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1.
Br Dent J ; 233(3): 221-226, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962103

RESUMO

Background An aesthetic smile displays a symmetrical 2 mm or less of gingival tissue. A smile with over 3 mm of gingival display can be deemed socially unaesthetic, impacting on a patient's psychosocial status. This literature review aimed to explore the role of botulinum toxin A as a treatment modality for different types of excessive gingival display (EGD) and appropriate treatment protocols.Methods A systematic search of the literature dating from 1980 onwards was conducted using electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Web of Science). The Fowkes and Fulton quality assessment was undertaken to review the level of bias.Results Nine prospective studies were assessed for the number and site of injections, the unit dosage, the reconstitution and the improvement of EGD. Guidelines for treatment of EGD were constructed for operator consideration.Conclusions The data from this study elucidated that botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for all types of EGD caused by hyperfunctional smile muscles. It can be regarded as a safe treatment that reversibly improves facial aesthetics in patients suffering from gummy smile due to hyperactive musculature. Botulinum toxin was confirmed to be useful as a diagnostic tool and palliative treatment, as well as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of a gummy smile.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Estética Dentária , Gengiva , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorriso
2.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(2): 35-42, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1362023

RESUMO

Introdução: As cerâmicas odontológicas são amplamente utilizadas na Odontologia, desfrutando de grande popularidade devido a sua capacidade de mimetizar as características ópticas do esmalte e da dentina. O constante desenvolvimento de pesquisas tem desencadeado o lançamento de novos sistemas cerâmicos com propriedades aprimoradas e melhores resultados clínicos em longo prazo. Objetivo: O relato de caso aqui apresentado descreve uma reabilitação da zona estética do sorriso com laminados cerâmicos por meio de uma abordagem minimamente invasiva. Relato de caso: Paciente do gênero feminino, compareceu à clínica odontológica relatando insatisfação com a aparência do seu sorriso. Durante avaliação foram observadas, na região anterossuperior, restaurações extensas em resina composta deficientes nos incisivos, com proporção, volume, forma e texturização insatisfatórias, que em conjunto comprometia a zona estética do sorriso. Diante disso, após fotografias extra e intraorais, o tratamento proposto foi a reabilitação com laminados cerâmicos nas unidades 1.2 ao 2.2. Assim, foi realizado o enceramento e o mock-up, os quais serviram de orientação para os preparos dentários, a seguir, foram moldados e as restaurações confeccionadas no sistema IPS e.max. Após prova de cor e adaptação, os preparos e a superfície interna dos laminados cerâmicos foram tratados e cimentados com cimento resino fotopolimerizável. Conclusão: Instituindo uma abordagem conservadora, o plano de tratamento realizado através da reabilitação com laminados cerâmicos nas unidades dentárias anterossuperiores, permitiu o restabelecimento da função e estética, com reprodução das características dos dentes naturais e promoção do equilíbrio, da jovialidade e da harmonia no sorriso(AU)


Introduction: Dental ceramics are widely used in dentistry, enjoying great popularity due to the ability to mimic both enamel and dentin optical characteristics. The constant research development has triggered the launch of new ceramic systems with improved properties and better long-term clinical results. Objective: The case report presented here describes the zone rehabilitation of the aesthetic smile with ceramic laminates through a minimally invasive approach. Case report: Female patient, attended the dental clinic reporting dissatisfaction with the appearance of her smile. During the evaluation, extensive restorations in composite resin were observed in the incisors in the anterosuperior region, with unsatisfactory proportion, amount, shape and texturing, which together compromised the aesthetic zone of the smile. Faced with this, after extra and intraoral photographs, the proposed treatment was the restoration with the ceramic laminates in units 1.2 to 2.2. Thus, waxing and mock-up were performed, which served as guidance for the dental preparations, then they were molded and restorations fabricated in the IPS e.max system. After shade and adaptation proof, the preparations and the inner ceramic laminates surface were treated and cemented with light-cured resin cement. Conclusion: Adopting a conservative approach, the treatment plan carried out through restoration with ceramic laminates on the upper anterior teeth allowed the recovering function and aesthetics, reproducing characteristics of natural teeth and promoting balance, joviality and harmony in the smile(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Cerâmica , Facetas Dentárias , Estética Dentária , Sorriso , Resinas Compostas , Incisivo
3.
F1000Res ; 11: 404, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811801

