confectionery industry. The aim of this study was to determine the type and extent of physico-chemical changes in modified flours whose mixtures were used successfully for bread production. Extrusion had stronger influence on chemical composition of flours than dry heating, especially on the content of fats and phenolic compounds. Extrusion also increased starch digestibility due to complete gelatinization process, making it almost equal for all flours. On the other hand, protein digestibility depends mostly on botanical origin of flour.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Pão/análise , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764802

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted: (1) to evaluate the effect of ensiling time and grain source on dietary nitrogen fractions; and (2) to verify the influence of concentrate level, processing method and grain source on intake, microbial efficiency, and digestibility by young Nellore bulls. In Experiment 1, corn and sorghum grains were milled, reconstituted to 35% moisture, and ensiled in a bag silo for 10 different times. There were three replications per ensiling time and grain source. Samples from each replication were analyzed in triplicate for total nitrogen (N), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), soluble N, insoluble N, and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN). In Experiment 2, five Nellore bulls were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Four diets were comprised of 28.4% corn silage, 10.7% supplement, and 60.9% dry ground corn, dry ground sorghum, reconstituted and ensiled corn, or reconstituted and ensiled ground sorghum. An additional diet comprised of 45% corn silage, 10.7% supplement, and 44.3% dry ground corn (Roughage+) was used. Each experimental period lasted 22 days, with an adaptation period of 14 days followed by 5 days of total feces and urine collection and 3 days of collecting omasal samples. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4. The reconstitution and ensiling process reduced (P < 0.05) the insoluble N fraction, increased (P < 0.05) non-protein nitrogen of corn and sorghum grains, tended (P = 0.052) to increase microbial efficiency, and increased (P < 0.05) intestinal and total digestion of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and starch. The concentrate level affected neither (P > 0.05) DM intake nor rumen pH. On the other hand, bulls fed diets based on 72% concentrate showed greater (P < 0.05) DM, OM, and CP digestibility compared with those fed a diet based on 55% concentrate. In addition, animals fed diets based on corn grains (both reconstituted and ensiled or dry) presented greater (P < 0.05) intestinal and total starch digestion compared to those fed sorghum grain. Therefore, the reconstitution process can reduce the insoluble N fraction and increase nutrient availability.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Nitrogênio/análise , Sorghum/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Rúmen/química
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127494, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663754

RESUMO

Sorghum derived 3-deoxyanthocyanin (DXA) pigments are stable relative to their anthocyanin analogs, and are of growing interest in food applications. However, the 3DXA are poorly extractable from grain tissue. This work aimed to determine the relative stability and extractability of sorghum 3-DXA vs anthocyanins from maize and cowpea under microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). UV-Vis and UPLC-MS/MS spectrometry were used to characterize the properties. The 3-DXA remained structurally stable to MAE conditions up to 1200 W/100 °C/30 min. MAE increased sorghum 3-DXA yield 100% versus control (3100 vs 1520 mg/g). On the other hand, both maize and cowpea anthocyanins were unstable and rapidly degraded under MAE. Cell wall-derived ferulate esters were detected in sorghum and maize MAE extracts, indicating cell wall degradation occurred during MAE. Thus the enhanced extraction of 3-DXA under MAE was due to their structural stability, along with improved diffusion from cell matrix due to microwave-induced sorghum cell wall disruption.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sorghum/química , Vigna/química , Zea mays/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível/química , Micro-Ondas , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2236-2244, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609891

