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1.
Food Chem ; 306: 125615, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622833

RESUMO

Phycocyanin (PC), a plant-based protein with interesting biological activity, is rarely directly applied in the food industry because it has structural and functional limitations. This study combined ultra-high-pressure (UHP) treatment with glycation to improve PC functionality and explored resulting structural changes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The UHP treatment obviously improved the speed and degree of glycation and the composite-modified PC (CM-PC) showed high solubility and good emulsifying and foaming performance. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the CM-PC surface was loose and fluffy. Gel electrophoresis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and circular dichroism results demonstrated that the content of α-helix decreased from 78.1% in PC to 26.6% in CM-PC, and hydroxyl groups were introduced. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the mechanism of composite modification involved stretching of the PC and promotion of binding with sugars.


Assuntos
Ficocianina/química , Spirulina/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Emulsões/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Pressão , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374946

RESUMO

Arthrospira platensis (spirulina) is considered a source of natural molecules with nutritional and health benefits. As the different storage forms can affect the quantity and quality of bioactive ingredients, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of freezing, oven-drying and freeze-drying on chemical composition of spirulina biomass. Total proteins, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidants, were analyzed and compared to respective quantities in fresh biomass. The frozen sample exhibited the highest content of phycocyanin-C, phenols, and ascorbic acid, also respect to the fresh biomass. The highest total flavonoid amount was in the freeze-dried biomass. HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolic acids revealed the presence of the isoflavone genistein, known for its therapeutic role, in all the spirulina samples. The phosphomolybdenum method (TAC) and DPPH scavenging activity were applied to determine the antioxidant activity of different samples. The highest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in fresh and freeze-dried biomass and it was positively related to carotenoid content. A positive correlation indicated that carotenoids, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and all phenolic compounds were the major contributors to the TAC activity in spirulina biomass. The results highlighted a different functional value of spirulina biomass, depending on the processing methods used for its storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Liofilização/métodos , Fotossíntese , Spirulina/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila/química , Dessecação/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Ficocianina/química , Pigmentação
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(3): 2332-2338, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322200

RESUMO

Benign thyroid nodules are among the most common endocrine disorders. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging and pathology have significantly contributed to better risk stratification of thyroid nodules. However, current treatment options, beyond surgical approaches are limited. The following placebo-controlled study presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first results of a non-invasive therapy for benign thyroid nodules. The efficacy and safety of a supplement containing spirulina, curcumin and Boswellia in euthyroid patients with benign thyroid nodules, was assessed by a 3 month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study which was completed by 34 patients. Patients with benign (FNAB documented) single thyroid nodules between 2 and 5 cm were evaluated in a prospective placebo-controlled cross-over trial, across 12 weeks (3 visits with six-week intervals). At each visit, the target thyroid nodule was recorded in two dimensions. In addition, plasma levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and copper were assessed. The mean initial nodule area at V1 was 4.38±3.14 cm2, at V2 3.87±2.79 cm2, and at V3 3.53±2.84 cm2; P<0.04. Administration of the active substances (n=34) was followed by a mean area decrease of 0.611 cm2±0.933 (SD), while placebo administration (n=29) was followed by a mean decrease of 0.178 cm2±0.515 (SD), (P=0.027). The presented findings suggest that the combination of spirulina-curcumin-Βoswellia is effective in reducing the size of benign thyroid nodules. However, additional studies are needed in order to elucidate the exact mechanisms through which the suggested supplement facilitates a decrease in the size of benign thyroid nodules.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Boswellia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Spirulina , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Boswellia/química , Curcumina/química , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Spirulina/química , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110558, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175915

RESUMO

Effects of Spirulina platensis 55% ethanol extract (SPL55) on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats were investigated. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that SPL55 was enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, serum and liver lipid levels, including total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats of SPL55. Analysis of tissue sections showed that SPL55 treatment could markedly inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. Moreover, SPL55 regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of SREBP-1c, HMG-CoA, PEPCK, ACC, and AMPK genes involved in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, SPL55 led to decrease the abundances of Turicibacter, Clostridium_XlVa, and Romboutsia, which were positive correlation with lipid metabolism indicators, and has also enriched Alloprevotella, Prevotella, Porphyromonadaceae, and Barnesiella. These results provided evidence that SPL55 might be developed as a functional food to ameliorate lipid metabolic disorders and hyperlipidaemia.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina/química , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/patologia , Microalgas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216707

