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3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 138: 133-136, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162611

RESUMO

Examination of 32 spiral valves from neonate specimens of hammerhead shark Sphyrna spp. (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae) captured between June and August 2018 off the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, USA, revealed the presence of the capillariid nematode Piscicapillaria bursata (Capillariidae) in the Carolina hammerhead S. gilberti, the scalloped hammerhead S. lewini, and their hybrids. This is the second find of this parasite originally described from hammerhead sharks off Australia, its first record from the western Atlantic Ocean, and its first record in a new host species and in hybrids.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Tubarões , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Austrália , Tubarões/parasitologia , South Carolina
4.
Am J Med Sci ; 359(4): 206-211, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common clinical problem, and may be more prevalent among patients with cirrhosis, especially in the setting of portal hypertension and coagulopathy. However, there is extremely little data available on the subject of LGIB in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to better understand the etiology and outcomes of cirrhotic patients hospitalized with LGIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 3,735 cirrhotic patients admitted to the Medical University of South Carolina between January 2011 and September 2018, and identified patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of hematochezia or bright red blood per rectum. RESULTS: Thirty patients with cirrhosis and LGIB were included in the cohort. The mean age was 56 ± 13 years, with 30% women. The mean model of end stage liver disease score was 22, and Child-Pugh (CP) scores were C: 41%, B: 33% and A: 26%. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 5.6. Twenty-four (80%) patients had a clinical decompensating event (hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, esophageal varices); the mean hepatic venous pressure gradient was 14.1 mm Hg (n = 8). In 33% of patients, LGIB was considered significant bleeding that necessitated blood transfusion. The most common cause of LGIB was hemorrhoids (11 patients, 37%), followed by portal hypertensive enteropathy or colopathy (7 patients, 23%). Hemoglobin levels on admission were lower in patients with CP B/C cirrhosis than in those with CP A (P < 0.001). The length of stay was 9 ± 10 days, and 5 patients died (mortality, 17%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being uncommon, LGIB in cirrhotic patients is associated with a high mortality rate.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1096-1104, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031909

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt (TSW) is a common and serious disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Tospoviridae, genus Orthotospovirus). Management frequently uses an integrated approach, with cultivar resistance and application of in-furrow insecticide as two critical components. In-furrow insecticides help suppress thrips, which can injure and stunt young growing plants and transmit TSWV, with postemergent application of acephate capable of providing additional thrips control. To examine effects of systemic insecticides (imidacloprid, imidacloprid plus fluopyram, phorate, and acephate) on TSW management, yield, and economic return across cultivar susceptibilities (susceptible, moderately susceptible, and resistant) in South Carolina, a meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from 32 studies conducted between 2009 and 2018. Although efficacy and magnitude of individual treatments varied with susceptibility, imidacloprid increased, whereas phorate generally decreased TSW incidence relative to nontreated controls. In-furrow treatments followed by acephate further reduced TSW incidence and increased profitability. All examined treatments improved yield compared with untreated peanuts except for susceptible cultivars treated with imidacloprid. Imidacloprid plus fluopyram increased yield more than imidacloprid alone for the susceptible group, although there was little difference between these treatments in association with moderately susceptible cultivars. When comparing individual applications, phorate was overall the most profitable option across susceptibilities, although imidacloprid plus fluopyram exhibited analogous profitability for susceptible cultivars. Results from this study can be used to assist producer selection of management options for TSW in peanut.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Animais , Arachis , Doenças das Plantas , South Carolina
6.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126070, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028165

