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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(5): 481-487, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715688

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in GenBank was observed by reinvestigation of mitochondrial cox1 and cytb sequences. The DNA sequences were analyzed in this study, comprising complete DNA sequences of cox1 (n=239) and cytb (n=213) genes. The 10 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Spirometra species were compared with those of Korea, China and Japan. The sequences were analyzed for nucleotide composition, conserved sites, variable sites, singleton sites and parsimony-informative sites. Phylogenetic analyses was done using neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood on cox1 and cytb sequences of Spirometra species. These polymorphic sites identified 148 (cox1) and 83 (cytb) haplotypes within 239 and 213 isolates from 3 Asian countries. Phylogenetic tree topologies were presented high-level confidence values for the 2 major branches of 2 Spirometra species containing S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens, and S. decipiens sub-clades including all sequences registered as S. erinaceieuropaei in cox1 and cytb genes. These results indicated that mitochondrial haplotypes of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens were found in the 3 Asian countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Spirometra/genética , Animais , China , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Japão , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , República da Coreia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(5): 513-516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715692

RESUMO

Human sparganosis is a food-borne zoonosis mainly caused by the plerocercoid belonging to the genus Spirometra. The most common clinical sign of sparganosis is a subcutaneous mass in the trunk including abdominal or chest wall. The mass may be mistaken for a malignant tumor, thereby causing difficulty in terms of diagnosis and treatment. A 66-year-old woman visited our clinic for the removal of a lipoma-like mass. It was movable, hard, and painless. We identified 2 white mass, measuring 0.2×4 cm and 0.2×1 cm. Pathologic findings indicated the white mass was a sparganum. She recalled having eaten a raw frog approximately 60 years before. A 35-year-old who lived North Korea was also presented to our clinic with an asymptomatic nodule on her abdomen. Intraoperatively, we found sparganum approximately 24 cm size. Subcutaneous masses are associated with clinical signs of inflammation or they may mimic a soft tissue neoplasm. While the incidence rate of sparganosis has decreased with economic development and advancements in sanitation, surgeons still encounter patients with sparganosis in the clinical setting. Therefore, a careful history is required in order to diagnose sparganosis.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Lipoma/parasitologia , Esparganose/parasitologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoma/cirurgia , Esparganose/cirurgia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(5): 1170-1173, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571569

RESUMO

Human sparganosis is a cestode infection which is neglected as a differential diagnosis outside endemic countries. Diagnosis and therapy may be challenging depending on the clinical presentation and anatomic localization. The disease manifests predominantly as subcutaneous nodule(s) or intracranial mass lesion(s). Infection is primarily acquired by ingesting raw or undercooked amphibian or reptile flesh or by drinking water containing copepods. We report an unusual case of subcutaneous Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganosis presenting with two nonmigratory nodules in close proximity to each other on the right thigh of a Thai woman living in Switzerland.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Esparganose/diagnóstico , Esparganose/patologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Tela Subcutânea/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Esparganose/cirurgia , Spirometra/genética , Suíça , Tailândia/epidemiologia
4.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 309-312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284356

RESUMO

Spargana were collected from human and frogs in Liaoning and Hubei Provinces, China. PCR amplification and direct sequencing of A cox1 fragment was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA extracted from 7 specimens (5 from humans and 2 from frogs). The cox1 fragment (390 bp) showed 97-100% similarity to the reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei and 88-89% to the reference sequence of S. decipiens. There were 1-12 bases different between these worms, but no obvious genetic variation (0-3.3%) to the references. There was little difference of cox1 gene between sparganum samples of humans and frogs (1-3%). This study is the first report on S. erinaceieuropaei spargana from humans in Liaoning and Hubei Provinces.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Spirometra/classificação
5.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(1): 55-60, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840801

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Spirometra/genética , Animais , Ordem dos Genes , Genes de Helmintos , Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mianmar , Sintenia , Transcrição Genética
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(6): 639-645, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914517

RESUMO

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta Crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta Crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Hyaenidae/parasitologia , Panthera/parasitologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Tanzânia
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 66: 256-261, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315893