RESUMO

The objective of the present work was to evaluate and compare the effect of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours on lipid metabolism and antioxidant potential in vivo. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were induced to oxidative stress with paracetamol and fed a normal diet (AIN-93M) and diets containing toasted tannin sorghum flour and toasted white sorghum flour (without tannins), replacing 100% cellulose, during 29 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests and by quantifying oxidative stress markers. Groups that received toasted sorghum flour with and without tannins showed reduction of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration and improvement of lipid profile, with increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to paracetamol control, and did not differ statistically from the AIN-93M control. Moreover, toasted white sorghum flour presented similar efficacy in reducing oxidative stress in liver tissue compared to toasted tannin sorghum flour, although the former had lower total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, suggesting a greater effect of small phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, in the prevention of oxidative stress. Therefore, toasted white and tannin sorghum flours had similar efficacy to improve the lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats treated with paracetamol, constituting potential sources of antioxidants, which can be used as promising ready-to-eat foods and as ingredients for the development of sorghum-based products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The health benefits of sorghum coupled with the growing interest of the food industry in producing healthier food products have motivated the development of toasted sorghum flours as potential sources of antioxidants and dietary fiber. We have demonstrated that consumption of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours by rats treated with paracetamol had similar efficacy to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile. Thus, these toasted sorghum flours have great potential to be used by the food industry as ready-to-eat foods or as ingredients in the development of various food products.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sorghum/química
5.
Food Chem ; 331: 127290, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544654

RESUMO

This paper proposes a sorghum adulteration detection model using hyperspectral imaging technology (HSI), image processing technology, and multivariate analysis technology. The model used a watershed algorithm to extract hyperspectral data from sorghum grains. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis (CA) were used to remove abnormal samples of sorghum. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the variety of sample, and a sorghum distribution map and adulteration ratios were obtained by marking varieties with different colors. This paper presents, for the first time, HSI use for identification of adulteration in sorghum using PCA and CA. Accuracy of the model identification for the validation set reached 96%, and for the adulterated samples reached 91%, and comprehensive accuracy of the model could reach more than 90%. These results show that the model can rapidly and nondestructively detect sorghum adulteration.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imagem Molecular , Sorghum/química , Análise Discriminante , Fraude , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1661-1667, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449948

RESUMO

Processing functionality in terms of fermentability and nutritional characteristics of Mahewu (a sorghum-based nonalcoholic beverage product) supplemented with different proportions of Bambara groundnut (BGN) (80:20 and 70:30, respectively) was investigated to develop a sorghum-based beverage product with improved nutritional quality. Sorghum-BGN Mahewu blends showed a rapid reduction in pH and significantly (P < 0.05) lower final pH (4.3) after 24 hr compared to the control (pH 5.1) (100% Sorghum Mahewu). With total titratable acidity (TTA), sorghum-BGN Mahewu blends had significantly higher final TTA (0.7%) than control (0.4%). Sorghum-BGN Mahewu blends had higher protein and crude fiber contents (up to 7.7% and 7.9%, respectively) than control (6.1% and 5.7%, respectively). In general, sorghum Mahewu supplemented with BGN did not show substantial increase in mineral and individual amino acid contents after fermentation compared to the control, possibly due to increase in tannin content with BGN supplementation. Fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phytate content by more than 90% in sorghum Mahewu supplemented with BGN when compared to the control (28% reduction). Importantly, BGN supplementation improved the level of some essential amino acids such as threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, and lysine. Therefore, supplementation with BGN can potentially improve the nutritional quality of sorghum Mahewu but modification in processing procedure is required to effectively improve the nutritional quality of sorghum-BGN blends. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research work has direct application in addressing problem of malnutrition, as well as improving utilization of indigenous food crops in commercial food processing. This is one of the practical approach to address food insecurity that is prevalent in most African countries.