RESUMO

Phycocyanin, derived from Spirulina platensis, is a type of natural antineoplastic marine protein. It is known that phycocyanin exerts anticancer effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but its underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Herein, the antitumor function and regulatory mechanism of phycocyanin were investigated in three NSCLC cell lines for the first time: H358, H1650, and LTEP-a2. Cell phenotype experiments suggested that phycocyanin could suppress the survival rate, proliferation, colony formation, and migration abilities, as well as induce apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Subsequently, transcriptome analysis revealed that receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) was significantly down-regulated by phycocyanin in the LTEP-a2 cell, which was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis in two other cell lines. Interestingly, similar to phycocyanin-treated assays, siRNA knockdown of RIPK1 expression also resulted in growth and migration inhibition of NSCLC cells. Moreover, the activity of NF-κB signaling was also suppressed after silencing RIPK1 expression, indicating that phycocyanin exerted anti-proliferative and anti-migratory function through down-regulating RIPK1/NF-κB activity in NSCLC cells. This study proposes a mechanism of action for phycocyanin involving both NSCLC apoptosis and down regulation of NSCLC genes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ficocianina/farmacologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina/química
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 133: 1090-1101, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054300

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to probe new functions of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis (PSP) on constipation and intestinal microbiota in mice. Diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice was treated with different doses of PSP, followed by examining the defecation patterns, levels of acetyl cholinesterase (AchE), nitric oxide (NO), and tissue section histopathology. The composition of intestinal microbiota was determined by genome sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. This study found that the average molecular weight of PSP was 29, 600 Da, and mainly monosaccharides of PSP were rhamnose (24.7%), glucose (16.15%) and galactose (13.32%). The beneficial effects of PSP treatment include defecation improvement, increase of AchE activity, reduction of NO concentration, renovation of the damaged intestinal villus and affection on the expression of some related genes in the constipated mice. In addition, PSP had significant effects on the gut microbiota, showing the enhancement in abundance of beneficial bacteria including Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, Butyricimonas, Candidatus Arthromitus and Prevotella, and the reduction in abundance of harmful bacteria such as Clostridium and Dorea. The present s uncovered a new function of PSP, indicating that PSP could be used in constipation therapies.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Difenoxilato/efeitos adversos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Spirulina/química , Animais , Vilosidades Coriônicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vilosidades Coriônicas/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/uso terapêutico , Água/metabolismo
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19453-19467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077040

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) chemicals are used to maximize the extraction of hard-to-reach underground energy resources. Large amounts of fracking fluid could escape to the surrounding environments, including underground and surface water resources, during the chemical mixing stage of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle due to equipment failure or human error. However, the impact of pollution resulting from operational discharges is difficult to assess in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, pathological investigations, chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage, and biochemical and hematological parameters were used to evaluate the effects of such chemicals on Nile tilapia. Chromosomal aberrations are considered very sensitive genetic markers of exposure to genotoxic chemicals and are used as indicators of DNA damage. The appearance of different types of chromosomal aberrations (gaps and breaks) due to chemical exposure was significantly reduced by treatment with spirulina. Various deleterious findings in Nile tilapia, in the current study, could attributed to the presence of fracking chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, the presence of spirulina in the diet reduced the hazards of such chemicals. In addition, cytogenetic studies in the current work revealed the importance of spirulina in ameliorating the genotoxic effects of a mixture of some chemicals used in fracking.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ciclídeos , Dano ao DNA , Fraturamento Hidráulico/métodos , Spirulina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Humanos
8.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(8): 1389-1395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077092

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry is frequently used to determine protein complex topology. By combining in-solution and gas-phase dissociation measurements, information can be indirectly inferred about the original composition of the protein complex. Although the mechanisms behind gas-phase complex dissociation are becoming more established, protein complex dissociation is not always predictable. Here, we looked into the effect of the protein subunits pI on complex dissociation. We chose two structurally similar, hexameric protein complexes that consist of a ring of alternating alpha and beta subunits. For one complex, allophycocyanin, the alpha and beta subunits are structurally similar, almost identical in mass, but have distinct pIs. In contrast, the other complex, phycoerythrin, is structural similar to allophycocyanin, yet the subunits have identical pIs. As predicted based on the structural arrangement, dissociation of phycoerythrin resulted in the observation of both the alpha and beta monomeric subunits in the mass spectrometer. However, for allophycocyanin, the results differed dramatically, with only the alpha monomeric subunit being detected upon gas-phase dissociation. Together, the results highlighted the importance of considering the isoelectric points of individual subunits within a protein complex when using tandem mass spectrometry data to elucidate protein complex topology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Ficobiliproteínas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Porphyridium/química , Spirulina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ponto Isoelétrico , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/química
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 80, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134400

