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1.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577165

RESUMO

Endophytic fungal isolates Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Beauveria bassiana G1LU3 were evaluated for their potential to endophytically colonize and induce active compounds in Phaseolus vulgaris, as a defense mechanism against pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Endophytic colonization was achieved through seed inoculation with the volatile emissions from P. vulgaris plants being analyzed using GC-MS. The crude extracts of P. vulgaris obtained using methanol and dichloromethane were assayed against leafminer and fall armyworm larvae using leaf dipping and topical application, respectively. The two isolates successfully colonized the entire host plant (roots, stems, and leaves) with significant variation (p < 0.001) between fungal isolates and the controls. The results showed qualitative differences in the volatile profiles between the control plants, endophytically colonized and insect-damaged plants attributed to fungal inoculation and leafminer damage. The crude methanol extracts significantly reduced the percentage pupation of 2nd instar leafminer larvae (p < 0.001) and adult-flies emergence (p < 0.05). The survival of the 1st instar fall armyworm larvae was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) compared to the controls. This study demonstrated the high potential of endophytic fungi H. lixii and B. bassiana in inducing mainly specific defense compounds in the common bean P. vulgaris that can be used against pea leafminer and fall armyworm.


Assuntos
Beauveria/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/química , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
2.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107657, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487747

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used globally as a biopesticide for effective and environmentally friendly pest control. Research has intensified following the development of resistance by lepidopteran species to Bt insecticidal crystal proteins. Discovering new Bt strains with novel toxin properties which can overcome resistance is one of the strategies to improve pesticide sustainability. The genome of the Bacillus thuringiensis LTS290 strain was sequenced and assembled in 252 contigs containing a total of 6,391,328 bp. The novel cry79Aa1 gene from this strain was identified and cloned. Cry79Aa1 contains 729 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 84.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. Cry79Aa1 was found to be active against the lepidopteran larvae of Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Plutella xylostella with LC50 values of 13.627 µg/mL, 42.8 µg/mL, and 38.086 µg/mL, respectively. However, Cry79Aa1 protein showed almost no insecticidal activity against Leguminivora glycinivorella, although some degree of growth retardation was observed.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 799-809, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347233

RESUMO

Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a major global pest of many crops, including maize (Zea mays). This insect is known to use host plant-derived volatile organic compounds to locate suitable hosts during both its adult and larval stages, yet the function of individual compounds remains mostly enigmatic. In this study, we use a combination of volatile profiling, electrophysiological assays, pair-wise choice behavioral assays, and chemical supplementation treatments to identify and assess specific compounds from maize that influence S. frugiperda host location. Our findings reveal that methyl salicylate and (E)-alpha-bergamotene are oviposition attractants for adult moths but do not impact larval behavior. While geranyl acetate can act as an oviposition attractant or repellent depending on the host volatile context and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) is an oviposition deterrent. These compounds can also be attractive to the larvae when applied to specific maize inbreds. These data show that S. frugiperda uses different plant volatile cues for host location in its adult and larval stage and that the background volatile context that specific volatiles are perceived in, alters their impact as behavioral cues.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Salicilatos/isolamento & purificação , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15885, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354173

RESUMO

Given the new spread and potential damage of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Asia, it has become imperative to understand the development biology of this invasive species on selected vegetable crops in newer geographical regions. In this study, we investigated the ovipositional preference of FAW females on different host plants, under choice- and non-choice tests. In addition, using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory, we assessed the performance of immature FAW individuals fed and reared on selected vegetable crops to get information related to development time, survival, reproduction and longevity. Fall armyworm females had an oviposition preference on maize compared to other vegetable crops, including cabbage and soybean, and reluctance for tomato, which was confirmed during the choice and non-choice tests. In contrast to the oviposition preference, our results also suggest that despite low preference for cabbage, soybean, and tomato, these crops seemed to provide a high benefit for an appropriate offspring performance, exceeding in some cases the benefits from a maize-based diet. Information from this study was discussed in terms of FAW ecology and how female's decision affects their reproductive fitness, and the survival and performance of its offspring.


