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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1787-1796, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of spinach (HES) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the prevention phase, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES, or a chow diet for 7 weeks. For the treatment phase, after the induction of NAFLD, they were fed a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES, a chow diet, or chow diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES for 4 weeks (n = 6). RESULTS: Weight gain (P = 0.01), food intake (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P = 0.01), triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.02), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (P = 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.02), liver steatosis, and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS) (P < 0.01) in the high-fat group were statistically higher than in the other groups at the end of the prevention phase. Feeding spinach extract to rats on a high-fat diet decreased serum glucose (P = 0.01), total cholesterol (TCh) (P < 0.01), AST (P = 0.01), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P < 0.01), and liver steatosis (P < 0.01) in the treatment phase. CONCLUSION: Overall, spinach extract showed beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Spinacia oleracea/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125655, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669947

RESUMO

Mechanisms of degradation and absorption of mineral complexes by the human digestive system are complex and still under investigation. The elaborate matrix of vegetables, and the presence of phytates and other inhibitors make study of these mechanisms difficult. In this qualitative study, extracts from freeze-dried savoy cabbage, broccoli, kale and spinach were subjected to digestion in vitro at pH 2.0 and pH 7.5 and analysed using SEC-ICP-MS. The results suggest that low molecular weight species (peak 6), related to the iron and zinc fractions, which appeared after acidic digestion in all vegetables, except in kale, were considerably reduced after digestion at pH 7.5. Low molecular weight species (peak 9), related to the phosphorus fraction, were present in all vegetables, except in kale, after alkaline digestion. While cabbage, broccoli and spinach showed similar degradation patterns, kale showed a different degradation behaviour.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Ferro/análise , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química , Zinco/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 754, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734742

RESUMO

In peri-urban areas, the use of wastewater for crop production is a common practice due to water scarcity. Moreover, in the recent years, large quantity of wastewater generation and discharge as industrial effluent in water resources is another issue for reduction of water quality. The leather industries are significantly contributing chromium (Cr) in effluent, whereas, other industries may have salt and cationic load in their discharges are mixed up. Therefore, it is mandatory to study the interactive effect of different effluent constituents on crop plants. In this connection, a pot culture experiment was conducted at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal to compute the effect of application of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions on Cr uptake by spinach crop in Vertisol of central India. Three levels of Cr (0, 50, 100 mg kg-1), calcium (0, 2, 4 mM), and sodium (0, 40, 80 mM) were applied in combinations. The spinach variety All Green was used as a test crop and harvested at full maturity. Results showed that application of Ca and Na reduced the Cr uptake in spinach crop. The reduction of Cr uptake was more in the root than shoot. Applied calcium acted as an essential plant nutrient and enhanced the crop biomass. Sole applications of Na adversely affected the crop biomass and Cr uptake in both root and shoot of spinach. In conclusion, application of Ca fertilizers reduced the Cr toxicity in spinach and could be used as a strategy for the safe utilization of tannery industrial effluents for crop production.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Cromo/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Sódio/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/química , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31667-31674, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485949

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the concentration of two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in soil and plant. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was used as a test vegetable in a pot experiment. Five spiked concentrations of both the metals along with sewage water were used as treatments. The analyses of the metals were determined in two cuttings. The results showed significant effect of treatments on the concentration of the two metals in soil and plant. The concentrations of As recorded were higher in 1st spinach cutting and reduced in the second harvest. However, comparing the two metal concentrations, it was found that As was absorbed greater as compared with Hg. Analyzing the plant growth parameter, it was found that metal stress has significantly influenced the plant growth. In sewage water pots, As was significantly higher than Hg. The transfer factor from soil to plant showed higher As in plants at lower concentration, but at higher As levels, the transfer rate declined, while Hg showed it was completely inverse. Positive correlation was found between soil applied metal concentration and plant uptake. It may be concluded from the above results that spinach is a good accumulator of heavy metals and has shown significant result of both As and Hg accumulation in plant. The concentration increased with the increasing concentration in soil.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/química , Solo , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras
5.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5302-5311, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432852

