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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any stage of syphilis. After treatment, 30%-40% of syphilis patients remained serofast. But the prevalence of asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) among serofast syphilis patients remains unclear. Untimely treatment or improper management for ANS may result in neurological complications. So we perform the meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of ANS cases among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients for exploring their relationship and addressing their clinical management. METHODS: We searched CNKI, Wan Fang, VIP, CBMdisc, PubMed, Embase and Medline from January 1st 1990 to September 22nd 2020 for both English and Chinese records. We strictly restrict the eligibility criteria. STROBE was used for reporting quality assessment. We examined forest plots and conducted both fix-effects and random-effects to estimate prevalence by R version 3.6.2/R studio 1.2.1335 statistical software packages META version 4.9-9. If appropriate, between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Of 77 screened records, 5 were included. The pooled prevalence of ANS among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients was 13% (95% CI 3%-23%; I2 = 93% P<0.01, 417 people). The prevalence of ANS for the verified ANS classification definition was 3% (95% CI 0%-7%; I2 = 67% P = 0.08, two studies, 189 people), and 21% (95% CI 6%-36%; I2 = 86% P<0.01, three studies, 228 people) for the likely ANS classification. The prevalence of ANS among the serofast syphilis patients who were followed up for one year was 29% (95% CI 22%-36%; I2 = 0% P = 0.5, two studies, 167 people) and 5% (95% CI 0%-13%; I2 = 79% P = 0.03, two studies, 144 people) for two years. The prevalence in the studies from different geographical subgroups was as follows: 9% (95% CI 0%-19%; I2 = 82% P<0.01, three studies, 169 people) in South-central China, 6% (95% CI 1%-10%; one study, 106 people) in East China, and 30% (95% CI 23%-38%; one study, 142 people) in North China. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed a high estimated prevalence of ANS in HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients, the prevalence of ANS among patients diagnosed with the verified ANS case definition is much lower than that for the likely ANS classification. It may be necessary to carry out nontreponemal test, protein test and leukocyte count for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in treated serofast patients for better clinical management to avoid neurological complications. The case classification definition of ANS is a key factor to evaluate the prevalence. Geographical heterogeneity needs more studies to detect. In future we need better-design studies to explore relationship between ANS and serofast status.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Neurossífilis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Humanos , Neurossífilis/sangue , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002081