Assuntos
Sorghum/química , Vigna/química , Bebidas/análise , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 112, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), one paramount breeding objective is to increase grain quality. The nutritional quality and end use value of sorghum grains are primarily influenced by the proportions of tannins, starch and proteins, but the genetic basis of these grain quality traits remains largely unknown. This study aimed to dissect the natural variation of sorghum grain quality traits and identify the underpinning genetic loci by genome-wide association study. RESULTS: Levels of starch, tannins and 17 amino acids were quantified in 196 diverse sorghum inbred lines, and 44 traits based on known metabolic pathways and biochemical interactions amongst the 17 amino acids calculated. A Genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 3,512,517 SNPs from re-sequencing data identified 14, 15 and 711 significant SNPs which represented 14, 14, 492 genetic loci associated with levels of tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum grains, respectively. Amongst these significant SNPs, two SNPs were associated with tannin content on chromosome 4 and colocalized with three previously identified loci for Tannin1, and orthologs of Zm1 and TT16 genes. One SNP associated with starch content colocalized with sucrose phosphate synthase gene. Furthermore, homologues of opaque1 and opaque2 genes associated with amino acid content were identified. Using the KEGG pathway database, six and three candidate genes of tannins and starch were mapped into 12 and 3 metabolism pathways, respectively. Thirty-four candidate genes were mapped into 16 biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of amino acids. We finally reconstructed the biosynthetic pathways for aspartate and branched-chain amino acids based on 15 candidate genes identified in this study. CONCLUSION: Promising candidate genes associated with grain quality traits have been identified in the present study. Some of them colocalized with previously identified genetic regions, but novel candidate genes involved in various metabolic pathways which influence grain quality traits have been dissected. Our study acts as an entry point for further validation studies to elucidate the complex mechanisms controlling grain quality traits such as tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/química , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/normas , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorghum/genética , Amido/análise , Taninos/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 312: 126077, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891885

RESUMO

Polyphenols from five pigmented sorghum (PS) flours were in vitro evaluated as possible modulators of starch digestibility. White sorghum (WS) flour was used as control. Untargeted metabolomics depicted the phenolic composition of raw and cooked flours (obtained through heating at 100 °C for 30 min in water) highlighting differences in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Raw PS flours were characterized by greater tannin and kafirin contents when compared to WS, and, after cooking, PS flours had greater resistant starch (from 4.2 to 21.4 g /100 g dry matter), and lower starch hydrolysis index (HI) with respect to cooked WS. Multivariate statistics showed that flavonoids characterizing PS were the most discriminant compounds during the in vitro digestion. In addition, kafirin and total tannins content (on raw ingredients) along with the anthocyanin profiles (on cooked samples) were negative correlated with HI. Therefore, PS flours might be good candidates for the formulation of functional foods.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/química , Sorghum/química , Amido/química , Culinária , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Metabolômica , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Taninos
9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(1): 104-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400993

RESUMO

Succinic acid, an important intermediate in the manufacture of plastics and other commodity and specialty chemicals, is currently made primarily from petroleum. We attempted to biosynthesize succinic acid through microbial fermentation of cellulosic sugars derived from the bagasse of sweet sorghum, a renewable feedstock that can grow in a wide range of climates around the world. We investigated pretreating sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) with concentrated phosphoric acid at mild conditions (40-85°C) at various residence times and biomass concentrations. We then subjected the pretreated SSB to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase to release glucose. The highest glucose yield was obtained when SSB was pretreated at 50°C for 43 min at 130 g/L biomass concentration on dry basis. Fermentation was carried out with Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, which readily converted 29.2 g/L of cellulosic glucose to 17.8 g/L of succinic acid in a 3.5-L bioreactor sparged with CO2 at a rate of 0.5 vvm, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the process. Overall, we demonstrated, for the first time, the use of SSB for production of succinic acid using practices that lower energy use, future equipment cost, waste generation, and carbon footprint.


