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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14110, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238969

RESUMO

The egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) has been investigated for classical and applied biological control of noctuid pests, especially Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species. Although T. remus was introduced into Brazil over three decades ago for classical biological control of S. frugiperda, this wasp has not been recorded as established in corn or soybean crops. We used an integrative approach to identify T. remus, combining a taxonomic key based on the male genitalia with DNA barcoding, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene fragment. This is the first report of natural parasitism of T. remus on S. frugiperda and S. cosmioides eggs at two locations in Brazil. We also confirmed that the T. remus lineage in Brazil derives from a strain in Venezuela (originally from Papua New Guinea and introduced into the Americas, Africa, and Asia). The occurrence of T. remus parasitizing S. frugiperda and S. cosmioides eggs in field conditions, not associated with inundative releases, suggests that the species has managed to establish itself in the field in Brazil. This opens possibilities for future biological control programs, since T. remus shows good potential for mass rearing and egg parasitism of important agricultural pests such as Spodoptera species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/classificação , Parasitos/classificação , Filogeografia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Haplótipos/genética , Himenópteros/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Parasitos/anatomia & histologia
2.
Science ; 373(6554): 535-541, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326235

RESUMO

Interkingdom competition occurs between hymenopteran parasitoids and insect viruses sharing the same insect hosts. It has been assumed that parasitoid larvae die with the death of the infected host or as result of competition for host resources. Here we describe a gene family, parasitoid killing factor (pkf), that encodes proteins toxic to parasitoids of the Microgastrinae group and determines parasitism success. Pkfs are found in several entomopathogenic DNA virus families and in some lepidopteran genomes. We provide evidence of equivalent and specific toxicity against endoparasites for PKFs found in entomopoxvirus, ascovirus, baculovirus, and Lepidoptera through a mechanism that elicits apoptosis in the cells of susceptible parasitoids. This highlights the evolutionary arms race between parasitoids, viruses, and their insect hosts.


Assuntos
Entomopoxvirinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/virologia , Proteínas Virais/toxicidade , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Evolução Biológica , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma de Inseto , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/virologia , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270565

RESUMO

The invasion and wide spread of Spodoptera frugiperda represent real impediments to food security and the livelihood of the millions of maize and sorghum farming communities in the sub-Saharan and Sahel regions of Africa. Current management efforts for the pest are focused on the use of synthetic pesticides, which are often economically unviable and are extremely hazardous to the environment. The use of biological control offers a more economically and environmentally safer alternative. In this study, the performance of the recently described parasitoid, Cotesia icipe, against the pest was elucidated. We assessed the host stage acceptability by and suitability for C. icipe, as well as its ovigenic status. Furthermore, the habitat suitability for the parasitoid in the present and future climatic conditions was established using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP). Cotesia icipe differentially accepted the immature stages of the pest. The female acceptance of 1st and 2nd instar larvae for oviposition was significantly higher with more than 60% parasitism. No oviposition on the egg, 5th and 6th larval instars, and pupal stages was observed. Percentage of cocoons formed, and the number of emerged wasps also varied among the larval stages. At initial parasitism, parasitoid progenies, time to cocoon formation and overall developmental time were significantly affected by the larval stage. Egg-load varied significantly with wasp age, with six-day-old wasps having the highest number of mature eggs. Ovigeny index of C. icipe was 0.53. Based on the models, there is collinearity in the ecological niche of the parasitoid and the pest under current and future climate scenarios. Eastern, Central and parts of coastal areas of western Africa are highly suitable for the establishment of the parasitoid. The geographic distribution of the parasitoid would remain similar under future climatic conditions. In light of the findings of this study, we discuss the prospects for augmentative and classical biological control of S. frugiperda with C. icipe in Africa.