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that the association between smiling and youth is a misconception; smiling faces have been estimated to be older than neutral faces. Previous studies have indicated that this aging effect of smiling (AES) is due to eye wrinkles caused by the facial action of smiling. However, whether holistic processing for facial expressions is involved in AES has not been investigated. The present study aimed to clarify these issues. Methods: Participants were recruited to participate in an online experiment that had a 3 (facial expression: smiling/neutral/surprised) × 2 (facial orientation: upright/inverted) mixed design. Participants were presented with an upright or inverted face for each expression (neutral, smiling, and surprised) and were asked to estimate the individual's age. Results: In total, 104 participants were included in the analysis. The results show that smiling faces were estimated to be older than neutral faces, whereas there was no significant difference between upright and inverted faces. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that direct age estimation is not dependent on holistic processing.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Sorriso , Adolescente , Envelhecimento , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272060, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901106

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of the orbicularis oculi (OOc) to the zygomaticus major (Zmj) in connecting the orbital region to the corner of the mouth. The OOc and Zmj of 22 embalmed adult Korean cadavers were dissected in 44 hemifaces. The OOc fibers were traced to determine their contribution to the Zmj. Parts of the superficial bundle in the orbital region of the OOc extended directly or indirectly to the Zmj in 22.7% of the specimens. The anatomical contribution of the OOc to the Zmj was divided into three categories depending on whether the connection between them was direct or indirect: (1) superficial orbital OOc fibers extended directly to the Zmj in 6.8% of the specimens, (2) superficial orbital OOc fibers extended to the zygomaticus minor and their small portion joined to the upper fibers of the Zmj in 15.9% of the specimens, and (3) no connection was identified between the OOc and Zmj in 77.3% of the specimens. The results of this study provide further anatomical insight into the relationship between the OOc and zygomaticus muscle complex. This information could be helpful for elucidating the anatomy of smiling and treatment and surgery designs for balanced or ideal smiles.


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais , Sorriso , Adulto , Cadáver , Pálpebras , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Humanos
5.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 307-341, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738730

RESUMO

Smile design is defined as the process of creating an esthetic smile based on scientific and artistic guidelines established through studies, perception, and cultural and racial standards that have been recognized over time. Smile design is a dynamic field with evolving trends that take into consideration: facial esthetics, lip dynamics, pink and white esthetics, and personality. Traditional smile design focused on the orodental complex. Modern smile designers must have a global understanding of the entire patient to design the perfect smile.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Lábio , Gengiva , Humanos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Sorriso
6.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 343-360, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738731

RESUMO

The oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) has the knowledge and skills to make drastic skeletal changes in favor of a more cosmetic smile. OMS can alter intraoral and extraoral soft tissues to make subtle or significant changes in facial cosmesis. This article provides an overview of the scope of the OMS in smile design. The authors provide a cursory review of pertinent gross and surgical facial anatomy, discuss the role of orthognathic surgery and rhinoplasty in smile cosmesis, and describe the fundamentals of common cosmetic procedures ranging from gingivoplasty to lip lift and lip augmentation and the use of neurotoxins.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Sorriso , Ossos Faciais , Humanos
7.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 373-384, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738733

RESUMO

A common etiology of excessive gingival display is hypermobile upper lip, which can be managed by non-surgical and surgical approaches. Among the surgical options, lip repositioning surgery is a relatively simple procedure with minimal complications. Since the original description of the technique almost 50 years ago, several minor and major modifications have been introduced. The available evidence indicates that, when applied to properly diagnosed cases, the technique is effective in reducing gingival display and results in improved smile esthetics and high patient satisfaction. This article reviews the various techniques and modifications and summarizes the reported outcomes of the procedure.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Lábio , Gengiva , Humanos , Lábio/cirurgia , Mucosa Bucal , Sorriso
8.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 385-398, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738734

RESUMO

Excessive gingival show is mainly caused by hypermobility of the upper lip, altered passive eruption, gingival hyperplasia, and bony maxillary vertical excess. Orthognathic surgery is the optimal treatment option for patients with moderate and severe vertical maxillary excess. Surrounding anatomic structures and soft tissue changes such as alternation in the nasal morphology confine the amount of impaction. Therefore, Le Fort 1 may be performed in conjunction with horseshoe osteotomy or partial turbinectomy. The possible necessity of further mandibular orthognathic surgeries and chin repositioning has to be considered. No common major complication and long-term relapse have been reported for maxillary impaction.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Ortognática , Estética Dentária , Gengiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Maxila/cirurgia , Sorriso
9.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 399-417, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738735

RESUMO

Excessive gingival display (EGD) is the extensive exposure of the gingiva during a smile. It is a common concern among patients, which may compromise the esthetic outcome of the dental treatment. Dental lasers demonstrate several advantages for soft tissue dental surgery compared with conventional surgical methods related to their technical characteristics. Owing to the excellent coagulation, especially of the surgical lasers, reduced to no need of anesthesia or suturing and faster healing, they demonstrate optimal clinical results. Nevertheless, good knowledge of laser-tissue interaction is required to obtain the best predictable results without gingival recession or bone tissue damage.