Assuntos
Actinobacillus/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Sorghum/microbiologia , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Actinobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biocatálise , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Celulase/química , Celulose/química , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Sorghum/química , Ácido Succínico/química
10.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112214, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794881

RESUMO

In recent years, ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have gained increasing attention due to their ability to extract and solubilize metabolites and biopolymers in quantities far beyond their solubility in oil and water. The hypothesis that naturally occurring metabolites are able to form a natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES), thereby constituting a third intracellular phase in addition to the aqueous and lipid phases, has prompted researchers to study the role of NADES in living systems. As an excellent solvent for specialized metabolites, formation of NADES in response to dehydration of plant cells could provide an appropriate environment for the functional storage of enzymes during drought. Using the enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of the defense compound dhurrin as an experimental model system, we demonstrate that enzymes involved in this pathway exhibit increased stability in NADES compared with aqueous buffer solutions, and that enzyme activity is restored upon rehydration. Inspired by nature, application of NADES provides a biotechnological approach for long-term storage of entire biosynthetic pathways including membrane-anchored enzymes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Sorghum/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrilos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Solubilidade , Solventes , Sorghum/citologia , Sorghum/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 978-985, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorghum grain is rich in phenolic compounds and has the potential to be developed into functional beverages such as sorghum grain tea, in which the health benefits and flavour are the important quality attributes to be considered in tea product development. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of grain tea processing steps on the phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and aroma profile (volatile compounds) of MR-Buster (red-coloured) and Shawaya Short Black 1 (black-coloured) sorghum and the results compared with those for our previously reported Liberty (white-coloured) sorghum. RESULTS: Tea processing had significant impacts on sorghum polyphenols and volatile compounds, but the effect and level varied among sorghum varieties. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in these three sorghum varieties were consistent in both raw grain and grain tea samples and in the order Shawaya Short Black 1 > MR-Buster > Liberty. However, the volatile profiles (both individual and grouped volatiles) were significantly different between sorghum varieties, and the abundance and diversity of the volatile compounds of the tea samples were in the order Liberty > MR-Buster > Shawaya Short Black 1. CONCLUSIONS: Black-coloured sorghum with high phenolic content and antioxidant activity is more suitable for making sorghum tea considering the health benefits. In terms of the aroma intensity and diversity, white-coloured sorghum could be the ideal material. However, future study is needed to determine the key volatile compounds that positively contribute to the aroma. This work provides important insights into the selection of grain materials for sorghum grain tea production. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Bebidas/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorghum/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Sorghum/classificação
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1132-1141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Production and marketing of cereal grains are some of the main activities in developing countries to ensure food security. However, the food gap is complicated further by high postharvest loss of grains during storage. This study aimed to compare low-cost modified-atmosphere hermetic storage structures with traditional practice to minimize quantitative and qualitative losses of grains during storage. The study was conducted in two phases: in the first phase, seven hermetic storage structures with or without smoke infusion were compared, and one selected structure was further validated at scaled-up capacity in the second phase. RESULTS: Grains stored in PVC bag-supported structures (with or without smoke infusion) resulted in low live weevil population, low percentage of damaged grains and reduced weight loss with better retention of crude protein and fat contents. Results from validation study also demonstrated that maize and sorghum stored in improved storage structures experienced, respectively, 9.8% and 10.4% weevil damage as compared with 47.3% and 42.3% when stored in traditional storage structures. The same was true in terms of crude protein and fat contents. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that storage structures supported with PVC bags are efficient and low-cost structures for reducing storage-related losses and supporting food security efforts as compared to traditional methods. Furthermore, the bags can be made locally and with various storage capacities to store either shelled or unshelled products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Sorghum/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Atmosfera , Armazenamento de Alimentos/economia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sorghum/parasitologia , Gorgulhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorgulhos/fisiologia , Zea mays/parasitologia , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 309: 125567, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683152

RESUMO

Inspired by the potential opportunities offered by sorghum as a natural wax source, the objective of this study was to investigate for the first time the potential of three types of sorghum waxes, namely, sorghum bran wax (SBW), sorghum DDGS wax (SDW), and sorghum kernel wax (SKW), as an oleogelator. All the three sorghum waxes showed good gelation properties with minor differences. Fast cooling rate and ultrasonic treatment favored the oil-gelling capacity and reduced oil loss by reducing the crystal size. All sorghum wax oleogels exhibited two common x-ray diffraction peaks around d-value of 0.415 nm and 0.374 nm, suggesting the evidence of a hexagonal symmetry and ß' crystals. Faster cooling rate resulted in an earlier onset of crystallization and ultrasonic treatment narrowed the melting range. Oxidation of fish oil in the sorghum wax oleogels were delayed considerably compared to free fish oil, while SDW generated the most stable oleogels.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/química , Ceras/química , Cristalização , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos , Sorghum/química , Difração de Raios X
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125684, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699552