Assuntos
Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Espécies Introduzidas , Quênia , Larva/parasitologia , Masculino , Oviposição , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(5): 697-705, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909277

RESUMO

The search behavior and parasitism of trichogrammatids can be affected by volatile compounds emitted by plants under herbivory and/or oviposition. Our aim was to evaluate the chemotactic behavior and parasitism rates of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females against two varieties of corn and one of rice that underwent herbivory or oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a glass Y-tube olfactometer, the parasitoids were given the choice between plants damaged by either herbivory or oviposition, with and without sentinel eggs, against those without damage. We also evaluated the average of parasitized eggs and the parasitoid emergence in sentinel eggs, which were next to plants that underwent herbivory contrasted with eggs next to undamaged plants. Trichogramma pretiosum was more attracted to rice and corn plants evaluated 24 h after herbivory compared to undamaged plants. Parasitoids preferred oviposited rice plants over control plants. Oviposited corn plants after 48 h were more attractive than non-oviposited plants without sentinel eggs. In the presence of sentinel eggs on the olfactometer tests, there was no difference in oviposition preference in corn. Parasitism was higher in sentinel eggs located near plants damaged by herbivory. This suggested that the egg parasitoid T. pretiosum not only uses chemical clues from rice and corn plants, damaged by herbivory, but also uses them as a strategy to search and increase parasitism in S. frugiperda eggs. However, the results of oviposition tests showed that plants of different species and varieties might respond differently to this type of damage.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Oryza , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino , Herbivoria , Oviposição , Spodoptera/parasitologia
5.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580255

RESUMO

Insecticides can have consequences for beneficial arthropods. Insect parasitoids can contact insecticides through direct exposure spray droplets or residues on crop foliage. Here, we focus on better understand the response of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), a parasitoid wasp of lepidopteran pests, and its detoxification mechanisms on stress caused by phoxim and cypermethrin. Hence, we determined the dose-mortality curves and estimating the sublethal concentrations (LC30 and LC50). Then, we applied the sublethal concentrations against adult parasitoids to assess its survival, parasitism efficacy, and also developmental and morphometric parameters of their offspring. Simultaneously, we check the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and peroxidase (POD) after sublethal exposure of both insecticides, which has measured until 48 h after treatment. Overall, phoxim and cypermethrin exhibited acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid with LC50 values 4.608 and 8.570 mg/liter, respectively. Also, we detect that LC30 was able to trigger the enzymatic activity of GST, AChE, and POD, suggesting a potential detoxification mechanism. However, even when subjected to sublethal exposure, our results indicate strong negatives effects, in particular for phoxim, which has affected the parasitism efficacy and also the developmental and morphometric parameters of M. pulchricornis offspring. Therefore, it can be concluded that both phoxim and cypermethrin have negative impacts on M. pulchricornis and we suggest cautioning their use and the need for semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vespas/fisiologia
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 52, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420334

RESUMO

To avoid inducing immune and physiological responses in insect hosts, parasitoid wasps have developed several mechanisms to inhibit them during parasitism, including the production of venom, specialized wasp cells, and symbioses with polydnaviruses (PDVs). These mechanisms alter the host physiology to give the wasp offspring a greater chance of survival. However, the molecular mechanisms for most of these alterations remain unclear. In the present study, we applied next-generation sequencing analysis and identified several miRNAs that were encoded in the genome of Snellenius manilae bracovirus (SmBV), and expressed in the host larvae, Spodoptera litura, during parasitism. Among these miRNAs, SmBV-miR-199b-5p and SmBV-miR-2989 were found to target domeless and toll-7 in the host, which are involved in the host innate immune responses. Microinjecting the inhibitors of these two miRNAs into parasitized S. litura larvae not only severely decreased the pupation rate of Snellenius manilae, but also restored the phagocytosis and encapsulation activity of the hemocytes. The results demonstrate that these two SmBV-encoded miRNAs play an important role in suppressing the immune responses of parasitized hosts. Overall, our study uncovers the functions of two SmBV-encoded miRNAs in regulating the host innate immune responses upon wasp parasitism.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Polydnaviridae/metabolismo , Spodoptera/imunologia , Vespas/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Inata , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Fagocitose , Spodoptera/parasitologia
7.
Plant Sci ; 300: 110627, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180707