Assuntos
Gengivectomia , Sorriso , Estética Dentária , Gengiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Lasers
10.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 419-429, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738736

RESUMO

Smiles with excessive gingival display exceeding 3 mm are considered unattractive. Excessive muscular contraction of lip elevator muscles is the etiology in most cases, and other factors, such as excessive vertical dimension of the maxilla and altered passive dental eruption resulting in the presence of excessive gingival tissue, account for the etiologic factors in others. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) blocks muscular contraction by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine in muscles' endplates. The author has proven BTX-A to be an effective treatment alternative for the correction of these conditions affecting smile esthetics. This article explains how this is accomplished.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Estética Dentária , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/farmacologia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Gengiva , Humanos , Lábio , Sorriso
11.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 443-457, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738738

RESUMO

The lips are the main aesthetic component of the facial lower third and simultaneously a substantial element for an ideally perceived smile. One of the most accepted and common procedures that is widely used to enhance the shape and contours of the upper lip is the lip lift. With a careful treatment plan and a professional surgery, a lip lift can reliably be used for the reduction of the philtrum height, enlargement of the upper vermilion, improvement of the dental show, restoration of facial aesthetic proportions, and creation of an enchanting smile.


Assuntos
Lábio , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Estética Dentária , Face , Humanos , Lábio/cirurgia , Sorriso
12.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 459-475, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738739

RESUMO

Orthodontists play a vital role in the smile design of individuals. There are a variety of orthodontic goals and tooth movements that can be achieved to obtain the ideal smile that ultimately leads to the optimum esthetic outcomes. In this article, some methods and appliance systems to control and achieve the desired tooth movements are described and illustrated.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Sorriso , Humanos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
13.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 477-487, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738740

RESUMO

Smile designing refers to the cosmetic and esthetic dental reconstruction that is visible during smiling. The use of modern digital tools requires adequate knowledge about the tooth shape and shade principles. Mechanical, biological, and psychological factors should be understood and tailor an individualized treatment accordingly to achieve pleasing esthetic outcomes. Dental therapy is becoming more appearance-driven, and thus, both patients and dental clinicians mainly emphasize on cosmetic dental and facial aspects of treatments.


Assuntos
Sorriso , Dente , Estética Dentária , Face , Humanos
14.
Dent Clin North Am ; 66(3): 489-501, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738741

RESUMO

Smile design is an ongoing challenge in both dentistry and facial cosmetics surgery. Herein, some very common smile design scenarios are shared with six world known masters. Each case will be reviewed by 2 cosmetic dentists, 2 periodontists, and 2 oral and maxillofacial surgeons. At the end, contributors will describe current advances and future prospects of this evolving field.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Sorriso , Humanos
15.
Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med ; 24(4): 255-259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666230

RESUMO

Introduction: During a two-stage free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) to restore smile to patients with facial paralysis, some surgeons assess nerve regeneration through the cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) with the Tinel sign and a nerve biopsy. Objective: To test whether ultimate smile reanimation outcomes are correlated with (1) the Tinel sign or (2) myelinated axons of the biopsied CFNG at the time of FGMT. Methods: Retrospective case series was performed at a tertiary care facial nerve center. Dynamic smile outcomes were quantified with Emotrics analysis of pre- and postoperative photographs. Results: Of the 113 FGMT surgeries by CFNG performed since 2002, 92 patients had pre- and postoperative photo-documentation. Most patients (89%, N = 82) had a positive Tinel sign at the time of FGMT; however, 14 patients with positive Tinel signs were deemed failures. Interestingly, 4 patients with a negative Tinel sign went on to have successful dynamic outcomes and 16 patients lacking myelinated axons in their CFNG biopsy ultimately achieved successful smile outcomes. Conclusion: Although the majority of patients had a positive Tinel sign and myelinated axons in the CFNG at the time of FGMT, the presence or absence of either factor did not predict ultimate smile outcome in this series.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Músculo Grácil , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Axônios , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Músculo Grácil/transplante , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorriso/fisiologia
17.
Biol Psychol ; 172: 108377, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667481

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is known for facilitating interpersonal interactions in favorable conditions. Humor, on the other hand, is an interpersonal phenomenon that reduces social distance. In this study, we investigated whether OT would increase laughing and smiling in a favorable environment. Therefore, participants were asked to view a brief video clip of a comedy television program in the presence of an ingroup member after administration of either OT or a placebo. Results demonstrated that participants in the OT condition exhibited more laughing and smiling behavior over the course of viewing the video compared to participants in the placebo condition. OT, however, neither affected self-reported affect nor perceived funniness of the clip. These findings indicate that OT, a hormone that can bolster attachment, also has the power to facilitate implicit social interactions by promoting visible and audible social signals, but does not affect the socially irrelevant inner cheerfulness.