Assuntos
Oviposição/fisiologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Taiwan , Verduras , Zea mays
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270565

RESUMO

The invasion and wide spread of Spodoptera frugiperda represent real impediments to food security and the livelihood of the millions of maize and sorghum farming communities in the sub-Saharan and Sahel regions of Africa. Current management efforts for the pest are focused on the use of synthetic pesticides, which are often economically unviable and are extremely hazardous to the environment. The use of biological control offers a more economically and environmentally safer alternative. In this study, the performance of the recently described parasitoid, Cotesia icipe, against the pest was elucidated. We assessed the host stage acceptability by and suitability for C. icipe, as well as its ovigenic status. Furthermore, the habitat suitability for the parasitoid in the present and future climatic conditions was established using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP). Cotesia icipe differentially accepted the immature stages of the pest. The female acceptance of 1st and 2nd instar larvae for oviposition was significantly higher with more than 60% parasitism. No oviposition on the egg, 5th and 6th larval instars, and pupal stages was observed. Percentage of cocoons formed, and the number of emerged wasps also varied among the larval stages. At initial parasitism, parasitoid progenies, time to cocoon formation and overall developmental time were significantly affected by the larval stage. Egg-load varied significantly with wasp age, with six-day-old wasps having the highest number of mature eggs. Ovigeny index of C. icipe was 0.53. Based on the models, there is collinearity in the ecological niche of the parasitoid and the pest under current and future climate scenarios. Eastern, Central and parts of coastal areas of western Africa are highly suitable for the establishment of the parasitoid. The geographic distribution of the parasitoid would remain similar under future climatic conditions. In light of the findings of this study, we discuss the prospects for augmentative and classical biological control of S. frugiperda with C. icipe in Africa.


Assuntos
Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Espécies Introduzidas , Quênia , Larva/parasitologia , Masculino , Oviposição , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233003

RESUMO

Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of great economic importance which can feed on more than 300 plant species. As it is polyphagous, its host plants may have variable physical and chemical constitutions. This may influence larval development, as protein and carbohydrate levels are important factors for adequate biological development. The aim of this study was to evaluate insect developmental parameters as well as to compare the food consumption of S. frugiperda larvae reared using diets with different protein levels under laboratory conditions. Three artificial diet formulations were used: one typically used for routine laboratory rearing, based on bean, wheat germ and brewer's yeast (D1); one containing half the original amount of protein (D2), and the other with twice the original amount of protein (D3). The relative consumption rate (RCR), relative growth rate (RGR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) for S. frugiperda fourth instar larvae varied among diets. The protein present in the diet influenced the duration of larval and pupal periods and pupal weight, but did not affect larval survival, fecundity and longevity of adults. The different protein levels in the diets did not negatively influence population growth, so these three diet variations can be used for mass rearing in the laboratory. However, the influence of these diets on successive generations of the insect remains untested.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 768-776, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185213

RESUMO

In natural and agricultural ecosystems, plants are often simultaneously or sequentially exposed to combinations of stressors. Here we tested whether limited water availability (LWA) affects plant response to insect herbivory using two populations of Eruca sativa from desert and Mediterranean habitats that differ in their induced defenses. Considering that such differences evolved as responses to biotic and possibly abiotic stress factors, the two populations offered an opportunity to study ecological aspects in plant response to combined stresses. Analysis of chemical defense mechanisms showed that LWA significantly induced total glucosinolate concentrations in the Mediterranean plants, but their concentrations were reduced in the desert plants. However, LWA, with and without subsequent jasmonate elicitation, significantly induced the expression of proteinase inhibitor in the desert plants. Results of a no-choice feeding experiment showed that LWA significantly increased desert plant resistance to Spodoptera littoralis larvae, whereas it did not affect the relatively strong basal resistance of the Mediterranean plants. LWA and subsequent jasmonate elicitation increased resistance against the generalist insect in Mediterranean plants, possibly due to both increased proteinase inhibitor expression and glucosinolate accumulation. The effect of LWA on the expression of genes involved in phytohormone signaling, abscisic acid (ABA-1) and jasmonic acid (AOC1), and the jasmonate responsive PDF1.2, suggested the involvement of abscisic acid in the regulation of defense mechanisms in the two populations. Our results indicate that specific genotypic responses should be considered when estimating general patterns in plant response to herbivory under water deficiency conditions.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Água/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Animais , Brassicaceae/química , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
8.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(7): 707-718, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125370