RESUMO

The trade-off between plant growth and resistance to herbivory is thought to be at least partly mediated by the interactions between jasmonates and gibberellins (GAs). Insect herbivory activates jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling, and plant growth is concomitantly inhibited. Whether or not the herbivory-induced jasmonates suppress the accumulation of GAs and thus reduce plant growth, and which jasmonates are functional in this process, remain unclear. In this study, we show that herbivory-induced stunted growth of Nicotiana attenuata was completely dependent on allene oxide cyclase (AOC) and coronatine insensitive1 (COI1), which encode a JA biosynthetic enzyme and the receptor, respectively, but only partially dependent on jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), the bioactive jasmonate. Quantification of GAs and exogenous treatments indicated that herbivory-induced growth inhibition was caused by GA4 deficiency, and that the reduction in GA4 accumulation was strongly associated with both decreased concentrations of GA biosynthetic gene transcripts and transcriptional activation of GA catabolic genes. We further show that JA-Ile only positively regulated the levels of GA catabolic genes, while the accumulation of GA biosynthetic gene transcripts was controlled by certain AOC-derived jasmonate(s) rather than by JA-Ile. This work sheds light on the mechanisms by which plants adapt to herbivory by using intricate phytohormone signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia
8.
Plant Physiol ; 184(2): 1172-1180, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669418

RESUMO

Wound-response plant growth restriction requires the synthesis of potent mediators called jasmonates (JAs). Four 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOXs) produce JA precursors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves, but the 13-LOXs responsible for growth restriction have not yet been identified. Through loss-of-function genetic analyses, we identified LOX3 and LOX4 as the principal 13-LOXs responsible for vegetative growth restriction after repetitive wounding. Additional genetic studies were carried out in the gain-of-function fatty acid oxygenation 2 (fou2) mutant that, even when undamaged, shows JA-dependent leaf growth restriction. The fou2 lox3 lox4 triple mutant suppressed the fou2 JA-dependent growth phenotype, confirming that LOX3 and LOX4 function in leaf growth restriction. The fou2 mutation affects the TWO PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) ion channel. Additional genetic approaches based on this gene were used to further investigate LOX3 function in relation to leaf growth. To activate LOX3-dependent JA production in unwounded plants, we employed hyperactive TPC1 variants. Expression of the TPC1ΔCa i variant in phloem companion cells caused strongly reduced rosette growth in the absence of wounding. Summarizing, in parallel to their established roles in male reproductive development in Arabidopsis, LOX3 and LOX4 control leaf growth rates after wounding. The process of wound-response growth restriction can be recapitulated in unwounded plants when the LOX3 pathway is activated genetically using a hyperactive vacuolar cation channel.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Precursores Enzimáticos/genética , Precursores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Lipoxigenase/genética , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo
9.
Insect Mol Biol ; 29(5): 477-489, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683761

RESUMO

Polydnaviruses associated with ichneumonid parasitoid wasps (Ichnoviruses) encode large numbers of genes, often in multigene families. The Ichnovirus Vinnexin gene family, which is expressed in parasitized lepidopteran larvae, encodes homologues of Innexins, the structural components of insect gap junctions. Here, we have examined intracellular behaviours of the Campoletis sonorensis Ichnovirus (CsIV) Vinnexins, alone and in combination with a host Innexin orthologue, Innexin2 (Inx2). QRT-PCR verified that transcription of CsIV vinnexins occurs contemporaneously with inx2, implying co-occurrence of Vinnexin and Inx2 proteins. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that epitope-tagged VinnexinG (VnxG) and VinnexinQ2 (VnxQ2) exhibit similar subcellular localization as Spodoptera frugiperda Inx2 (Sf-Inx2). Surface biotinylation assays verified that all three proteins localize to the cell surface, and cytochalasin B and nocodazole that they rely on actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks for localization. Immunomicroscopy following co-transfection of constructs indicates extensive co-localization of Vinnexins with each other and Sf-Inx2, and live-cell imaging of mCherry-labelled Inx2 supports that Vinnexins may affect Sf-Inx2 distribution in a Vinnexin-specific fashion. Our findings support that the Vinnexins may disrupt host cell physiology in a protein-specific manner through altering gap junctional intercellular channel communication, as well as indirectly by affecting multicellular junction characteristics.