Assuntos
Riso , Ocitocina , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Sorriso , Comportamento Social
18.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101715, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688070

RESUMO

Due to limited research on cross-cultural similarities and differences in the development of infant smiling, the main goals of this study were to analyze, first, the development of infants' bouts of intense smiling during their third month and, second, the interactional preludes to infants' affective climax in two cultural contexts, namely Kichwa families from the Ecuadorian Andes region and educated urban middle-class families from Münster, Germany, which differ concerning their cultural models on infant smiling. Based on a longitudinal, naturalistic study design, mother-infant interaction in Kichwa (n = 10) and Münster (n = 10) families was analyzed when infants were 9 and 13 weeks old. Following a mixed methods approach, a quantitative analysis of infant smiling based on a 1-second interval-coding approach showed that there was a significant increase in infants' high-intensity positive affect from 9 to 13 weeks in the Münster, but not the Kichwa sample, leading to significant cross-cultural differences at 13 weeks. Complementarily, the qualitative analysis of the interactional preludes to the 66 infants' affective climaxes at 13 weeks identified two main patterns that characterized the dynamic that resulted in high-intensity positive affect and that were similar across the two cultural contexts: the first was intense and multimodal stimulation with repetition and theme variation, and the second was positively tuned and mutually contingent responsiveness, often in the form of prolonged proto-conversations between mother and infant. Overall, this open approach converged on key mechanisms underlying infant smiling, namely infants' experience of mastery based on effortful assimilation or self-efficacy, which was embedded in episodes of intersubjective coordination. Overall, these results suggest universality without uniformity; that is, similar interactional mechanisms are associated with high-intense positivity in infants, while the episodes are co-constructed differently in different dyads and high-intense positivity varies in significance and frequency across cultures.


Assuntos
Mães , Sorriso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
19.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(5): 435-446, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653757

RESUMO

Individuals with SAD have difficulties initiating and maintaining relationships. However, little is known about the preinteraction behavior of individuals with SAD. Individuals with (n = 40) and without SAD (n = 40) who reported being attracted to individuals of the opposite sex participated in a preregistered lab-based experiment using a novel task similar to existing initial interaction/dating applications. Specifically, participants viewed 112 profiles of individuals from the opposite sex that included pictures (either happy/smiling or neutral) and descriptive texts and were requested to choose partners for a future interaction. Participants could swipe right to indicate their willingness to meet an individual, swipe left to indicate their lack of willingness to meet the individual, or press a button to receive more information before making their decision. Participants were also requested to provide a photo of themselves and write a short description of themselves ostensibly for inclusion in the database. We found that individuals with SAD were less likely to swipe right compared to individuals without SAD, and their likelihood to swipe right did not increase in response to happy/smiling pictures. Individuals with SAD also sought less information about others before making their swiping decisions compared to individuals without SAD. Finally, individuals with SAD provided shorter self-descriptions and more neutral pictures compared to individuals without SAD. These findings could not be accounted for by depression and remained above and beyond depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that significant SAD-related biases may exist even in preinteraction stages of relationship development (i.e., before initial interactions occur) and research and clinical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Felicidade , Humanos , Sorriso
20.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 60(247): 286-289, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633267

RESUMO

Introduction: New concepts and methods have been developed in orthodontics with patients' increased concern on esthetics. Among the various parameters of smile, smile type, smile arc, and smile symmetry are essential for a beautiful smile. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of average type in posed smiles of individuals visiting the department of orthodontics. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April 2021 to 30th June 2021 at a tertiary care hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 1, CH No. 30, 2077/2078). A convenience sampling technique was used to collect a total of 413 samples of posed smile photographs. Data was collected and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and percentage. Results: Among 413 individuals, the average type of smile was found in 193 (46.73%) (42.12-51.74 at 95% Confidence Interval). Out of 87 average smile type males, most of them 51 (58.62%) had non consonant smile arcs and 47 (54.02%) had asymmetric type smiles. On the contrary, the majority of females 76 (71.70%) had a consonant arc smile while 63 (59.43%) had an asymmetric smile. Conclusions: The prevalence of the average type of smile was higher in our study as in other published literatures. Keywords: dental esthetics; dental photography; orthodontics; smiling.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Sorriso , Estudos Transversais , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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