RESUMO

Sri Lanka has a low-level HIV epidemic. This study aims to provide evidence on HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B (HBV) prevalence, sexual risk behaviours and utilisation of HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers (FSW) in the cities Colombo, Galle, and Kandy. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited a total of 458 FSW in Colombo, 360 in Galle and 362 in Kandy from November 2017 to March 2018. Participants provided biological specimens for testing for infections and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We found no HIV nor HBV infections in Galle and Kandy, and low HIV (0.4%) and HBV surface antigen (0.6%) prevalence in Colombo. FSW in Colombo had higher positivity on Treponema pallidum-particle agglutination test (8.4%) compared to Galle (2.0%) and Kandy (2.5%). About two thirds of FSW heard of HIV in each of the cities. Around 90% of FSW used condom at last sex with a client in both Colombo and Galle, but considerably less in Kandy (57.1%). However, lower proportion of FSW used condoms every time during sex with clients in the past 30 day: 22.9% of FSW in Colombo, 26.6% in Kandy and 68.4% in Galle. Across cities, 17.5%-39.5% of FSW reported being tested for HIV in the past 12 months or knowing HIV positive status. The commonest reasons for never testing for HIV was not knowing where to test (54.2% in Colombo, 41.8% in Galle, 48.1% in Kandy) followed by inconvenient testing location (23.7% in Colombo and 31.1% in Kandy). HIV has not yet been firmly established among FSW in three cities in Sri Lanka, but the vulnerability towards HIV and STIs is substantial. HIV interventions should be intensified by expanding community-based HIV testing approaches, increasingawareness of HIV risks and addressing socio-structural vulnerabilities of FSW to HIV.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an additional approach to increasing uptake of HIV testing services. The practicability and accuracy of and the preference for the capillary blood self-test (Exacto Test HIV) versus the oral fluid self-test (OraQuick HIV self-test) were compared among untrained individuals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study (2019) used face-to-face, tablet-based, structured questionnaires in a facility-based HIVST approach. Volunteers from the general public who were at high risk of HIV infection, who were between 18 and 49 years of age, and who had signed an informed consent form were eligible for the study. The successful performance and correct interpretation of the self-test results were the main outcomes of the practicability evaluation. The successful performance of the HIV self-test was conditioned by the presence of the control band. The sensitivity and specificity of the participant-interpreted results compared to the laboratory results were estimated for accuracy. Preference for either type of self-test was assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with participants' preference. RESULTS: A total of 528 participants were included in this survey. The rate of successful performance of the HIV self-tests was high, with the blood test (99.6%) and the oral-fluid test (99.4%) yielding an absolute difference of 0.2% (95% CI: -1.8 to 1.1; P = 0.568). The rate of correct interpretation of the HIV self-test results was 84.4% with the blood test versus 83.8% with the oral-fluid test (difference = 0.6; 95% CI: -0.2 to 1.7; P = 0.425). Misinterpretation (25.4% for the blood test and 25.6% for the oral-fluid test) and inability to interpret (20.4% for the blood test and 21.1% for the oral-fluid test) test results were significantly more prevalent with invalid tests. The Exacto Test HIV self-test and the OraQuick HIV self-test showed 100% and 99.2% sensitivity, and 98.9% and 98.1% specificity, respectively. Preference for oral-fluid-based HIVST was greater than that for blood-based HIVST (85.6% versus 78.6%; P = 0.008). Preference for the blood test was greater among participants with a university education (86.1%; aOR = 2.4 [95% CI: 1.1 to 4.9]; P = 0.016), a higher risk of HIV infection (88.1%; aOR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.0 to 5.3]; P = 0.047), and knowledge about the existence of HIVST (89.3%; aOR = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.0 to 5.0]; P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our field observations demonstrate that blood-based and oral-fluid-based HIVST are both practicable approaches with a high and comparable rate of accuracy in the study setting. Although preference for the oral-fluid test was generally greater, preference for the blood test was greater among participants with a university education, a high risk of HIV infection, and knowledge about the existence of HIVST. Both approaches seem complementary in the sense that users can choose the type of self-test that best suits them for a similar result. Taken together, our observations support the use of the two HIV self-test kits in the DRC.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Líquidos Corporais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/análise , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/imunologia , Participação do Paciente , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 229-242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749875

RESUMO

Latinxs in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and present with more advanced disease than their non-Latinx peers, due to numerous barriers to care including HIV stigma. We describe the adaptation, implementation, and reach of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez (You Only Live Once), Baltimore's first social marketing campaign promoting HIV screening among Spanish-speaking Latinxs. The 6-month campaign promoted free HIV testing by addressing HIV stigma. The campaign included a website, a social marketing campaign, community outreach events, and advertisements via radio, billboards, local partners, and buses. During the campaign, there were 9,784 unique website users, and ads were served to over 84,592 people on social media platforms. Among Latinx HIV testers at the Baltimore City Health Department, 31.6% reported having seen or heard of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez and 25.3% of Latinx HIV testers reported that the campaign influenced them to get tested.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/educação , Marketing Social , Estigma Social , Migrantes/educação , Baltimore , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Migrantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
5.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 196-211, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749878