RESUMO

Many of the carotenoids found naturally in fruits and vegetables are beneficial to human health, but they often have low oral bioavailability because of their high hydrophobicity. In this study, the effects of varying the composition of the oil phase of excipient nanoemulsions on carotenoid bioaccessibility from spinach were investigated using a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Nanoemulsions containing different ratios of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and long chain triglycerides (LCT) were prepared: (i) mixing MCT and LCT oils before homogenization and (ii) mixing MCT droplets with LCT droplets after homogenization. The release of carotenoids from spinach and their solubilization within the mixed micelles formed after lipid digestion depended strongly on the oil phase composition. As expected, carotenoid bioaccessibility was always higher in the presence of excipient nanoemulsions than in their absence. The total free fatty acids released in the small intestine increased as the MCT/LCT ratio increased, which can be attributed to the faster release of shorter chain fatty acids from the oil droplet surfaces during lipid digestion. As the MCT ratio increased, lutein bioaccessibility increased but ß-carotene bioaccessibility decreased. This difference was attributed to the ability of the formed mixed micelles to accommodate the two different kinds of carotenoids in their hydrophobic domains. Interestingly, carotenoid bioaccessibility was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when the oil droplets were mixed after homogenization than when the oils were mixed before homogenization. These results have important implications for the design of excipient foods to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/química , Digestão , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Excipientes/química , Excipientes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Triglicerídeos/química
6.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 130: 107348, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437810

RESUMO

A practical electrochemical biosensor with high sensitivity was developed for detecting organophosphorus (OP). Initially, Ce metal was introduced into an UiO-66-template to form Ce/UiO-66. Later, graphene oxide (GO), carbon black (CB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were separately added to Ce/UiO-66 to compare the effect of different carbon-based material types on the performance of the biosensor. Exclusively, Ce/UiO-66/MWCNTs with a Ce (7%) and MWCNT (30%) matrix was found to not only load more acetylcholinesterase (AChE) onto vacant sites but also increase electron transfer and decrease the number of diffusion pathways between the thiocholine and electrode surface. Moreover, the appropriate oxophilicity of Ce coupled with the high surface area and good conductivity of MWCNTs in the UiO-66 structure revealed a high affinity to acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) and possible catalysis of the hydrolysis of ATCl with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.258 mM. This biosensor, under optimal conditions, demonstrated a rapid and sensitive detection of paraoxon over a wide linear range of 0.01-150 nM, with a low detection limit of 0.004 nM. As a result, the AChE/Ce/UiO-66/MWCNTs/GCE biosensor can be employed in laboratory and field experiments to determine paraoxon levels.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cério/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Paraoxon/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Brassica/química , Electrophorus , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Grafite/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Spinacia oleracea/química
7.
Nanoscale ; 11(35): 16284-16292, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465048

RESUMO

Bio-hybrid nanomaterials have great potential for combining the most desirable aspects of biomolecules and the contemporary concepts of nanotechnology to create highly efficient light-harvesting materials. Light-harvesting proteins are optimized to absorb and transfer solar energy with remarkable efficiency but have a spectral range that is limited by their natural pigment complement. Herein, we present the development of model membranes ("proteoliposomes") in which the absorption range of the membrane protein Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) is effectively enhanced by the addition of lipid-tethered Texas Red (TR) chromophores. Energy transfer from TR to LHCII is observed with up to 94% efficiency and increased LHCII fluorescence of up to three-fold when excited in the region of lowest natural absorption. The new self-assembly procedure offers the modularity to control the concentrations incorporated of TR and LHCII, allowing energy transfer and fluorescence to be tuned. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy provides single-proteoliposome-level quantification of energy transfer efficiency and confirms that functionality is retained on surfaces. Designer proteoliposomes could act as a controllable light-harvesting nanomaterial and are a promising step in the development of bio-hybrid light-harvesting systems.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Proteolipídeos/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Xantenos/química
8.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426567

RESUMO

A series of twenty-six methoxylated and methylated N-aryl-1-hydroxynaphthalene- 2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized as potential anti-invasive agents. The molecular structure of N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide as a model compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All the analysed compounds were tested against the reference strain Staphylococcus aureus and three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus as well as against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. kansasii. In addition, the inhibitory profile of photosynthetic electron transport in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts was specified. In vitro cytotoxicity of the most effective compounds was tested on the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. The activities of N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-, N-(3-fluoro-5-methoxy-phenyl)- and N-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carbox- amide were comparable with or even better than the commonly used standards ampicillin and isoniazid. All promising compounds did not show any cytotoxic effect at the concentration >30 µM. Moreover, an in silico evaluation of clogP features was performed for the entire set of the carboxamides using a range of software lipophilicity predictors, and cross-comparison with the experimentally determined lipophilicity (log k), in consensus lipophilicity estimation, was conducted as well. Principal component analysis was employed to illustrate noticeable variations with respect to the molecular lipophilicity (theoretical/experimental) and rule-of-five violations. Additionally, ligand-oriented studies for the assessment of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship profile were carried out with the comparative molecular surface analysis to determine electron and/or steric factors that potentially contribute to the biological activities of the investigated compounds.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium kansasii/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftóis/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Anilidas/síntese química , Anilidas/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metilação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium kansasii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Naftóis/síntese química , Naftóis/química , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1
9.
Food Chem ; 298: 125040, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261008