RESUMO

Urban runoff conveys contaminants including titanium dioxide (TiO2), widely used as engineered nanoparticles (e.g., 1-100 nm) and pigments (e.g., 100-300 nm) in the urban environment, to receiving surface waters. Yet, the concentrations of TiO2 engineered particles (e.g., engineered nanoparticles and pigments) in urban runoff has not been determined due to difficulties in distinguishing natural from engineered TiO2 particles in environmental matrices. The present study examines the occurrence and estimates the concentrations of TiO2 engineered particles in urban runoff under wet- and dry-weather conditions. Urban runoff was collected from two bridges in Columbia, South Carolina, USA under wet-weather conditions and from the Ballona Creek and Los Angeles (LA) River in Los Angeles, California, USA under dry-weather conditions. The concentrations of TiO2 engineered particles were determined by mass balance calculations based on shifts in elemental concentration ratios in urban runoff relative to natural background elemental ratios. Elemental ratios of Ti to Nb in urban runoff were higher than the natural background ratios, indicating Ti contamination. The occurrence of TiO2 engineered particles was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The concentration of TiO2 engineered particles in urban runoff was estimated to be in the range of 5-150 µg L-1. Therefore, this study identifies urban runoff as a previously unaccounted source of TiO2 engineered particle release to the environment, which should be included in engineered nanoparticle fate modeling studies and in estimating environmental release of engineered nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas/análise , Rios/química , Titânio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , California , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , South Carolina , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106250

RESUMO

Studies of microbial community structure in intertidal and supratidal beach sands along the California and Gulf of Mexico coasts have begun to reveal geographical patterns in microbial diversity through the use of next generation sequencing technology. Only a few studies have targeted communities along the Eastern seaboard, leaving a variety of microbial ecosystems uncharacterized. In this study, we examine the microbial community structure within three South Carolina beaches along the Grand Strand via sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to discern relationships between diversity and temporal or regional factors. Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria dominated the composition of these beaches. Diversity analyses revealed that highly diverse communities were similar in overall composition and diversity but showed different levels of community structure stability over time. The community structure in Pawleys Island sands showed no significant change over time, while Garden City experienced significant shifts between each sampling date. Community structure also differed between beaches and, to a lesser degree, sampling date. These data provide evidence of the high microbial diversity within these beach sands and suggest that even though beaches of the same geographic region can show similarity in composition and diversity at a particular timepoint, the nature of their community structure and underlying diversity may differ comparatively and over time.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Microbiota , Areia/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Praias , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , South Carolina
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027686

RESUMO

Social media is increasingly utilized as a resource in healthcare. We sought to identify perceptions of using social media as an educational tool among healthcare practitioners. An electronic survey was distributed to healthcare administrators, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, physicians, and physician assistants f hospital systems and affiliated health science schools in Georgia, Maryland, South Carolina, and Wisconsin. Survey questions evaluated respondents' use and views of social media for educational purposes and workplace accessibility using a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Nurses (75%), pharmacists (11%), and administrators (7%) were the most frequent respondents. Facebook® (27%), Pinterest® (17%), and Instagram® (17%) were the most frequently accessed social media platforms. Nearly 85% agreed or strongly agreed that social media can be an effective tool for educational purposes. Among those who had social media platforms, 43.0% use them for educational purposes. Pinterest® (30%), Facebook® (22%), LinkedIn® (16%), and Twitter® (14%) were most frequently used for education. About 50% of respondents had limited or no access to social media at work. Administrators, those with unlimited and limited work access, and respondents aged 20-29 and 30-39 years were more likely to agree that social media is an educational tool (OR: 3.41 (95% CI 1.31 to 8.84), 4.18 (95% CI 2.30 to 7.60), 1.66 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.25), 4.40 (95% CI 2.80 to 6.92), 2.14 (95% CI 1.53 to 3.01) respectively). Residents, physicians, and those with unlimited access were less likely to agree with allowing social media access at work for educational purposes only. Healthcare practitioners frequently utilize social media, and many believe it can be an effective educational tool in healthcare.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Percepção , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Profissionais de Enfermagem/psicologia , Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Assistentes Médicos/psicologia , Assistentes Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/normas , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(2): 160-167, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965591