RESUMO

The incidence of sparganosis, a parasitic disease caused by plerocercoid larvae of the genus Spirometra, has gradually risen worldwide (especially in remote areas) in recent years. Pulmonary and pleural sparganosis, as well as other sites of infestation, including the subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal viscera, brain and eyes, has been reported. In clinical practice, due to the atypical signs and symptoms as well as limited laboratory approaches for the specific detection of sparganum, sparganosis is often misdiagnosed. In the present study, an 11-year-old girl visited the Department of Infectious Diseases in Shanghai Children's Medical Center for recurrent shoulder and chest pain and shortness of breath. Imaging tests demonstrated bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion, enlarged lymph nodes in front of the tracheal carina, and infection of the left lower lobe. Sparganum were not observed in the dissected soft tissue at the root of the right thigh with naked-eye and light microscopy examination. Histologic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation and tunnel-like necrosis with eosinophilic, neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. Although the patient's serum was positive for sparganum antibodies, the diagnosis of sparganosis was not confirmed for more than three months. Ultimately, genomic DNA of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in the mass at the root of the right thigh using next-generation sequencing (NGS), confirming the diagnosis of sparganosis. The patient was treated with praziquantel (150 mg/kg/day) without recurrence after an eight-month follow-up. We present, for the first time, a study of human sparganosis diagnosed using NGS, which provided a clinically actionable diagnosis of a specific infectious disease from an uncommon pathogen.


Assuntos
Esparganose/diagnóstico , Esparganose/parasitologia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Animais , Criança , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Genes de Helmintos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Derrame Pericárdico , Radiografia Torácica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3659-3662, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220047

RESUMO

Sparganosis is a zoonosis caused by the spargana (larvae) of Spirometra sp. (Diphyllobothriidae). Reptiles are particularly important vectors for the transmission of this parasite in Asia; however, their role in sparganosis spread in European wildlife is unrecognized. We investigated the infection of reptiles with Spirometra sp. in NE Poland, where several mammalian hosts have been identified recently and in the past. Of the 59 dead reptiles, plerocercoids were found in two grass snakes (Natrix natrix) from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (BPF). The Spirometra erinaceieuropaei species was genetically confirmed using the evolutionary conserved nuclear 18S rRNA gene, and then compared to GenBank deposits. The sequences were identical to previously investigated Spirometra sp. found in Eurasian badger and wild boar from BPF. Our finding is the first genetically confirmed record of Spirometra sp. in reptiles in Europe. Since reptiles are often a component of mammalian diet, they can be a source of Spirometra tapeworm infection in European wildlife; however, further studies are needed to investigate the prevalence of infection in reptiles and other non-mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Colubridae/parasitologia , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Esparganose/veterinária , Plerocercoide/genética , Plerocercoide/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Esparganose/parasitologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses
9.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(4): 359-364, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196668

RESUMO

The taxonomy of Spirometra species has been controversial despite the medical and veterinary importance. Currently, only a few Spirometra species are considered valid species in the genus Spirometra. In the present study, the distribution of Spirometra species obtained from animals in Korea were identified by molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. A total of 28 Spirometra species specimens were analyzed. These were all collected between 1973 and 2008 in the Republic of Korea. Mitochondrial cox1 sequences were examined for a total of 28 specimens comprising 14 S. decipiens and 14 S. ranarum. The difference in partial cox1 sequences (316 bp) between S. erinaceieuropaei (KJ599680) and S. ranarum (this study) was 9.3%, while that between S. decipiens (KJ599679) and S. ranarum (this study) was 2.2%. Genetic analyses identified 2 Spirometra species in animals such as cat, leopard cat, dog, duck and snake in Korea as S. decipiens and S. ranarum. S. decipiens and S. ranarum were present in Gyeongnam Province (P), Jeonnam P, Gangwon P, Chungbuk P, and Seoul. S. decipiens was found in tadpoles, snakes, ducks, cats, leopard cats and dogs, while S. ranarum was found in cats and dogs. The ratio of S. decipiens:S. ranarum calculated from the molecular data was 14:14 (or 1:1). These results indicate that S. decipiens and S. ranarum are sympatrically distributed in Korea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Gatos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cães , Patos/parasitologia , Larva/parasitologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , República da Coreia , Serpentes/parasitologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(4): 379-383, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196672

RESUMO

The present study was performed with morphological and molecular analysis (cox1 and nad1 mitochondrial genes) to identify the proglottids of spirometrid tapeworm found in the stool of an African lion, Panthera leo, in the Serengeti plain of Tanzania. A strand of tapeworm strobila, about 75 cm in length, was obtained in the stool of a male African lion in the Serengeti National Park (34˚ 50' E, 02˚ 30' S), Tanzania, in February 2012. The morphological features of the adult worm examined exhibited 3 uterine coils with a bow tie appearance and adopted a diagonal direction in the second turn. The posterior uterine coils are larger than terminal uterine ball and the feature of uteri are swirling rather than spirally coiling. The sequence difference between the Spirometra species (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) was 9.4% while those of S. decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679) differed by 2.1% in the cox1 and nad1 genes. Phylogenetic tree topologies generated using the 2 analytic methods were identical and presented high level of confidence values for the 3 major branches of the 3 Spirometra species in the cox1 gene. The morphological and molecular findings obtained in this study were nearly coincided with those of S. ranarum. Therefore, we can know for the first time that the African lion, Panthera leo, is to the definitive host of this tapeworm.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Leões/parasitologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Spirometra/anatomia & histologia , Tanzânia
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(3): 275-280, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996631