RESUMO

The effects of co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot, baby spinach and/or cherry tomato on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins and carotenoids such as α-carotene, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene were examined using a simulated in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion model. The individual vegetables and their mixtures were digested with and without added a standardised salad dressing. Bioaccessibility of total anthocyanins was enhanced by 10-15% (p < 0.05) when red cabbage was co-digested with the carotenoid-rich vegetables, except with carrot. In contrast, the co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot decreased bioaccessibility of total carotenoids by 21-33% (p < 0.05), and with cherry tomato by 42-56% (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of a given carotenoid varied depending on the vegetable matrix. Among the tested vegetable mixtures, red cabbage and baby spinach when co-digested demonstrated that anthocyanins and carotenoids were equally bioaccessible (total anthocyanin bioaccessibility of 62-66% and total carotenoid bioaccessibility of 66%).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Verduras/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Digestão , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Saliva , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2261-2268, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313301

RESUMO

The consumer demand for locally grown fresh produce is continuously increasing in the United States. The high tunnel systems have been successfully utilized by small acreage growers for local production. Consumers are typically assessing appearance, freshness, flavor and aroma when purchasing produce. A common perception is that locally grown produce tastes better than nonlocal. However, there is not much evidence for supporting this claim. The objective of this study was to identify consumer acceptability and the sensory characteristics/differences of locally grown spinach in open field or in high tunnel and nonlocal commercially grown spinach. Spinach, Spinacia oleracea cv. "Corvair" was grown in open field and in high tunnel at Kansas State Univ. Olathe Horticulture Research and Extension Center (OHREC) in spring 2017 and the commercially grown spinach was purchased at a local retail store. A consumer study (n = 205) was conducted at Kansas State Univ., Olathe campus, and a descriptive sensory analysis was conducted by a highly trained descriptive analysis panel in the Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior at Kansas State Univ., Manhattan campus, in spring 2017. The consumer test showed that high tunnel spinach scored significantly higher in overall liking (P < 0.0001), flavor liking (P < 0.0001), and texture liking (P < 0.05) when compared to open field and store purchased spinach. Descriptive analysis showed that locally grown spinach had higher intensity of attributes that indicate premium quality, such as green color and green/spinach flavors. Our results indicate that locally grown spinach was preferred from the consumers for its high organoleptic quality. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Locally grown spinach demonstrated high intensity in a set of sensory attributes that suggest a product with premium organoleptic quality. Correspondingly to these results, consumers liked spinach produced locally in high tunnels the most. The results of this study can be used for developing marketing strategies that are aiming specifically to the consumer niche that is seeking fresh produce of high organoleptic quality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Spinacia oleracea/química , Cor , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Kansas , Odorantes/análise , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Paladar
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350231

RESUMO

The oral anticoagulant warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist and is considered the first line anticoagulant in valvular atrial fibrillation. However prothrombin time should be closely monitored, drug interactions checked and compliance regarding diet ensured when the patient is on warfarin therapy. Anaemia should be looked for, evaluated for the cause and corrected since it is an independent predictor of bleeding and thrombotic episodes during warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation We present an interesting case of anaemia which developed during warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation. The patient was on amiodarone and was consuming leafy vegetables resulting in frequent raise in prothrombin time during which time she developed bleeding into the right femoral pseudoaneurysm which had developed following catheterisation for thrombectomy. Surgical correction of pseudoaneurysm was done, comedication was changed and diet compliance ensured which resulted in the subsequent maintenance of prothrombin time in the therapeutic range and steady haemoglobin levels.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Falso Aneurisma/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos adversos , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Falso Aneurisma/fisiopatologia , Falso Aneurisma/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Protrombina , Spinacia oleracea/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/sangue , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 429, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190097