RESUMO

AIM: To create an accessible web-based resource of providers willing to provide dental services for patients with special health care needs (SCHNs). METHODS: With a grant from The Duke Endowment, surveys were sent to dentists in South Carolina RESULTS: Data showed that the majority of providers expressed willingness to treat patients with one or more mild SHCN, but fewer expressed willingness to treat those with one or more moderate or severe SHCN. Additionally, the data showed that among general practitioners specifically, only one-third were willing to treat mild and moderate/severe manifestations of all categories listed. The number of practitioners willing to treat moderate to severe manifestations of SHCN and accept Medicaid and willing to take new Medicaid patients dropped even further. These results demonstrated a need to increase the number of providers in South Carolina who are willing to treat patients with SHCN, and a need to provide an accessible resource for patients with SHCN to be able to find these providers. Data collected populated the web-based resource for the Special Adult Network of Dentists url:www.sandsc.org1 CONCLUSION: This resource may be used by patients, caregivers, and health care providers and could be replicated in other states or designed as a national resource.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Odontólogos , Humanos , Medicaid , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2688-2697, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942795

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the behavior of Pu(V) in the vadose zone through a combination of the field lysimeter and laboratory studies. Well-defined solid sources of NH4Pu(V)O2CO3(s) were placed in two 5-L lysimeters containing NOM-amended soil collected from the Savannah River Site (SRS) or unamended vadose zone soil and exposed to 3 years of natural South Carolina, USA, meteorological conditions. Lysimeter soil cores were removed from the field, used in desorption experiments, and characterized using wet chemistry methods and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For both lysimeters, Pu migrated slowly with the majority (>95%) remaining within 2 cm of the source. However, without the NOM amendment, Pu was transported significantly farther than in the presence of NOM. Downward Pu migration appears to be influenced by the initial source oxidation state and composition. These Pu(V) sources exhibited significantly greater migration than previous studies using Pu(IV) or Pu(III) sources. However, batch laboratory experiments demonstrated that Pu(V) is reduced by the lysimeter soil in the order of hours, indicating that downward migration of Pu may be due to cycling between Pu(V) and Pu(IV). Under the conditions of these experiments, NOM appeared to both enhance reduction of the Pu(V) source as well as Pu sorption to soils. This indicates that NOM will tend to have a stabilizing effect on Pu migration under SRS vadose zone field conditions.


Assuntos
Plutônio , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Rios , South Carolina
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 135158, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905577

RESUMO

Energy production systems such as nuclear reactors and coal-burning power plants produce a multitude of waste contaminants including radionuclides, trace elements, and heavy metals. Among invertebrates, much of the effort to understand the impact of these contaminants has focused in aquatic environments, while relatively less attention has been on terrestrial communities. We investigated the effects of trace element and radionuclide contamination on assemblages of beetles that are drawn to vertebrate carrion. Samples were collected from riparian sites at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina to compare trap catches (i.e., measure of relative abundance) of beetles and species diversity along a habitat gradient (0-300 m) away from an aquatic habitat and between uncontaminated and contaminated sites. We collected 17,800 carrion-associated beetles representing 112 species in nine families, which were classified as either scavenger or predatory beetles. Beetle catches and species diversity were generally higher at contaminated than uncontaminated sites. These trends were likely driven by scavenger species, which showed similar patterns between sites, whereas patterns of catches and species diversity were variable between sites for predatory beetles. Species compositions of contaminated and uncontaminated sites were generally distinct, however habitat edges appeared to substantially affect beetle assemblages. Overall, our study suggests carrion beetle assemblages are sensitive to edge effects and may exhibit variable responses to the presence of anthropogenic contaminants or disturbances associated with energy production systems. Such results reflect the inherent variability among individual beetle species, populations, and communities to local environmental conditions, and underscores the need for multi-taxa approach in environmental impact assessments.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , South Carolina
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 135103, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863991