RESUMO

Flooding is a major plant abiotic stress factor that is frequently experienced by plants simultaneously with other biotic stresses, including herbivory. How plant volatile emissions, which mediate interactions with a wide range of organisms, are influenced by flooding and by multiple co-occurring stress factors remains largely unexplored. Using Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (fall armyworm) as the insect pest and two maize (Zea mays, L. Poaceae) hybrids differentially marketed for conventional and organic production, we assessed the effects of flooding, herbivory, and both stress factors on the composition of blends of emitted volatiles. Headspace volatiles were collected from all treatment combinations seven days after flooding. We documented metrics indicative of biomass allocation to determine the effects of individual and combined stressors on plant growth. We also evaluated relationships between volatile emissions and indicators of soil chemical characteristics as influenced by treatment factors. Flooding and herbivory induced the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in similar ways on both maize hybrids, but the interaction of both stress factors produced significantly larger quantities of emitted volatiles. Thirty-eight volatile compounds were identified, including green leaf volatiles, monoterpenes, an aldehyde, a benzoate ester, sesquiterpenes, a diterpene alcohol, and alkane hydrocarbons. The hybrid marketed for organic production was a stronger VOC emitter. As expected, plant biomass was detrimentally affected by flooding. Soil chemical properties were less responsive to the treatment factors. Taken together, the results suggest that flooding stress and the interactions of flooding and insect attack can shape the emission of plant volatiles and further influence insect-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Inundações , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Quimera , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945577

RESUMO

The efficacy and non-target arthropod effects of transgenic DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 Bt cotton, expressing proteins Cry1Ac, Cry1F and Vip3Aa19, was examined through field trials in Brazil. Fifteen field efficacy experiments were conducted from 2014 through the 2020 growing season across six different states in Brazil to evaluate performance against key lepidopteran pests through artificial infestations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith,1797), Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) and Chloridea virescens (F., 1781), and natural infestations of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) and S. frugiperda. The impact of this Bt cotton technology on the non-target arthropod community in Brazilian cotton production systems was also assessed in a multi-site experiment. DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 cotton significantly reduced the feeding damage caused by S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides, C. includens, C. virescens and A. argillacea, causing high levels of mortality (greater than 99%) to all target lepidopteran pests evaluated during vegetative and/or reproductive stages of crop development. Non-target arthropod community-level analyses confirmed no unintended effects on the arthropod groups monitored. These results demonstrate the value of transgenic Bt cotton containing event DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 for consideration as part of an integrated approach for managing key lepidopteran pests in Brazilian cotton production systems.


Assuntos
Ácido 4-Acetamido-4'-isotiocianatostilbeno-2,2'-dissulfônico/análogos & derivados , Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/parasitologia , Ácido 4-Acetamido-4'-isotiocianatostilbeno-2,2'-dissulfônico/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Controle de Insetos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(7): 689-706, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056671

RESUMO

A large percentage of crop loss is due to insect damage, especially caterpillar damage. Plant chitinases are considered excellent candidates to combat these insects since they can degrade chitin in peritrophic matrix (PM), an important protective structure in caterpillar midgut. Compared to chemical insecticides, chitinases could improve host plant resistance and be both economically and environmentally advantageous. The focus of this research was to find chitinase candidates that could improve plant resistance by effectively limiting caterpillar damage. Five classes of endochitinase (I-V) genes were characterized in the maize genome, and we isolated and cloned four chitinase genes (chitinase A, chitinase B, chitinase I, and PRm3) present in two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines Mp708 and Tx601, with different levels of resistance to caterpillar pests. We also investigated the expression of these maize chitinases in response to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, FAW) attack. The results indicated that both chitinase transcript abundance and enzymatic activity increased in response to FAW feeding and mechanical wounding. Furthermore, chitinases retained activity inside the caterpillar midgut and enzymatic activity was detected in the food bolus and frass. When examined under scanning electron microscopy, PMs from Tx601-fed caterpillars showed structural damage when compared to diet controls. Analysis of chitinase transcript abundance after caterpillar feeding and proteomic analysis of maize leaf trichomes in the two inbreds implicated chitinase PRm3 found in Tx601 as a potential insecticidal protein.