Assuntos
Genes de Insetos/fisiologia , Genes Virais/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Polydnaviridae/fisiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/virologia , Polydnaviridae/genética , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Vespas/virologia
10.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 174: 107428, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553640

RESUMO

An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae K1, exhibits pathogenicity in various insect hosts, however, its virulence among the target insect species varies. Specifically, a coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, is less susceptible to S. feltiae than are lepidopteran insects. We analyzed the low virulence of S. feltiae against T. molitor sequentially, in entering the gut lumen and penetrating the hemocoel, and in hemocoelic immune defenses by comparing the responses to those of a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. Infective juveniles (IJs) of S. feltiae exhibited higher virulence and produced more progeny IJs in S. exigua than in T. molitor. The difference in IJ behavior was observed in the IJ invasion rate (IJs in gut lumen/IJs treated) after treatment, in which a lower rate was observed in T. molitor (20.4%) than in S. exigua (55.5%). Also, a lower hemocoelic penetration rate of IJs (IJs in hemocoel/IJs in gut) was observed in T. molitor (54%) than in S. exigua (74%) 24 h after feeding treatment. To investigate the immune defense in the hemocoel, insect hemolymph samples were incubated with IJs. The encapsulation behavior and phenoloxidase activity was higher in T. molitor hemolymph than in S. exigua hemolymph, which resulted in a significantly higher nematicidal activity in S. exigua. The humoral immune responses against S. feltiae were also different between the two species. The expression of two antimicrobial peptides, cecropin and attacin 1, was much higher in T. molitor. Furthermore, eicosanoid biosynthetic activity against S. feltiae was different in the two host species; sPLA2 activity was highly inducible in T. molitor but not in S. exigua. These results suggest that variability of the immune defense in the target insects, as well as in the invasion and penetration rates of IJs to the hemocoel, plays a crucial role in determining the insecticidal virulence of S. feltiae.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunidade Inata , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Tenebrio/parasitologia , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Intestinos/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Rabditídios/patogenicidade , Spodoptera/imunologia , Tenebrio/imunologia , Virulência
11.
Curr Biol ; 30(13): 2459-2467.e3, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502417

RESUMO

Recent research has suggested that the outcome of host-parasite interactions is dependent on the diet of the host, but most previous studies have focused on "top-down" mechanisms, i.e., how the host's diet improves the host immune response to drive down the parasite population and improve host fitness. In contrast, the direct impacts of host nutrition on parasite fitness and the mechanisms underpinning these effects are relatively unexplored. Here, using a model host-pathogen system (Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars and Xenorhabdus nematophila, an extracellular bacterial blood parasite), we explore the effects of host dietary macronutrient balance on pathogen growth rates both in vivo and in vitro, allowing us to compare pathogen growth rates both in the presence and absence of the host immune response. In vivo, high dietary protein resulted in lower rates of bacterial establishment, slower bacterial growth, higher host survival, and slower speed of host death; in contrast, the energy content and amount of carbohydrate in the diet explained little variation in any measure of pathogen or host fitness. In vitro, we show that these effects are largely driven by the impact of host dietary protein on host hemolymph (blood) osmolality (i.e., its concentration of solutes), with bacterial growth being slower in protein-rich, high-osmolality hemolymphs, highlighting a novel "bottom-up" mechanism by which host diet can impact both pathogen and host fitness.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Xenorhabdus/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Larva/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Concentração Osmolar , Spodoptera/química , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 108: 103676, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184079