RESUMO

In the present paper, products obtained from a blue-green microalga Spirulina platensis filtrate (applied for seed soaking and for foliar spray) and homogenate (used for seed coating) were tested in the cultivation of radish. Their effect on length, wet mass, multielemental composition and the greenness index of the radish leaves was examined. Multi-elemental analyses of the algal products, and radish were also performed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The best soaking time, concentrations of filtrate and doses of homogenate were established. The longest and heaviest plants were observed for homogenate applied at a dose of 300 µL per 1.5 g of seeds and 15% of filtrate applied as foliar spray. The highest chlorophyll content was found in the group treated with 100 µL of homogenate and 5% of filtrate. In the case of soaking time, the longest plants were in the group where seeds were soaked for 6 h, but the heaviest and greenest were after soaking for 48 h. The applied algal products increased the content of elements in seedlings. Obtained results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in modern horticulture and agriculture. The use of Spirulina-based products is consistent with the idea of sustainable agriculture that could help to ensure production of sufficient human food to meet the needs of rising population and protection of the environment.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Clorofila , Filtração , Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999602

RESUMO

Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a (1) and the new compound 132-hydroxy-pheofarnesin a (2). The structure elucidation of the new compound 2 was established based on one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant neutral lipid-reducing activity in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay after 48 h of exposure with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 8.9 ± 0.4 µM for 1 and 15.5 ± 1.3 µM for 2. Both compounds additionally reduced neutral lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 multicellular spheroids of murine preadipocytes. Molecular profiling of mRNA expression of some target genes was evaluated for the higher potent compound 1, which indicated altered peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression. Lipolysis was not affected. Different food materials (Spirulina, Chlorella, spinach, and cabbage) were evaluated for the presence of 1, and the cyanobacterium Spirulina, with GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status for human consumption, contained high amounts of 1. In summary, known and novel chlorophyll derivatives were discovered from marine cyanobacteria with relevant lipid-reducing activities, which in the future may be developed into nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Chlorella/química , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Lipólise , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spirulina/química , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 128: 233-239, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995513

RESUMO

The contributions to hypoglycemic function and gut microbiota regulation by water and ethanol extracts of the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Spirulina platensis were determined. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the compounds in the 55% ethanol extracts of C. pyrenoidosa (CP55) and S. platensis (SP55) were polyunsaturated fatty acids. After an 8-week high-fat high-sucrose diet with C. pyrenoidosa and S. platensis supplementation, glucose tolerance was improved, and the composition of the gut microbiota was altered. The diversity of the gut bacterial community was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. C. pyrenoidosa supplementation increased the abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, and Erysipelotrichacea and decreased the abundance of Lactobacillus, Turicibacter, and Blautia; S. platensis supplementation increased the abundance of Oscillibacter, Parasutterella, and Alloprevotella and decreased the abundance of Turicibacter. Moreover, Erysipelotrichacea and Ruminococcus were uniquely increased in C. pyrenoidosa treatment groups. Thus, CP55 and SP55 may be developed as effective natural food materials for preventing diabetes, and Ruminococcus may play a vital role in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Chlorella/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Spirulina/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939784

RESUMO

Spirulina is a type of filamentous blue-green microalgae known to be rich in nutrients and to have pharmacological effects, but the effect of spirulina on the small intestine epithelium is not well understood. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the proliferative effects of spirulina crude protein (SPCP) on a rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC-6 to elucidate the mechanisms underlying its effect. First, the results of wound-healing and cell viability assays demonstrated that SPCP promoted migration and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, when the mechanisms of migration and proliferation promotion by SPCP were confirmed, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) signaling pathways were activated by phosphorylation. Cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase was also promoted by SPCP through upregulation of the expression levels of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which regulate cell cycle progression to the S phase. Meanwhile, the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), such as p21 and p27, decreased with SPCP. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling pathway by SPCP treatment regulates cell cycle progression. Therefore, these results contribute to the research on the molecular mechanism for SPCP promoting the migration and proliferation of rat intestinal epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spirulina/química , Proteínas de Algas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 615-628, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940588