Assuntos
Quitinases/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Quitinases/classificação , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7760, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833345

RESUMO

Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a polyphagous pest capable of feeding over 80 plant species and was indigenous to the Western Hemisphere. Within a span of 4 years, FAW has established itself throughout most of the regions in Africa and Asia causing significant losses in maize production. Owing to its revamped distribution range, it would be prudent to analyze the ensuing genetic changes and study the emerging phylogeographic patterns across the world. In this regard, we would like to provide a current snapshot of genetic diversity of FAW in India 2 years after the initial introduction and compare it with the worldwide diversity in order to trace the origins and evolutionary trajectories of FAW in India. We have investigated around 190 FAW samples from different regions in India for strain identity and polymorphism analysis on the basis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. Apart from the ancestral rice and corn strain haplotype, our study demonstrates the presence of 14 more haplotypes unique to India at a haplotype diversity of 0.356. We were also able to record inter-strain hybrid haplotypes of rice and corn strains in India. Regional heterogeneity within Indian populations seems to be quite low representative of extensive migration of FAW within India. Distribution analysis of pairwise differences and rejection of neutrality tests suggest that the FAW population in India might be undergoing expansion. Our data is consistent with the findings suggesting a recent and common origin for invasive FAW populations in Asia and Africa, and does not indicate multiple introductions to India. This study reports the highest genetic diversity for Indian FAW populations to date and will be useful to track the subsequent evolution of FAW in India. The findings would have important ramifications for FAW behavior and composition throughout the world.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Haplótipos , Índia , Spodoptera/genética
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 539-546, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722622

RESUMO

To combat insect pests and vectors that are responsible for high losses in food and lives, insecticide discovery is of top priority. This study aimed to synthesize, characterize and investigate the insecticidal activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives grafted on chitosan (CS) and modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). 5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol and 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol were respectively reacted with ethylchloroacetate and methyl-2-choloroacetoacetate. The resulted esters were grafted with CS and modified-PMMA. The products were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR, TGA, and XRD techniques. Four CS grafted ones were able to show good insecticidal activity against the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Furthermore, the safety of these compounds was tested using MTT assay on a human cell line (WI-38). The results indicated that compounds 2a, 2b, 6a, and 6d are considered insecticide candidates to S. littoralis fourth-instar larvae. Cytotoxicity of 2b and 6d indicated that they are the least toxic to humans. It is concluded that both compounds may represent promising insecticide candidates.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Inseticidas/química , Oxidiazóis/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/parasitologia , Humanos , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112076, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639562

RESUMO

We executed a pot experiment to examine the differences of absorption, chemical forms, subcellular distribution, and toxicity of Cd between two cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage Brassica campestris [Lvbao701 (low-Cd cultivar) and Chicaixin No.4 (high-Cd cultivar)]. Compared to Chicaixin No.4, the presence of Lvbao701 enhanced the proportion of insoluble Cd forms in soil, Lvbao701 roots and leaves had higher proportion of Cd converted into insoluble phosphate precipitates and pectate-or protein-bound forms and lower proportion of inorganic Cd, which result in low accumulation and toxicity of Cd to Lvbao701 and cutworm Spodoptera litura fed on Lvbao701 leaves. Instead of total Cd, Cd transfer and toxicity in B. campestris-S. litura system depend on chemical Cd forms in soil and cabbages and subcellular Cd distributions in cabbages and insects, and the proportions of them were not the highest among all chemical forms and subcellular distributions of Cd. Although exchangeable Cd was major Cd chemical form in cabbage planted soil, Cd bound to iron and manganese oxides and to organic matter were significantly correlated with growth indices and photosynthesis parameters of cabbages. Despite major part of Cd was precipitated in cell wall of roots, Cd in organelle fraction was closely associated with the fitness of cabbages. Metal-rich granules, not cytosolic fraction (the major subcellular Cd distribution), affected the food utilization of S. litura. Therefore, cabbage cultivars significantly affected Cd transfer and toxicity in B. campestris-S. litura system, and the use of Lvbao701 in Cd polluted soil could reduce potential risks for Cd entering food chains.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , China , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Reprodução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 531, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436810

RESUMO

The antibiosis effect of gallic acid on Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoid evaluated by feeding six days old larvae on artificial diet incorporated with different concentrations (5 ppm, 25 ppm, 125 ppm, 625 ppm, 3125 ppm) of the phenolic compound revealed higher concentration (LC50) of gallic acid had a negative impact on the survival and physiology of S. litura and its parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae). The mortality of S. litura larvae was increased whereas adult emergence declined with increasing concentration of gallic acid. The developmental period was delayed significantly and all the nutritional indices were reduced significantly with increase in concentration. Higher concentration (LC50) of gallic acid adversely affected egg hatching, larval mortality, adult emergence and total development period of B. hebetor. At lower concentration (LC30) the effect on B. hebetor adults and larvae was non-significant with respect to control. Gene expression for the enzymes viz., Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, Peroxidase, Esterases and Glutathione S transferases increased while the total hemocyte count of S. litura larvae decreased with treatment. Our findings suggest that gallic acid even at lower concentration (LC30) can impair the growth of S. litura larvae without causing any significant harm to its parasitoid B. hebetor and has immense potential to be used as biopesticides.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Himenópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Contagem de Células , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Gálico/administração & dosagem , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Himenópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/citologia , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Insect Sci ; 28(3): 602-610, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515103