RESUMO

In the present study, we identified a Spirometra species of Myanmar origin (plerocercoid) by molecular analysis using mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes, as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. Spargana specimens were collected from a paddy-field in Taik Kyi Township Tarkwa Village, Yangon, Myanmar in December 2017. A total of 5 spargana were obtained from 20 frogs Hoplobatrachus rugulosus; syn: Rana rugulosa (Wiegmann, 1834) or R. tigrina (Steindachner, 1867). The plerocercoids were used for experimental infection of a dog. After 4 weeks of infection, an adult tapeworm was recovered from the intestine of the dog. Morphologically, the distinct features of Spirometra sp. (Myanmar origin) relative to S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens include a uterine morphology comprising posterior uterine coils that larger than the terminal uterine ball and coiling of the uteri diagonally (swirling) rather than spirally. The cox1 sequences (1,566 bp) of the Myanmar-origin Spirometra species showed 97.9% similarity to a reference sequence of S. decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679) and 90.5% similarity to a reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680). Phylogenetic tree topologies were identical and presented high confidence level of values for the 3 major branches of the 3 Spirometra species in cox1 and nad1 genes. These results indicated that Myanmar-origin Spirometra species coincided with those of S. ranarum and may be considered as a valid species.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Spirometra/anatomia & histologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Mianmar , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spirometra/genética
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(1): 87-91, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529856

RESUMO

Morphological and molecular characteristics of spirometrid tapeworms, Spirometra decipiens, were studied, which were recovered from a heavily infected stray cat road-killed in Eumseong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea). A total of 134 scolices and many broken immature and mature proglottids of Spirometra tapeworms were collected from the small intestine of the cat. Morphological observations were based on 116 specimens. The scolex was 22.8-32.6 mm (27.4 mm in average) in length and small spoon-shape with 2 distinct bothria. The uterus was coiled 3-4 times, the end of the uterus was ball-shaped, and the vaginal aperture shaped as a crescent moon was closer to the cirrus aperture than to the uterine aperture. PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the cox1 target fragment (377 bp in length and corresponding to positions 769-1,146 bp of the cox1 gene) were performed using total genomic DNA extracted from 134 specimens. The cox1 sequences (377 bp) of the specimens showed 99.0% similarity to the reference sequence of S. decipiens and 89.3% similarity to the reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei. In the present study, we report a stray cat heavily infected with S. decipiens identified by mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis and morphological examinations of the adult worms.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spirometra/anatomia & histologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/ultraestrutura
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 669, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tapeworms of the genus Spirometra include species whose larval stages can infect humans, causing a disease called sparganosis. Cases of human infection with adult worms are very rare and have been reported in Korea and China. Here we report the first case of human infection with an adult of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in Vietnam. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old male was admitted to 103 Military Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam with fever, weight loss and epigastric discomfort. Preliminary diagnosis based on discovery of parasite eggs in his faeces incorrectly determined a fluke as the agent of the infection and praziquantel was prescribed. Two days later he passed out proglottids in his stool. The tapeworm was identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei using morphological and molecular tools. CONCLUSION: This is the first case of human infection with adult worm of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Esparganose/etiologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/patogenicidade , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Esparganose/tratamento farmacológico , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 117: 75-82, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606444

RESUMO

The larva of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei can parasitize humans, causing a serious parasitic zoonosis known as sparganosis. Although it is medically important, our knowledge about the phylogenetic position of S. erinaceieuropaei and its evolutionary history is fragmentary. In this study, complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 4 geographically distinct isolates of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana collected from 4 frog hosts (Hylarana guentheri, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugulosa, R. temporaria) were characterized using an Illumina sequencing platform. In addition, all available mt genomes of Cestoda in GenBank were included to reconstruct the phylogeny and to explore the evolutionary history of these tapeworms. The genome features of S. erinaceieuropaei contained 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. Nucleotide sequences of mtDNA from different frog hosts were similar. Three genes, cox1, cytb and nad4, had high levels of nucleotide diversity. Phylogenetic analyses supported the sibling relationship between Bothriocephalidae and Diphyllobothriidae. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the divergence between Diphyllobothrium and Diplogonoporus started in the late Miocene. The mt genomes of S. erinaceieuropaei will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics and systematics of the species of Spirometra genus in particular and diphyllobothriid tapeworms in general.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ranidae/parasitologia
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(4): 665-668, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322697

RESUMO

Human sparganosis is a foodborne zoonosis endemic in Asia. We report a series of 9 histologically confirmed human sparganosis cases in Hong Kong, China. All parasites were retrospectively identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. Skin and soft tissue swelling was the most common symptom, followed by central nervous system lesions.