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) is one of the toxic metals adversely affecting organisms including humans in the ecosystems, and it is present in considerable concentration in the tannery industrial effluent. Toxicity expression of Cr is suspected to be influenced considerably by other accompanying ions present in the effluent used for irrigation. In a screen house experiment, interactive effects of chloride and sulfate ions in a Vertisol on uptake of Cr by spinach crop were investigated and treatments imposed were three levels each of Cr (0, 50, 100 mg kg-1), chloride (Cl-) (0, 25, 50 mM kg-1), and sulfur (S) (0, 4, 8 mM kg-1) in possible combinations. Plant growth parameters and leaf Cr concentrations were recorded to find out the effect of anions on Cr dynamics in the plant. Increasing the concentration of Cl- ions in soil reduced the Cr concentration in both root and shoot. Similarly, increasing the concentration of S from 4 to 8 mM kg-1 also reduced the concentration and uptake of Cr. Application of sulfate ions augmented the plant growth and counters the negative effect of Cl- ions and Cr. Thus, the study revealed that the addition of S fertilizers could minimize the Cr toxicity in high Cr contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cloretos/química , Cromo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos/química , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Índia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 19(20): 1666-1680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaves of Spinacia oleracea have been widely used as vegetarian foods. Some studies on the chemical composition of spinach have shown that it contains a high content of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and has an important economic value with some agronomic advantages. S. oleracea in traditional medicine is reported to cure more than one health problem. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological and phytochemical studies of Spinacia oleracea. METHODS: Information on S. oleracea was obtained via electronic search of scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, Science Direct, Scielo, Web of Science, Medline, Springerlink, BioMed Central (BMC), and SciFinder for publications on this plant. In addition, books on medicinal herbs were also consulted. RESULTS: Approximately 100 chemical compounds were isolated and characterized from S. oleracea. The major active components of the plant are flavones, flavanols, methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides, glucuronides, and carotenoids, which were extensively investigated. This review revealed potential pharmacological properties of these isolated compounds such as anti-obesity, anti-α-amylase, bileacid binding capacity, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cognitive and mood effect, hypoglycemic, and anti-hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSION: S. oleracea is an important edible plant also used for ethnomedical therapy of obesity, inflammation of lungs, lumbago, flatulence, and treatment of urinary calculi. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies of this plant including bioactives, which have been adequately studied, support its uses in traditional medicine. Additionally, prospects and future trends of this plant are proposed.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 332-340, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202845

RESUMO

Spinacia is an interesting medicinal halophyte plant that is employed as a food and therapeutic agent in traditional medicine. In this work, water-soluble polysaccharides from Spinacia oleracea were extracted and preliminary characterization was established via FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR and SEC/MALS DRI technics. The extracted polysaccharide, with an average molecular mass of 408 kDa, was composed of arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose in the molar percentage of 49.3%, 28.1%, 4.9%, 7.8%, 8.2% and 1.7%, respectively. The polysaccharide showed significant antioxidant activity. Moreover, Spinacia polysaccharide, significantly prevented oxidation-induced Cd damage and exhibited a protective effect against Cd cytotoxicity on HEK293 and HCT116 cells, with an important cell viability decrease, an important reduction of MDA production and ROS levels. The outcomes obtained suggest that the Spinacia polysaccharides may be used as an accessible source of natural antioxidants and as potential phytochemicals against kidney and colon cancer.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
15.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(2): 202-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061291

RESUMO

Rubiscolin-6 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Phe) is produced by a pepsin digest of spinach d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and known to act as an agonist on δ-opioid receptor. Here, we showed that administration of rubiscolin-6 reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test in restraint-stressed mice without effect on locomotor activity. The antidepressant-like effect of rubiscolin-6 was blocked by a δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole. These results indicate that rubiscolin-6 exerts antidepressant-like effect through activation of δ-opioid receptor.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spinacia oleracea/enzimologia
16.
J Sep Sci ; 42(14): 2379-2389, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106518

RESUMO

A multi-residue method has been developed and validated to determine 46 pesticides in spinach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method is based on modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation, where high-surface-area graphitized carbon black was used first as sorbent material in the dispersive solid-phase extraction. The method was compared with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The morphology, surface area, pore size, and pore volume of the sorbent was determined. The results obtained show that the sorbent consists of high surface area (233 m2 /g) and large pore volume (1.5 cm3 /g). The calibration curve correlation coefficient (R2 ) of the method was at least 0.99. The average recoveries ranged from 74 to 116%, and limits of detection and quantification from 0.0001 to 0.002 mg/kg and from 0.0002 to 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. Using the method, the pesticides exhibited low matrix effect (< 20%), except for nicosulfuron (29.86%), methomyl (26.77%), and flufenoxuron (24.65%). The method showed better potential to remove pigments than the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method could be useful alternative for sample preparation of spinach and other matrices in future.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fuligem/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Tamanho da Partícula , Extração em Fase Sólida , Propriedades de Superfície , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 501-512, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030156