RESUMO

In-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive fisherfolk and 15 health care providers to identify experiences of social support and its influence on access to and use of HIV testing, treatment, and care. Fisherfolk participants reported receiving support at some point. Prior to HIV diagnosis, this usually took the form of advice on what illness they were dealing with and remedies to use. After HIV diagnosis and disclosure to friends or family, emotional support enabled fisherfolk to come to terms with an HIV diagnosis, informational support offered guidance on how best to live with HIV, while instrumental support enabled access to relevant HIV services. Finally, affiliative support, in the form of new friends met through HIV clinic visits, provided a sense of belonging. Each of these different kinds of support assisted fisherfolk to respond positively to HIV with important consequences for secondary and tertiary prevention.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Pesqueiros , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Apoio Social , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Emprego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men and transgender individuals (MSM/TG) carry a disproportionately high burden of HIV, including in South Africa. However, there are few empirical population-representative estimates of viral suppression and the HIV care cascade including HIV testing among this population, nor of factors associated with these outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a respondent driven sampling (RDS) survey among 301 MSM/TG in Johannesburg in 2017. Participants gave blood samples for HIV testing and viral load. Participants self-completed a survey including sociodemographics, HIV testing history, and engagement in care. We calculated RDS-II weighted estimates of the percentage of HIV-negative MSM/TG reporting HIV testing in the previous 6 months, their testing experience and preferences. Among those HIV-positive, we estimated the percentage status-aware, on ART, and virally suppressed (<50 viral copies/ml plasma). We conducted RDS-weighted robust Poisson regression to obtain weighted prevalence ratios of factors associated with 1) HIV testing among those HIV-negative; and 2) viral suppression among those HIV-positive. RESULTS: There were 118/300 HIV-positive MSM/TG, (37.5%). Of the HIV-negative MSM/TG, 61.5% reported that they had tested for HIV in the previous 6 months, which was associated with selling sex to men (Prevalence Ratio = 1.67, 95% CI 1.36-2.05). There were 76/118 HIV-positive MSM/TG (56.5%) who reported having previously tested positive for HIV and 39/118 (30.0%) who reported current ART. There were 58/118 HIV-positive MSM/TG with viral loads <50 copies/ml plasma (46.9%). Viral suppression was associated with older age (adjusted PR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06 for each year), neighbourhood, and having bought sex from men (adjusted PR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.12-2.08). CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence was very high. Viral suppression among those HIV-positive was similar to the general male population in South Africa, but remains far short of national and international targets. A majority of HIV-negative MSM/TG had HIV tested in the previous 6 months, though there is room for improvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Pessoas Transgênero , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 208-210, mar.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196062

RESUMO

Se describe la implementación del trabajo de campo de una prueba piloto cuyo objetivo fue fomentar el diagnóstico precoz de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) ofreciendo una prueba de cribado en los locales y zonas de cruising (zonas de contacto sexual al aire libre) frecuentados por hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) en la ciudad de Barcelona y en Sitges, y consultando el resultado a través de la página web del proyecto. La prueba piloto resultó viable y contó con la aceptabilidad del colectivo al que va dirigida


Description of the implementation of the field work of a pilot intervention whose objective was to promote the early diagnosis of HIV infection by offering a screening test for HIV in gay venues and cruising areas (outdoor sexual contact areas) frequented by men who have sex with men (MSM) in the city of Barcelona and Sitges, and consulting the result through the project website. The pilot intervention was viable and counted with the acceptability of the target group