RESUMO

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has been sparsely used as human food due to certain anti-nutritional factors such as tannins that reduce its digestibility, although the grain is an important source of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PCs). This study aimed to assess the impact of cooking and alkaline cooking (nixtamalization) on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity of PCs of two sorghum varieties (white/red). Nixtamalization was the most effective procedure for the reduction of tannins (74.3%). Gallic acid proved to be the most bioaccessible PC (6359 µg/g). The total phenolics and condensed tannins correlated with the antioxidant capacity (ABTS/DPPH; R2: 0.30-0.43, p < 0.05). These results confirm the potential of thermal procedures to significantly modify the bioaccessibility of sorghum compounds, enhancing their concentrations and reducing anti-nutritional factors (tannins) while improving their antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Grão Comestível/química , Fenóis/análise , Sorghum/química , Taninos/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/metabolismo
15.
Nat Plants ; 5(12): 1229-1236, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792396

RESUMO

Among major cereals domesticated as staple food, only sorghum has a high proportion of cultivars with condensed tannins in grain, which can trigger bitter taste perception in animals by binding to type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs). Here, we report the completion of uncovering of a pair of duplicate recessive genes (Tannin1 and Tannin2) underlying tannin presence. Three loss-of-function alleles from each gene were identified in non-tannin sorghum desired as palatable food. Condensed tannins effectively prevented sparrows from consuming sorghum grain. Parallel geographic distributions between tannin sorghum and Quelea quelea supported the role of tannins in fighting against this major herbivore threat. Association between geographic distributions of human TAS2R variants and tannin sorghum across Africa suggested that different causes had probably driven this bidirectional selection according to varied local herbivore threats and human taste sensitivity. Our investigation uncovered coevolution among humans, plants and environments linked by allelochemicals.


Assuntos
Feromônios/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , África , Alcadienos , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Feromônios/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/parasitologia , Pardais/fisiologia , Taninos/análise , Paladar
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3522-3534, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721217

RESUMO

Zein is known to able to form viscoelastic dough with wheat-like properties under certain conditions. Several studies have been conducted to explain the mechanism behind this ability and to improve the functionality and end-use quality of zein-based dough systems. However, most of this research has been conducted using zein in combination with isolated starches or high-starch flours. To investigate the production of additional zein-whole sorghum flour breads, experiments were conducted to determine factors impacting zein-whole sorghum flour dough and bread quality. Optimizing water levels, using defatted zein and/or sorghum flour, and increasing zein content in dough formulas were investigated as initial formulation steps. Of these factors, increasing zein content from 20% to 30% (flour weight basis) had the greatest impact, resulting in stronger zein-based dough and improved bread quality. Additives and zein treatments shown to impact zein functionality were then investigated for their effect of zein-whole sorghum flour breads. Mixing zein and whole sorghum flour with 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, 5% ethanol, or 3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose resulted in improved dough strength and bread quality. Breads made from whole white sorghum flour had improved quality compared to zein-based breads made with black or high-tannin whole sorghum flour. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Zein is known to be able to form wheat-like dough when mixed under the right conditions. Most of the research on zein-based dough and food products has used high-starch flours. This project investigated optimizing the production of zein-whole sorghum flour dough and bread as an alternative. Increasing the zein content in the formula and using additives including ethanol and HPMC produced breads from zein-whole sorghum flour that were like those made with zein and pure starch.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Sorghum/química , Zeína/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Controle de Qualidade , Amido/química
18.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(Supplement): S222-S227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619635