RESUMO

Mercury is a widespread, naturally occurring contaminant that biomagnifies in wetlands due to the methylation of this element by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Species that feed at the top trophic level within wetlands are predicted to have higher mercury loads compared to species feeding at lower trophic levels and are therefore often used for mercury biomonitoring. However, mechanisms for mercury bioaccumulation in sentinel species are often poorly understood, due to a lack of long-term studies or an inability to differentiate between confounding variables. We examined mercury bioaccumulation patterns in the whole blood of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a long-term mark-recapture study (1979-2017) in South Carolina, USA. Using a growth model and auxiliary information on predicted age at first capture, we differentiated between age- and size-related variation in mercury bioaccumulation, which are often confounded in alligators due to their determinate growth pattern. Contrary to predictions that the oldest or largest individuals were likely to have the highest mercury concentrations, our best-supported model indicated a peak in mercury concentration at 30-40 years of age, depending on the sex, and lower concentrations in the youngest and oldest animals. To evaluate the robustness of our findings, we re-analyzed data from a previously published study of mercury in alligators sampled at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in Florida. Unlike the South Carolina data, the data from Florida contained minimal auxiliary information regarding age, yet the best supported model similarly indicated a peaked rather than increasing relationship between mercury and body size, a less-precise indicator of age. These findings highlight how long-term monitoring can differentiate between confounding variables (e.g., age and size) to better elucidate complex relationships between contaminant exposure and demographic factors in sentinel species.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Humanos , Ilhas , Mercúrio , Dinâmica não Linear , South Carolina
13.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(1): 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine demographic, clinical, and pharmaceutical factors that are associated with longer endocrine therapy usage duration. METHODS: South Carolina Central Cancer Registry incidence data linked with South Carolina Medicaid prescription claims and administrative data were used. The study included a sample (N = 1399) of female South Carolina Medicaid recipients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 who filled at least one ET prescription. A series of multiple regression models were built to explore the association of demographic, clinical, and pharmaceutical factors with the endocrine therapy usage duration. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that none of the demographic or clinical factors tested were significantly associated with the endocrine therapy usage duration. However, the type of endocrine therapy taken as well as receipt of the prescriptions that could have been used to alleviate side-effects (adrenals, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and vitamins) were significantly associated. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the potential value of concurrent prescriptions for improving the endocrine therapy usage duration, with an optimal intervention point before 14 months post ET initiation. This work informs further research needed to test pharmacologic interventions that may significantly increase the endocrine therapy duration as well as other nonpharmacologic strategies for side-effect management.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medicaid/tendências , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/tendências , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133783, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756823

RESUMO

Many studies of children's exposure to lead (Pb) are carried out in urban and industrialized environments. This study analyzed blood lead level (BLL) data collected from 2011 to 2016 from approximately 140,000 children ages <1 to 6 years across South Carolina (SC), including urban and rural areas. Individual-level characteristics included children's age, and race/ethnicity. Block group variables examined included population by race and ethnicity, households below the poverty level, median year homes built, urban/rural classification, and percent road coverage. BLL were higher in urban compared to rural children but increased to a greater extent in rural children from age < 1 year to 2 years. Road coverage was strongly associated with higher BLL in urban areas, and with home age more weakly, but neither road coverage nor home age was associated with BLL in rural areas. Young urban children may receive greater exposure to Pb from house dust and outdoor legacy Pb contamination, and young rural children through diet and drinking water. Black children had higher BLL in urban areas than white children, and the converse was true in rural areas. Population data indicated that rural areas had more poverty than urban areas, but strong associations between increased children's BLL and either ethnicity or socio-economic status (SES) at the block group level was not observed, likely due to distinct characteristics of poverty and geographic distribution by ethnicity in urban as compared to rural areas of SC. Individual demographics and environmental characteristics may be more closely associated with BLL than geographically aggregated SES and race/ethnicity characteristics. Interventions to reduce children's exposure to Pb should occur at as early an age as possible, and differences between rural and urban areas should be considered as interventions are developed to reduce children's BLL.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pobreza , População Rural , Classe Social , South Carolina , População Urbana
15.
Zootaxa ; 4695(2): zootaxa.4695.2.6, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719357