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Convivência e Lazer , Atividades de Lazer , Diagnóstico Precoce , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence positioning targeted provider-initiated testing and counselling (tPITC, also known as index case testing) as a promising HIV case-finding and linkage strategy among children and adolescents. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of this strategy is limited by low HIV testing uptake and case detection rates. Despite this fact, there is very little literature on factors associated with HIV testing uptake, HIV seropositivity and ART-enrolment in tPITC implementation among African children. This study aims to bridge this information gap and contribute in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of tPITC among children and adolescents in Cameroon and beyond. METHODS: In three ART clinics where tPITC was previously inexistent, we introduced the routine implementation of this strategy by inviting parents living with HIV/AIDS in care to have their biological children (6 weeks-19 years) HIV-tested. Children of consenting parents were HIV-tested; those testing positive were enrolled on ART. Parental and child-level characteristics associated with HIV testing uptake, seropositivity and ART-enrollment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis at 5% significance level. RESULTS: We enrolled 1,236 parents, through whom 1,990 children/adolescents were recruited for HIV testing. Among enrolled parents, 46.2% (571/1,236) had at least one child tested, and 6.8% (39/571) of these parents had at least one HIV-positive child. Among enrolled children/adolescents, 56.7% (1,129/1,990) tested for HIV and 3.5% (40/1129) tested HIV-positive. Parental predictors of HIV testing uptake among children/adolescents were sex, occupation and duration on ART: female [aOR = 1.6 (1.1-2.5)], office workers/students [aOR = 2.0 (1.2-3.3)], and parents with ART duration > 5 years [aOR = 2.0 (1.3-2.9)] had significantly higher odds to test a child than male, farmers/traders, and parents with ART duration < 5 years respectively. The only child-level predictor of testing uptake was age: children < 18 months [aOR = 5(2-10)] had significantly higher odds to test for HIV than adolescents > 15 years. Parents of children identified as HIV-positive were more likely to be female, aged 40-60 years, farmers/traders, widows/divorcees and not on ART. Children found HIV-positive and who were ART-enrolled were more likely to be female and aged 5-9 years. However, none of the above-mentioned associations was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Parents who were male, farmers/traders, and on ART for ≤ 5 years were less likely to test their children for HIV. Also, adolescents 10-19 years old were less likely to be tested. Therefore, these groups should be targeted with intensive counseling and follow-up to facilitate optimal testing uptake. No association was found between parental or child-level characteristics and HIV seropositivity among tested children. This finding prompts for further research to investigate approaches to better identify and target HIV testing to children/adolescents with the highest likelihood of HIV seropositivity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Reg: CinicalTrials.gov # NCT03024762.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(1): e1-e6, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A prior randomized control trial showed financial incentives increase HIV testing rates for children of unknown HIV status. Translating evidence-based interventions such as these to scale requires an implementation science approach. METHODS: A qualitative study evaluating health care providers' perceptions of barriers and facilitators of a previously completed financial incentives intervention for pediatric HIV testing was conducted at health care facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. Six focus group discussions with 52 providers explored determinants of acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability of financial incentive scale-up for pediatric HIV testing using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to inform question guides and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Providers found the use of financial incentive interventions for pediatric HIV testing to be highly acceptable. First, providers believed financial incentives had a relative advantage over existing strategies, because they overcame cost barriers and provided additional motivation to test; however, concerns about how financial incentives would be implemented influenced perceptions of feasibility and sustainability. Second, providers expressed concern that already overburdened staff and high costs of financial incentive programs would limit sustainability. Third, providers feared that financial incentives may negatively affect further care because of expectations of repeated financial support and program manipulation. CONCLUSIONS: Providers viewed financial incentives as an acceptable intervention to scale programmatically to increase uptake of pediatric testing. To ensure feasibility and sustainability of financial incentives in pediatric HIV testing programs, it will be important to clearly define target populations, manage expectations of continued financial support, and establish systems to track testing.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Pessoal , Infecções por HIV/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Motivação , Criança , Humanos , Quênia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(1): 5-9, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serological tests can distinguish recent (in the prior 12 months) from long-term HIV infection. Integrating recency testing into routine HIV testing services (HTS) can provide important information on transmission clusters and prioritize clients for partner testing. This study assessed the feasibility and use of integrating HIV recency into routine testing. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method study at 14 facilities in Kenya, and key informant interviews with health care providers. We abstracted clinical record data, collected specimens, tested specimens for recent infection, returned results to participants, and conducted a follow-up survey for those recently infected. RESULTS: From March to October 2018, we enrolled 532 clients who were diagnosed HIV-positive for the first time. Of these, 46 (8.6%) were recently infected. Women aged 15-24 years had 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.46 to 5.78) times higher adjusted odds of recent infection compared with 15-24-year-old men and those tested within the past 12 months having 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 4.70) times higher adjusted odds compared with those tested ≥12 months previously. Fourteen of 17 providers interviewed found the integration of recency testing into routine HTS services acceptable and feasible. Among clients who completed the follow-up interview, most (92%) felt that the recency results were useful. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating recent infection testing into routine HTS services in Kenya is feasible and largely acceptable to clients and providers. More studies should be done on possible physical and social harms related to returning results, and the best uses of the recent infection data at an individual and population level.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dominican Republic (DR) ranks among nations with the highest burden of HIV in the Caribbean. Cultural and gender roles in rural areas of the DR may place women at increased HIV risk. However, little is known about sexual health and HIV testing behaviors among women in the rural DR. METHODS: We conducted a needs assessment among a systematic sample of adult women in a rural DR community in 2016. Demographic and behavioral attributes related to HIV testing, sexual health, and healthcare utilization were evaluated. Poisson regression analysis was used to identify demographics and behaviors associated with having had a previous HIV test. Significance was defined as a p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 105 women evaluated, 77% knew someone with HIV and 73% of women reported that they would be very or extremely likely to take an HIV test if offered. Only 68% reported a previous HIV test, including 47% who were tested over 2 years prior. Barriers to HIV testing included low risk perception (23%), distance or requisite travel (13%), and discomfort being tested (11%). Women who had never been tested for HIV were more likely than those who had been tested to be older (p = 0.03), to have a lower level of education (p = 0.04), and to have never been tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI; p <  0.01). In the Poisson multiple regression model, the only significant predictor of having had an HIV test was having had an STI test (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the rural DR, numerous barriers contribute to low prevalence of HIV testing among women. Most women report willingness to have an HIV test and many engage in routine health care, indicating that this population may benefit from incorporating HIV testing and other sexual health promotion activities into routine medical care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 475-483, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049808