RESUMO

The plant microbiome is an important factor for plant health and productivity. While the impact of nitrogen (N) availability for plant growth and development is well established, its influence on the microbial phyllosphere community structure is unknown. We hypothesize that nitrogen impacts the growth and abundance of several microorganisms on the leaf surface. The bacterial and fungal communities of baby leaf spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) were investigated in a field trial for two years in a commercial setting. Nitrogen fertilizer was tested in four doses (basic nitrogen, basic + suboptimal, basic + commercial, basic + excess) with six replicates in each. Culture-independent (Illumina sequencing) and culture-dependent (viable count and identification of bacterial isolates) community studies were combined with monitoring of plant physiology and site weather conditions. This study found that alpha diversity of bacterial communities decreased in response to increasing nitrogen fertilizer dose, whereas viable counts showed no differences. Correspondingly, fungal communities of the spinach phyllosphere showed a decreasing pattern, whereas the decreasing diversity of fungal communities of rocket was not significant. Plant species and effects of annual variations on microbiome structure were observed for bacterial and fungal communities on both spinach and rocket. This study provides novel insights on the impact of nitrogen fertilizer regime on a nutrient scarce habitat, the phyllosphere.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Minerais/análise , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Brassicaceae/química , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/química , Spinacia oleracea/química
18.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999602

RESUMO

Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a (1) and the new compound 132-hydroxy-pheofarnesin a (2). The structure elucidation of the new compound 2 was established based on one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant neutral lipid-reducing activity in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay after 48 h of exposure with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 8.9 ± 0.4 µM for 1 and 15.5 ± 1.3 µM for 2. Both compounds additionally reduced neutral lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 multicellular spheroids of murine preadipocytes. Molecular profiling of mRNA expression of some target genes was evaluated for the higher potent compound 1, which indicated altered peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression. Lipolysis was not affected. Different food materials (Spirulina, Chlorella, spinach, and cabbage) were evaluated for the presence of 1, and the cyanobacterium Spirulina, with GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status for human consumption, contained high amounts of 1. In summary, known and novel chlorophyll derivatives were discovered from marine cyanobacteria with relevant lipid-reducing activities, which in the future may be developed into nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Chlorella/química , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Lipólise , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spirulina/química , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987167

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dietary carotenoids from spinach on the inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, liver lipid profile, and liver transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles in Sprague-Dawley rats with steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Two concentrations of spinach powder (2.5 and 5%) were used in two types of diet: high-fat (H) and standard (N). Although rats fed diet H showed an accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, they did not show differences in the values of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and oxygen radical absorption (ORAC) in plasma or of isoprostanes in urine compared with animals fed diet N. The consumption of spinach and the accumulation of α and ß carotenes and lutein in the liver was inversely correlated with serum total cholesterol and glucose and the content of hepatic cholesterol, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and reducing cholesterol in the livers of rats fed diet H and spinach. In addition, changes in the expression of genes related to the fatty liver condition occurred, and the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol increased, mainly through the overexpression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Related to liver metabolites, animals fed with diet H showed hypoaminoacidemia, mainly for the glucogenic aminoacids. Although no changes were observed in inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, the consumption of spinach modulated the lipid metabolism in liver, which must be taken into consideration during the dietary treatment of steatosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Spinacia oleracea/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso
20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 100: 826-836, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948120

RESUMO

Herein, graphite/Ag/AgCl nanocomposite is introduced as a new electrocatalyst material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of oxalic acid. Graphite/Ag/AgCl was synthesized by electroless deposition of nano-sized metallic silver and then silver chloride on graphite powder. The material obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The nanocomposite was mixed with n-eicosane as binder and used as carbon paste electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of oxalic acid (OA). The graphite/Ag/AgCl nanocomposite electrode showed good catalytic activity for the electroxidation of oxalic acid in H3PO4 solution (0.05 mol L-1), leading to a distinct decrease in anodic overpotential (100 mV) and a substantial increase in anodic peak current (about 10 times), in comparison with the unmodified carbon paste electrode. Using the developed nanocomposite electrode and differential pulse voltammetry method, it became possible to determine oxalic acid in the concentration range of 0.01-0.75 mmol L-1 with detection limit of 3.7 × 10-6 mol L-1. The electrode showed very high sensitivity of 1341.3 µA mM-1 cm-2 which is remarkably better than the previously reported oxalic acid sensors. Thanks to high sensitivity and good selectivity of the electrode, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of OA in human urine and spinach samples. The satisfactory results obtained, confirmed the applicability of this sensor in the practical analysis.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Nanocompostos/química , Ácido Oxálico/urina , Compostos de Prata/química , Catálise , Eletrodos , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Espectrometria por Raios X , Spinacia oleracea/química , Difração de Raios X
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