RESUMO

Krysko et al. (2016a) used analyses of DNA sequence data to reveal two genetic lineages of Drymarchon couperi. The Atlantic lineage contained specimens from southeastern Georgia and eastern peninsular Florida, and the Gulf Coast lineage contained specimens from western and southern peninsular Florida as well as western Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi. In a second paper Krysko et al. (2016b) analyzed morphological variation of the two lineages, which allowed them to restrict D. couperi to the Atlantic lineage and to describe the Gulf Coast lineage as a new species, Drymarchon kolpobasileus. This taxonomic discovery was remarkable for such a large, wide-ranging species and was notable for its impact on conservation. Because of population declines, particularly in western Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi, D. couperi (sensu lato) was listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act (United States Fish and Wildlife Service 1978, 2008) and repatriation of the species to areas where it had been extirpated was listed as a priority conservation goal (United States Fish and Wildlife Service 1982, 2008). Such repatriation efforts were attempted in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, starting in 1977 (Speake et al. 1987), but failed to create viable populations, likely because too few snakes were released at too many sites (Guyer et al. 2019; Folt et al. 2019a). A second attempt at repatriation was started in 2010 and concentrated on release of snakes at a single site in Alabama (Stiles et al. 2013). However, Krysko et al. (2016a) criticized this repatriation effort because it appeared to involve release of D. couperi (sensu stricto) into the geographic region occupied by D. kolpobasileus (as diagnosed in Krysko et al. 2016b).


Assuntos
Colubridae , Alabama , Animais , Florida , Georgia , Mississippi , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109605, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610443

RESUMO

Observations from four small watersheds by the Reedy River in upstate South Carolina, USA, were used to evaluate the effects of urban development due to residential construction on streamflow and sediment yield, and to assess the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs). Paired watershed studies were used to quantify changes in flow magnitudes and sediment outputs at the watershed scale. A novel method based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation was developed to quantify the contribution from each land use to watershed sediment yield. Area-normalized stormflows and peak flows in developed watersheds were 2-9 times greater than those from an undeveloped reference watershed. Sediment yield (SY) and event mean concentration (EMC) were 6 times greater in a developed watershed that had no ongoing construction. In actively developing watersheds, however, SY and EMC were 60-90 times greater compared to the reference. Sediment contribution factor (10-2 kg h MJ-1 mm-1), defined as SY per unit rainfall erosivity, for each land use with 95% confidence interval was: Forest = 4 ±â€¯2, Pasture = 2 ±â€¯2, Full Development = 18 ±â€¯11, Active Development = 440 ±â€¯120. These values can be used to predict long-term change in sediment yield due to a future land-use change. Significant increases in flow and sediment occurred despite the use of BMPs, so improvements to their implementation and/or proper maintenance may be necessary to ensure that their protective goals are met.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Florestas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Solo , South Carolina
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 569-582, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590826

RESUMO

Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment, occurring in both sediments and surface waters worldwide. However, few studies have documented the presence of microplastics and tire wear particles in coastal rivers. A survey of microplastics and low-density tire wear particles (≥63 µm) in the sediment and surface water of the three major tributaries within the Charleston Harbor estuary was conducted. Intertidal sediment, subtidal sediment, and sea surface microlayer concentrations ranged from 0 to 652 microplastics/m2, 3-4,375 microplastics/kg wet weight, and 3-36 microplastics/L, respectively. Blue fibers and tire wear particles were the two most abundant microplastic types observed, constituting 26.2% and 17.1%, respectively, of total microplastics. Tire wear particles were primarily identified by morphology, and ATR-FTIR analysis was conducted for a small subset (n = 5) of larger particles (≥500 µm). The present study provides the first microplastic field assessment of low-density tire wear particles in estuarine tributaries.