RESUMO

Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a major polyphagous pest with the potential to seriously damage various crops. A better understanding of FAW's performance on different hosts may help to predict which plants will be attacked when the preferred host is absent, and facilitate the development of effective pest management practices. We compared the larval performance of FAW fed on maize with that of FAW fed on potato and tobacco, which are important crops in China, using an age-stage two-sex life table and adult female oviposition preference experiments. In cage experiments with potato, tobacco, or maize as the host, FAW reared on maize exhibited the strongest performance with shorter developmental time in the larval stage, longer longevity, and a higher reproductive rate in adults. Females oviposited on maize in preference to potato or tobacco. Compared with larvae fed on maize, those fed on potato and tobacco exhibited significantly lower survival, with only 31.61% and 8.13% developing to the adult stage, respectively. Several life table parameters, including the mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (R0 ), finite rate of increase (λ), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were negatively affected in FAW fed on potato and tobacco. Our results support the preference-performance hypothesis, that is, that herbivore females maximize fitness by choosing host plants associated with strong larval performance. Although larvae and adults performed poorly on potato and tobacco, their offspring will be capable of establishing populations on them, posing a potential threat to these crops in China.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Spodoptera , Animais , China , Herbivoria , Controle de Insetos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Oviposição , Controle de Pragas , Solanum tuberosum , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Tabaco , Zea mays
16.
Protein Pept Lett ; 28(2): 131-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vip3Aa is a vegetative insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. The protein is produced as an 88-kDa protoxin that could be processed by insect gut proteases into a 22-kDa N-terminal and a 66-kDa C-terminal fragments. The C-terminal part could bind to a specific receptor while the N-terminal part is required for toxicity and structural stability. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the antagonistic effect of truncated fragments on the insecticidal activity of the full-length Vip3Aa. METHODS: The full-length protein (Vip3Aa), a 66-kDa C-terminal fragment (Vip3Aa-D199) and a predicted carbohydrate binding module (CBM) were produced in Escherichia coli. Purified proteins were mixed at different ratios and fed to Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua larvae. Mortality was recorded and compared between larvae fed with individual toxin and mixtures of the full-length and truncated toxins. RESULTS: Production level of the Vip3Aa-D199 was significantly decreased comparing to that of the full-length protein. Vip3Aa-D199 and CBM fragment were not toxic to insect larvae whereas Vip3Aa showed high toxicity with LC50 about 200 ng/cm2. Feeding the larvae with mixtures of the Vip3Aa and Vip3Aa-D199 at different ratios revealed antagonistic effect of the Vip3Aa-D199 on the toxicity of Vip3Aa. Results showed that the lethal time (LT 50 and LT 95) of larvae fed the mixture toxins was longer than those fed the Vip3Aa alone. In addition, a CBM fragment could inhibit toxicity of the full-length Vip3Aa. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the Vip3Aa-D199 and a CBM fragment could complete for the membrane binding thus rendering activity of the full-length Vip3Aa.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/metabolismo
17.
Insect Sci ; 28(4): 1147-1158, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662592

RESUMO

A seed blend refuge has been implemented in the U.S. Corn Belt for Bt maize resistance management. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a target pest of Bt maize in the Americas. The larvae of this pest are mobile, which may affect the efficacy of seed blend refuges. In this study, field and greenhouse trials were conducted to determine the performance of Bt-susceptible (aabb) and -heterozygous dual-gene-resistant (AaBb) genotypes of S. frugiperda in seed blends of non-Bt and pyramided Bt maize. Three field trials evaluated larval survival, larval growth, and plant injury with aabb in seed blends of Bt maize expressing Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Vip3A with 0-30% non-Bt seeds. Greenhouse tests investigated the performance of aabb and AaBb in seed blends of Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 with 0-30% non-Bt seeds. In pure non-Bt maize plots, after 9-13 d of neonates being released on the plants, 0.39 and 0.65 larvae/plant survived with leaf injury ratings of 4.7 and 5.9 (Davis's 1-9 scale) in the field and greenhouse, respectively. In contrast, live larvae and plant injury were virtually not observed on Bt plants across all planting patterns. Larval occurrence and plant injury by aabb on non-Bt plants were similar between seed blends and pure non-Bt plantings, suggesting that the blended refuges could provide an equivalent susceptible population as structured refuge under the test conditions. In the greenhouse, the two insect genotypes in seed blends performed similarly, indicating that the seed blends did not provide more favorable conditions for AaBb over aabb. The information generated from this study should be useful in managing S. frugiperda and evaluating if send blends could be suitable refuge options for Bt resistance management in the regions where the insect is a primary target pest.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Genótipo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21141, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273657