RESUMO

In this work, a chitosan-modified nanofiber membrane was fabricated and used to examine the permeation characteristics of C-phycocyanin (CPC) obtained from Spirulina platensis. The effects of NaCl concentration (0.1-1.0 M), chitosan coupling pH (6-8), chitosan coupling concentration (0.1-3.0%), algal solution pH (6-8), algal mass concentration (0.1-1.0% dw/v), and membrane flux (4.08 × 10-2-2.04 × 10-1 mL/min·cm2) on the penetration performance of the membrane for CPC were investigated. The results show that the order of binding selectivity of the membrane for these proteins is contaminating proteins (TP) > allophycocyanin (APC) > CPC. TP and APC molecules were more easily adsorbed by the chitosan-modified membrane, and the CPC molecules most easily penetrated the membrane without being adsorbed, enhancing CPC purity. The purification factor and total mass flux were 3.3 fold and 66%, respectively, in a single step.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Nanofibras/química , Ficocianina/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ficocianina/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Spirulina/química , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935028

RESUMO

Marine cyanobacteria represent a large untapped source of functional glycolipids enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human health. However, advanced methods for scalable isolation of diverse species containing high-purity PUFA-rich glycolipids will have to be developed and their possible pharmaceutical and nutraceutical functions identified. This paper introduces a novel solid matrix-supported supercritical CO2 extraction method for scalable isolation of the PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA)-enriched glycolipids from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, which has been the most widely used among microalgae in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Of various porous materials studied, diatomite was the best to facilitate extraction of GLA-rich glycolipids, resulting in an extraction efficiency of 98%. Gamma-linolenic acid made up 35% of total fatty acids (TFAs) in the extracts, which was considerably greater than that obtained with ethanol (26%), Bligh and Dyer (24%), and in situ transesterification (24%) methods, respectively. Lipidomics analysis revealed that GLA was exclusively associated with galactolipids. Pharmaceutical functions of GLA-rich galactolipids were investigated on a zebrafish caudal fin regeneration model. The results suggested that GLA extracted from A. platensis possessed anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities, which acted in a concerted manner to promote post-injury regeneration of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Spirulina/química , Ácido gama-Linolênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido gama-Linolênico/farmacologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Cianobactérias/química , Modelos Animais , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 283: 207-212, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908985

RESUMO

Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment was evaluated for phycocyanin and proteins extraction from Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis). PEF extractions were performed using different specific energies (28, 56 and 122 J·ml-1 of suspension) and the results were compared to the extraction with bead milling. At highest PEF-treatment energies a damage of the cell morphology could be observed and the highest yields (up to 85.2 ±â€¯5.7 mg·g-1 and 48.4 ±â€¯4.4 g·100 g-1 of phycocyanins and proteins, respectively) could be obtained at 122 and 56 J·ml-1. The yields increased with incubation time after PEF-treatment. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained after PEF-treatment was higher than of those obtained after bead milling. PEF treatment is a promising technology to obtain blue-green antioxidant extracts from A. platensis in an environmental friendly process.


Assuntos
Spirulina/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Eletricidade , Ficocianina/isolamento & purificação
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(2)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813318

RESUMO

Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process. The proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblasts are crucial for wound healing. Recent studies have indicated that the extracts from Spirulina platensis have a positive potential for wound healing. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous study showed that spirulina crude protein (SPCP) promoted the viability of human dermal fibroblast cell line (CCD-986sk cells). In this study, we further investigated the wound healing effect and corresponding mechanisms of SPCP on CCD-986sk cells. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay showed that SPCP promoted the proliferation of CCD-986sk cells. The wound healing assay showed that SPCP promoted the migration of CCD-986sk cells. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis demonstrated that SPCP promoted CCD-986sk cells to enter S and G2/M phases from G0/G1 phase. Western blot results showed that SPCP significantly upregulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6), as well as inhibited the expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 in CCD-986sk cells. In the meanwhile, SPCP promoted the phosphorylation and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt). However, the phosphorylation of Akt was significantly blocked by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), which in turn reduced the SPCP-induced proliferation and migration of CCD-986sk cells. Therefore, the results presenting in this study suggested that SPCP can promote the proliferation and migration of CCD-986sk cells; the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway play a positive and important role in these processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Horm Behav ; 112: 20-31, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917909