RESUMO

High amylose corn starch (HAS), whole grain sorghum (S-Wh), refined sorghum (S-Rf) and α-corn starch (CON) diets were fed to animals for 1 mo aiming to examine the physiological effects of resistant starch inclusion in the diet from grains. HAS exhibited significantly lower feed intake, final body weight, serum lipid profile with significantly higher cecal parameters and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents. S-Wh group exhibited significantly higher body weight, feed intake and serum lipid parameters compared to other 3 groups. Cecal fermentation was not seemed to be prominent in the CON, S-Wh and S-Rf groups with respect to lower cecal parameters and SCFA contents. The cecal microbial compositions in HAS, S-Wh and CON/S-Rf exhibited 3 distinct clusters suggesting a significant effect of the cecal microbial composition on cecal parameters, SCFA contents and physiological parameters.


Assuntos
Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorghum/química , Amido/farmacologia , Grãos Integrais/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Amilose/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Amido/química
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 688, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular zoonotic parasite, infects approximately a third of the world population. Current drugs for treatment of T. gondii infection have been challenged with ineffectiveness and adverse side effects. This necessitates development of new anti-Toxoplasma drugs. Sorghum bicolor [Moench] leaf extract has been used in African traditional medicine for the management of anemia and treatment of infectious diseases. We tested the in vitro anti-Toxoplasma inhibitory activity of S. bicolor's oil-like crude extracts and fractions against T. gondii and determined their cytotoxic effects on human host cells. RESULTS: Significant inhibitory activities against the growth of T. gondii tachyzoites were observed for the crude extract (IC50 = 3.65 µg/mL), the hexane-methanol fraction (IC50 = 2.74 µg/mL), and the hexane fraction (IC50 = 3.55 µg/mL) after 48 h of culture. The minimum cytotoxicity concentrations against HFF were 34.41, 16.92 and 7.23 µg/mL for crude extract, hexane-methanol and hexane fractions, respectively. The crude extract and fractions showed high antiparasitic effects with low cytotoxic effects. Further studies to determine synergistic activities and modes of action would provide impetus for the development of new toxoplasmosis drugs or nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Lipídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sorghum/química , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Hexanos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1063-1071, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611511

RESUMO

In this study, some physico-chemical properties, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars and mineral contents of sorghum, millet and lupin seeds. Sorghum (red, white and yellow) and millet seeds were purchased from market in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh). Lupin seeds were provided from in Turkey (Konya). Protein contents of seed samples ranged from 8.6% (yellow sorghum) to 37.7% (lutop) (p < 0.05). The extractable phenolics contents for gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of grains ranged between 1.43 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 8.23 mgGAE/g (red sorghum), and hydrolysable phenolics contents for GAE of grains varied between 1.48 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 26.10 mgGAE/g (red sorghum (p < 0.05). Total phenol contents of seeds were found between 2769 mg GAE/g (bablon) to 6087 mgGAE/g (yellow sorghum) (p < 0.05). Amino acid contents of millet changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 2.07% (glutamic acid), while amino acid contents of yellow sorghum range from 0.02% (hydroxyproline) to 1.71% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of white sorghum changed between 0.02% (hydroxyproline) and 2.21% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of lutop seed changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 6.77% (glutamic acid) (p < 0.05).While the oleic acid contents change between 25.27% (white sorghum) and 53.50% (Bablone), linoleic acid contents ranged from 14.60% (Bablone) to 42.67% (Millet) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of potassium in the seeds varied between 1831.34 mg/kg (while sorghum) and 11895.8 mg/kg (Lutop). Generally, protein, oleic acid, amino acid and mineral contents of lupin varieties were higher as compared to those of millet phenol, anthocyanin and sorghum seeds.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lupinus/química , Milhetes/química , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Sorghum/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Arábia Saudita , Turquia
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