RESUMO

Autophagy is a natural process that aims to eliminate malfunctioning cell parts, organelles or molecules under physiological conditions. It is also induced in response to infection, starvation or oxidative stress to provide energy in case of an energy deficit. The aim of this 2-dimensional study was to test if, and if so, how, this process depends on the concentration of cadmium in food (with Cd concentrations from 0 to 352 µg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)-D1 dimension) and the history of selection pressure (160 vs 20 generations of exposure to Cd-D2 dimension). For the study, the 5th instar larvae of a unique strain of the moth Spodoptera exigua that was selected for cadmium tolerance for 160 generations (44 µg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)), as well as 20-generation (11, 22 and 44 µg of Cd per g of food (dry weight)) and control strains, were used. Autophagy intensity was measured by means of flow cytometry and compared with life history parameters: survivability and duration of the 3rd larval stage. The highest values of autophagy markers were found in the groups exposed to the highest Cd concentration and corresponded (with a significant correlation coefficient) to an increased development duration or decreased survivorship in the respective groups. In conclusion, autophagy is probably initiated only if any other defense mechanisms, e.g., antioxidative mechanisms, are not efficient. Moreover, in individuals from pre-exposed populations, the intensity of autophagy is lower.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Cádmio/patologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17999, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093526

RESUMO

The invasion of Spodoptera frugiperda has imposed a serious impact on global food security. Matrine is a botanical pesticide with a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity which was recommended for controlling Spodoptera frugiperda. In order to discover effective insecticide for Spodoptera frugiperda, two matrine derivatives modified with carbon disulfide and nitrogen-containing groups were systhesized. And their inhibition activities on Sf9 cell were evaluated. The structural configuration of compounds were characterized by IR, HPLC, MS, NMR and XRD, with yields of 52% and 65%, respectively. The IC50 of the two newly synthesized compounds on Sf9 cell reduced to 0.648 mmol/L and 1.13 mmol/L, respectively, compared with that of matrine (5.330 mmol/L). In addition, microscopic observation of Sf9 cell treated with the compounds showed that the number of adherent cells decreased, the cells shrunk, vacuolated and apoptotic bodies appeared. The two newly synthesized compounds exhibited better inhibitory effect on Sf9 cell than that of the parent matrine, suggesting that the positive effect of the introduction of 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioate and diethylcarbamodithioate groups to matrine. The morphological observation of Sf9 cell induced by derivatives indicated that apoptosis induction may be a mechanism that inhibits insect cell proliferation and exerts insecticidal effect.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Quinolizinas/síntese química , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111052, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739675

RESUMO

Transgenerational effects on sensitivity to pesticides are poorly studied. This study investigated the transgenerational influences of maternal body mass in the major pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, with a focus on sensitivity to chlorpyrifos pesticide. In 147 clutches of a laboratory strain of S. littoralis, we compared larval mortality between control larvae and larvae treated with chlorpyrifos. Because of the classic positive relationships between offspring size and maternal size and between offspring size and offspring quality, sensitivity to chlorpyrifos was predicted to be lower in larvae of larger mothers. Surprisingly, we found the opposite result, with higher pesticide toxicity in larvae of larger mothers. This result is partly explained by the lack of a relationship between larval mass and larval sensitivity to chlorpyrifos. This means that another offspring characteristic linked to maternal size should have affected larval sensitivity to chlorpyrifos. More generally, knowledge of the effects of the traits and ecological environments of mothers on offspring sensitivity to pesticides remains limited. Ecotoxicologists should pay more attention to such maternal effects on sensitivity to pesticides, both in pests and non-target species.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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