Assuntos
/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Rios , South Carolina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Instalações de Transporte , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
18.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105174, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627135

RESUMO

Accumulation of eleven trace elements in sediment was evaluated throughout an industrially disturbed headwater stream on the Savannah River Site, SC, USA. Sampling began at upstream sedimentation basins at the margins of industrial areas, continued longitudinally downstream to a beaver pond representing a potential sink in the mid-reaches, and ended in downstream reaches. Additionally, sediment from beaver impacted areas in another industrially disturbed stream and a reference stream were analyzed to assess the natural tendency of these depositional features to settle out trace elements. We further compared trace element accumulation in sediment and biota from downstream reaches before and after an extreme rainy period to evaluate the potential redistribution of trace elements from sink areas. Trace elements accumulated in the headwater basins from which elements were redistributed to downstream reaches. The mid-reach beaver affected area sediments accumulated elevated concentrations of most analyzed elements compared to the free-flowing stream. The elevated accumulation of organic matter in these sink areas illustrated the effectiveness of reduced water velocity areas to settle out materials. The natural tendency of beaver ponds to accumulate trace elements and organic matter was further illustrated by sediments from the reference beaver pond accumulating higher concentrations of several elements than sediments from the free flowing section the stream impacted by industrial activity. However, concentrations in sediment from sedimentation basins and the beaver impacted area of the disturbed stream were highest. Trace elements and organic matter appeared to be redistributed from the sinks after the record rainy period resulting in increased trace element concentrations in both sediment and biota. These data suggest that assessments of contaminants in stream systems should include such slow-water, extreme depositional zones such as beaver impacted areas or basins to verify what contaminants may be pulsing through the stream.


Assuntos
Tanques/química , Rios/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Roedores , South Carolina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5083-5087, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) is a marker of increased risk of other cancer types. To assess if this association exhibits a dose-response relationship, a case-control study was carried out. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a clinic-based study of cases with KC plus another type of cancer matched by age, race (all Caucasian), sex and histologic type to controls with KC only (n=48 matched pairs). RESULTS: Compared with the KC only group, those with KC plus another cancer had a mean number of lesions that were 43%, 35%, and 41% greater for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and total KC, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of developing another type of cancer increased from 1.0 to 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.23-5.13) to 2.12 (95%CI=0.50-9.08) according to whether the patient had zero, one, or ≥two BCC lesions; for SCC, the corresponding ORs were 1.0, 1.24 (95%CI=0.48-3.24), and 1.39 (95%CI=0.29-6.61). CONCLUSION: A dose-response relationship seems to exist between the number of skin lesions and the risk of another type of cancer, but the lack of statistical significance weakens this evidence.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , South Carolina/epidemiologia
20.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 330-335, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350589

RESUMO

The global decline of amphibians is a major conservation issue. Many stressors are recognized for this decline including exposure to environmental contaminants. Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that bioaccumulates in wildlife and can cause a variety of negative impacts across taxa, including amphibians. Amphiuma and Siren spp. can comprise a large portion of biomass within their respective ecosystems, and thus, likely serve as important predators or prey in wetland communities. However, due to their cryptic nature, little is known about their ecology, diet, and accumulation potential. We sought to validate a nonlethal sampling method to quantify total mercury (THg) in two enigmatic species of aquatic salamanders: the two-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma means) and the lesser siren (Siren intermedia). We examined relationships between THg content in lethal (whole-body) and nonlethal (tail clip) samples. Tail clips were statistically significant predictors of whole-body THg (all p < 0.001), explaining 84-89% of variation in whole-body THg. Average whole-body THg (mg/kg) did not significantly differ between the two species (p = 0.97), and overall, they had similar whole-body THg content (S. intermedia = 0.330 ± 0.04, n = 18; A. means = 0.333 ± 0.07, n = 11). To our knowledge, these data represent the first reported Hg burdens in A. means and S. intermedia.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Urodelos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , South Carolina , Cauda/química
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