RESUMO

More than 10 years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine HIV testing for patients in emergency departments (ED) and other clinical settings, as many as three out of four patients may not be offered testing, and those who are offered testing frequently decline. The current study examines how participant characteristics, including demographics and reported substance use, influence the efficacy of a video-based intervention designed to increase HIV testing among ED patients who initially declined tests offered by hospital staff. Data from three separate trials in a high volume New York City ED were merged to determine whether patients (N = 560) were more likely to test post-intervention if: (1) they resembled people who appeared onscreen in terms of gender or race; or (2) they reported problem substance use. Chi Square and logistic regression analyses indicated demographic concordance did not significantly increase likelihood of accepting an HIV test. However, participants who reported problem substance use (n = 231) were significantly more likely to test for HIV in comparison to participants who reported either no problem substance use (n = 190) or no substance use at all (n = 125) (x2 = 6.830, p < 0.05). Specifically, 36.4% of patients who reported problem substance use tested for HIV post-intervention compared to 30.5% of patients who did not report problem substance use and 28.8% of participants who did not report substance use at all. This may be an important finding because substance use, including heavy alcohol or cannabis use, can lead to behaviors that increase HIV risk, such as sex with multiple partners or decreased condom use.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Computadores , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravação em Vídeo , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Testes Sorológicos , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estados Unidos
14.
AIDS Care ; 32(2): 163-169, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163976

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to identify which Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) organizational models are the most efficient to maximize testing coverage. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify published articles that evaluated routine PITC programs implemented in adult health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We considered only articles measuring PITC offer, PITC acceptability and PITC coverage. Adjusted meta-regression models were performed to measure the association between PITC offer, acceptability and coverage with PITC organizational model. A total of 30 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, 85.4% [95%CI: 77.2-93.5] of patients were offered a test, and 87.1% [82.4-91.7] accepted the test resulting in a PITC coverage of 74.3% [66-82.6]. Four types of PITC organizational models were identified: PITC initiated and performed during the consultation (model A), PITC initiated before consultation (model B), PITC referred on-site (model C) and PITC referred off-site (model D). Compared to model A, model B had a similar coverage (aOR: 1.02 [0.82-1.26]). However, coverage was lower for model C (aOR: 0.81 [0.68-0.97]) and model D (aOR: 0.58 [0.44-0.77]). Initiating the testing process before or during medical consultation is recommended for maximizing testing coverage among patients.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Testes Sorológicos
15.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 532-539, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595375

RESUMO

In 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended HIV screening in healthcare or clinical settings for all persons aged 13-64 years and annual rescreening for populations at high risk for HIV. We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to describe the prevalence and trends of ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past 12 months among US adults. The percentage of ever tested increased from 42.9% in 2011 to 45.9% in 2017; testing in the past 12 months increased from 13.2% in 2011 to 14.8% in 2017. Despite these increases, less than half of US adults have ever been tested for HIV over ten years after CDC's recommendations. Increasing the prevalence of routine HIV screening and rescreening among individuals at high risk will reduce the number of undiagnosed persons with HIV infection and thus prevent new HIV infections-a key strategy in the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 540-550, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691044