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to stress during adolescent period has been demonstrated to impair cognitive functions and the dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal CA3 area. The present study investigated the combined protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP), a supplement made from blue-green algae with neuroprotective properties, voluntary exercise (EX) and environmental enrichment (EE) against cognitive deficits, alternations in hippocampal BDNF levels, and abnormal neuronal remodeling in adult female rats (PND 60) induced by exposure to chronic restraint stress during adolescent period (PND 30-40). Rats were exposed to restraint stress (2 h/day for 10 days, PND 30-40). Then, the animals were subjected to treatment with SP (200 mg/kg/day), EX, EE and the combined treatments (SP + EX, and SP + EE) between PND 41 and 55 of age. Following the interventions, spatial learning and memory, passive avoidance performance, hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF levels were assessed. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND 40 and remained elevated at PND 55 and 70 in the stressed rats. Stressed rats showed deficits in spatial learning and memory and passive avoidance performance, decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus, and reduced apical dendritic length and branch points of the CA3 pyramidal neurons. These deficits were alleviated by the SP, EX and EE, and the combined treatments, which accompanied with a decline in serum corticosterone in stressed animals. Some treatments even enhanced cognitive functions, and BDNF levels and neuroanatomical remodeling in the hippocampus of non-stressed animals. Our findings provide important evidences that physical activity, exposure to EE, and the SP treatment during adolescent period can protect against adolescent stress induced behavioral, biochemical and neuroanatomical impairments in adulthood.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Plasticidade Neuronal , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Meio Social , Spirulina/química , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , /fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Restrição Física/psicologia , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 54: 48-60, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827903

RESUMO

A green and innovative method, manothermosonication (MTS), for proteins extraction from dry Arthrospira platensis cyanobacteria assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Manothermosonication (probe, 20 kHz) was compared to a conventional process performed in the same conditions without ultrasounds. The extraction was carried out with a continuous flow rate at 15 mL/hour. Extraction parameters were optimized using a central composite design. Moreover, mathematic modelling and microscopic investigations were realized to allow a better understanding of ultrasound physical and structural effects on spirulina filaments and mass transfer phenomena over time. Crude extract and sections stained with toluidine blue were analyzed with optical and scanning electron microscopies. According to experimental results, MTS promoted mass transfer (high effective diffusivity, De) and enabled to get 229% more proteins (28.42 ±â€¯1.15 g/100 g DW) than conventional process without ultrasound (8.63 ±â€¯1.15 g/100 g DW). With 28.42 g of proteins per 100 g of dry spirulina biomass in the extract, a protein recovery rate of 50% was achieved in 6 effective minutes with a continuous MTS process. Microscopic observations showed that acoustic cavitation impacted spirulina filaments by different mechanisms such as fragmentation, sonoporation, detexturation. These various phenomena make extraction, release and solubilization of spirulina bioactive compounds easier.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Spirulina/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Aminoácidos/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Química Verde , Cinética , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823581

RESUMO

Based on single molecule spectroscopy analysis and our preliminary theoretical studies, the linear and fluorescence spectra of the PSI trimer from Arthrospira platensis with different realizations of the static disorder were modeled at cryogenic temperature. Considering the previously calculated spectral density of chlorophyll, an exciton model for the PSI monomer and trimer including the red antenna states was developed taking into account the supposed similarity of PSI antenna structures from Thermosynechococcus e., Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and Arthrospira platensis. The red Chls in the PSI monomer were assumed to be in the nearest proximity of the reaction center. The PSI trimer model allowed the simulation of experimentally measured zero phonon line distribution of the red states considering a weak electron-phonon coupling for the antenna exciton states. However, the broad absorption and fluorescence spectra of an individual emitter at 760 nm were calculated by adjusting the Huang-Rhys factors of the chlorophyll lower phonon modes assuming strong electron-phonon coupling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Clorofila/química , Simulação por Computador , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/química , Spirulina/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Transferência de Energia , Fluorescência , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Fótons , Fotossíntese , Conformação Proteica , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Synechocystis/química , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(8): 930-938, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859289

RESUMO

Phenolic (free, conjugated and bound) and carotenoid extracts from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. and Spirulina sp. were investigated regarding their potential to mitigate contamination by Fusarium complex fungal pathogens. Free phenolic acid extracts from both microalgae were the most efficient, promoting the lowest mycelial growth rates of 0.51 cm day- 1 (Spirulina sp.) and 0.78 cm day- 1 (Nannochloropsis sp.). An experiment involving natural free phenolic acid extracts and synthetic solutions was carried out based on the natural phenolic acid profile. The results revealed that the synthetic mixtures of phenolic acids from both microalgae were less efficient than the natural extracts at inhibiting fungal growth, indicating that no purification is required. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 49.6 µg mL- 1 and 33.9 µg mL- 1 were determined for the Nannochloropsis and Spirulina phenolic acid extracts, respectively. The use of phenolic extracts represents a new perspective regarding the application of compounds produced by marine biotechnology to prevent Fusarium species contamination.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spirulina/química , Estramenópilas/química , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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