Assuntos
Esparganose/epidemiologia , Esparganose/parasitologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Zoonoses
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 175: 1-7, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185895

RESUMO

Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The intraspecific divergences of 18S rDNA in Chinese sparganum isolates ranged from 0.0 to 0.4%. Regions of V2, V4 and V7 were the most variable regions in the secondary structure of 18S rDNA. With the exception of genera Duthiersia and Probothriocephalus, other genera (i.e., Adenocephalus, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Duthiersia, Schistocephalus and Spirometra) selected in the Diphyllobothriidae shared similar topologies of V2, V4 and V7 structures. The topology of generated phylogenetic trees revealed close relationships among Adenocephalus, Digramma, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Ligula, Sparganum and Spirometra. The exact phylogenetic position of Spirometra species should be further analyzed with more sampling and more useful molecular markers.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Spirometra/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , China , Funções Verossimilhança , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ranidae , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Plerocercoide/classificação , Plerocercoide/genética , Spirometra/genética
18.
Parasitol Int ; 66(2): 116-118, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027968

RESUMO

Methods to maintain the life cycle of pathogenic organisms become powerful tools for studying molecular and cellular bases of infectious diseases. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is a parasitic tapeworm that causes sparganosis in humans. Because S. erinaceieuropaei has a complex life cycle with different stages and host species requirements, there have been no reports to establish the complete life cycle in the laboratory. In this study, using Cyclops as the first intermediate host, mouse as the experimental second intermediate host, and dog as the final host, we succeeded in maintaining S. erinaceieuropaei in the laboratory. By repeating the established life cycle five times, we obtained a clonal population of S. erinaceieuropaei from a single adult worm. A karyotype study showed that the chromosome of this clone is triploid (3n=27), indicating that a genetically uniform strain is established by apomictic reproduction. The strain was named Kawasaki triploid (Kt). A partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of the strain Kt showed more than 98% similarity with those of S. erinaceieuropaei isolates from Australia, China, and South Korea, and the resultant phylogeny indicated that the strain Kt is a member of a distinctive clade from East Asia and Oceania. Our system will be particularly useful for studies of S. erinaceieuropaei infection and human sparganosis.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Spirometra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spirometra/genética , Triploidia , Animais , Austrália , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , China , DNA Mitocondrial , Cães , Extremo Oriente , Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Cariótipo , Camundongos , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Esparganose/parasitologia
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 227: 115-7, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523946

RESUMO

From February to March 2016 we found plerocercoids of Spirometra sp. in four wild boar hunted in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, north-eastern Poland. Plerocercoids were located subcutaneously and in muscle tissue. A sequence of a nuclear 18S rRNA gene was used for genetic specification of the samples. The analyzed gene fragment showed 100% identity with the Spirometra erinacei sequence. Thus, the emerge of human sparganosis due to consumption of undercooked or smoked wild boar meat is likely in the areas where wild boar is an approved food source, especially in the absence of routine guidelines for vets. It has become a priority to inform the public about possibilities and consequences of this zoonosis.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Esparganose/veterinária , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Culinária , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Fatores de Risco , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Esparganose/parasitologia , Spirometra/genética , Sus scrofa , Zoonoses
20.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(2): 181-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27180576

RESUMO

Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval forms (procercoid/plerocercoid) of Spirometra spp. The purpose of this study was to identify Spirometra spp. of infected snakes using a multiplex PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the spargana of terrestrial snakes obtained from Korea and China. A total of 283 snakes were obtained that included 4 species of Colubridae comprising Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (n=150), Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum (n=64), Elaphe davidi (n=2), and Elaphe schrenkii (n=7), and 1 species of Viperidae, Agkistrodon saxatilis (n=60). The snakes were collected from the provinces of Chungbuk, Chungnam, and Gyeongbuk in Korea (n=161), and from China (n=122). The overall infection rate with spargana was 83% (235/283). The highest was recorded for D. rufozonatum rufozonatum (100%), followed by A. saxatilis (85%) and R. tigrinus tigrinus (80%), with a negative result for E. davidi (0%) and E. schrenkii (0%). The sequence identities between the spargana from snakes (n=50) and Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (KJ599680) or S. decipiens (KJ599679) control specimens were 90.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Pairwise genetic distances between spargana (n=50) and S. decipiens ranged from 0.0080 to 0.0107, while those between spargana and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 0.1070 to 0.1096. In this study, all of the 904 spargana analyzed were identified as S. decipiens either by a multiplex PCR assay (n=854) or mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis (n=50).


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Colubridae/parasitologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Viperidae/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , China , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação
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