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that sexual behaviors among male couples are strongly shaped by emotional and quality characteristics of the relationship, and that the labels that men attach to their relationships may indicate how men perceive and engage in risk taking. There has been a lack of attention to how male couples label their relationships, and how discordant understandings of relationship labels may shape HIV risk behavior. Using data from a sample of 804 partnered men who have sex with men, this analysis examines associations between discordant relationship labeling and participation in HIV testing and sexual behavior. Men who labeled their relationship differently from their partners were less likely to have been recently tested for HIV and more likely to engage in sexual risk. The results underscore the need to develop interventions that provide spaces and skills for men to learn how to effectively navigate HIV risks in their relationships.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 509-513, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence should be calculated in cross-sectional studies using recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) that consider clinical variables and serological test results such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dried blood spot (DBS) analysis. METHODS: The correlation between serum samples and DBS was evaluated using two commercial ELISA kits: SediaTM BED HIV-1 Incidence EIA (BED-Sedia) and Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity). Eight different RITAs were developed; all of them included serological assays. A combination of the variables viral load, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CD4 count was used to build the RITAs. The sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, predictive positive value, predictive negative value, false recent rate (FRR) and false long-term rate were evaluated. RESULTS: The correlations between serum samples and DBS were 0.990 and 0.867 for BED-Sedia and LAg-avidity, respectively. Using only serological assays, the Youden index was higher for LAg-avidity than BED-Sedia (82.1-83.0% versus 69.2-69.6%). The best RITA was ART-serology, which showed a Youden index of 91.2-93.9% and FRR of 1.8-2.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Using DBS samples to determine HIV incidence is a good tool for epidemiological surveillance. The RITA that included ART and serological tests (BED-Sedia or LAg-avidity) showed the highest sensitivity and specificity and a low FRR.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1600, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing is an integral component of HIV prevention, treatment and care and, therefore, is crucial in achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. HIV testing in Kenya follows both the voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC) models. However, little is known about the individual experiences of undergoing an HIV test in the two testing models. This study provides experiential evidence of undergoing an HIV test in a resource poor urban slum setting. METHODS: The study explored testing experiences and challenges faced in respect to ensuring the 3 Cs (consent, counselling and confidentiality), using in-depth interviews (N = 41) with HIV-infected men and women in two slum settlements of Nairobi City. The in-depth interview respondents were aged above 18 years with 56% being females. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. The transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis method. RESULTS: The respondent HIV-testing experiences were varied and greatly shaped by circumstances and motivation for HIV testing. The findings show both positive and negative experiences, with sporadic adherence to the 3Cs principle in both HIV testing models. Although some respondents were satisfied with the HIV testing process, a number of them raised a number of concerns, with instances of coercion and testing without consent being reported. CONCLUSION: The 3Cs (consent, counselling and confidentiality) principle must underlie HIV testing and counselling practices in order to achieve positive testing outcomes. The study concludes that adherence to the 3Cs during HIV testing contributes to both the individual and public health good - irrespective of whether testing is initiated by the individual or by the health provider.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Coerção , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowing the factors associated with periodic HIV testing among female sex workers (FSW) is essential to expand testing coverage and to broaden programs of treatment as prevention. METHODS: We used data from 4,328 FSWs recruited by the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. Data analysis considered the complex sampling design. The prevalence of HIV testing in the last year and periodic HIV test were estimated. Factors associated with regular HIV testing were identified through logistic regression models. RESULTS: The testing coverage in the last year was 39.3%. Only 13.5% of FSW reported having performed a periodic HIV test in the last year. Among the factors associated with the higher probability of HIV testing in the last year were a better level of education, living with a partner, working indoors, consistent use of condoms, and regular use of public and private health services stood out. DISCUSSION: Periodic HIV testing allows early diagnosis and immediate treatment of cases, reducing the chances of spreading the infection to the population. However, factors such as stigma and discrimination hinder the use of regular health services. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to expand awareness campaigns, especially among FSWs with low educational level and greater vulnerability, in order to broaden the perception of risk and the importance of periodic testing, in addition to encouraging regular health care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV (PLHIV) and who are aware of their HIV status can access and benefit from antiretroviral therapy (ART) with subsequent individual and public health benefits; however, many PLHIV are unaware of their HIV status. We assessed the magnitude and determinants of self-reported non-receipt of HIV test results in adults aged 15-59 years old in Mozambique. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2015 Mozambique Immunization indicators, Malaria and HIV/AIDS (IMASIDA 2015). Eligible adults (15-59 years) from each selected household were interviewed and data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and HIV testing history were collected. Multivariable logistic regression assessed factors associated with self-reported non-receipt of HIV test results. Population representative estimates were calculated. RESULTS: 13,028 (90.8%) of 14,343 eligible participants were interviewed. A total of 6,654 (51.1%) respondents had previously been tested for HIV and were included in the analysis. Of these, 308 (4.6%; 95% CI: 3.70-5.77) self-reported not having received HIV test results. In the multivariable analysis, previous sexually transmitted infection (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.44-5.31), HIV stigmatizing attitudes (aOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.14-3.37), and lack of decision-making power towards health care seeking (aOR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.39-4.52) were associated with non-receipt of HIV test results. Whereas, secondary or higher education (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.12-0.54), higher HIV knowledge (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26-0.86), and age between 30-34 and 35-39 years old (aOR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.28-0.80; and aOR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27-0.90, respectively), were associated with receipt of HIV test results. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative survey, self-reported non-receipt of HIV test results was high and of public health relevance. These findings suggest adaptation of HIV counseling and testing programs emphasizing individualized approaches that target the youngest, least educated and the poorest individuals, especially those living in rural areas.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
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