RESUMO

The Steinernema carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus nematophila association is a nematobacterial complex used in biological control of insect crop pests. The infection success of this dual pathogen strongly depends on its interactions with the host's immune system. Here, we used the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda to analyze the respective impact of each partner in the induction of its immune responses. First, we used previously obtained RNAseq data to construct the immunome of S. frugiperda and analyze its induction. We then selected representative genes to study by RT-qPCR their induction kinetics and specificity after independent injections of each partner. We showed that both X. nematophila and S. carpocapsae participate in the induction of stable immune responses to the complex. While X. nematophila mainly induces genes classically involved in antibacterial responses, S. carpocapsae induces lectins and genes involved in melanization and encapsulation. We discuss putative relationships between these differential inductions and the pathogen immunosuppressive strategies.


Assuntos
Genes de Insetos/imunologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Rabditídios/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Xenorhabdus/imunologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Rabditídios/microbiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/microbiologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Simbiose/imunologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2096, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034183

RESUMO

Sufficient energy supply to the host immune system is important for resisting pathogens. Therefore, during pathogen infection, the host metabolism is reassigned from storage, growth, and development to the immune system. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that systemic metabolic switching upon an immune challenge is activated by extracellular adenosine signaling, modulating carbohydrate mobilization and redistributing energy to the hemocytes. In the present study, we discovered that symbiotic virus (SmBV) of the parasitoid wasp Snellenius manilae is able to down-regulate the extracellular adenosine of its host, Spodoptera litura, to inhibit metabolism switching. The decreased carbohydrate mobilization, glycogenolysis, and ATP synthesis upon infection results in the host being unable to supply energy to its immune system, thus benefitting the development of wasp larvae. When we added adenosine to the infected S. litura larvae, we observed enhanced host immune responses that decreased the pupation rate of S. manilae. Previous studies showed that after pathogen infection, the host activates its adenosine pathway to trigger immune responses. However, our results suggest a different model: we found that in S. manilae, SmBV modulates the host adenosine pathway such that wasp eggs and larvae can evade the host immune response.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Polydnaviridae/metabolismo , Spodoptera/virologia , Vespas/virologia , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Regulação para Baixo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Larva , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Spodoptera/imunologia , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia
14.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(4): 542-549, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928543

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to unveil interactive relevance among consecutive and alternate members of a tritrophic system comprised of sugar beet genotypes, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and its parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) using demographic parameters. To do so, H. hebetor was reared on S. exigua fed on 10 sugar beet genotypes, including SB26; SB27; SB29; SB33; SB34; (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5; FC220; FC301; SBSI006; and HM 1339RZ in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L: D) h photoperiod. The data was analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Our results revealed high variation in duration of different life stages of H. hebetor on S. exigua reared on different sugar beet genotypes examined. The shortest (10.605 days) and longest (13.721 days) pre-adult period of H. hebetor was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB34, respectively. The longest (17.2 days) and shortest adult longevity (7.5 days) was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB27, respectively. The highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) (0.209 day-1) and finite rate of increase (λ) (1.233 day-1) were observed on S. exigua reared on SB34 and their lowest values (0.159 and 1.172 day-1, respectively) were recorded on SB27. Resistant and susceptible genotypes to S. exigua, FC301 and (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5, respectively, were only genotypes on which H. hebetor had greater and approximately equal r compared with S. exigua. This finding indicates high capability of H. hebetor to be successfully employed against S. exigua on sugar beet genotypes which are extremely different in resistance to this pest.


Assuntos
Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Beta vulgaris/genética , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Spodoptera/fisiologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109978, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761554

RESUMO

The endoparasitoid wasp Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is used to control defoliating lepidopteran pests. Chemical insecticides are not compatible with natural enemies, but bioinsecticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt), have great potential for use in integrated pest management. However, interactions between Bt and P. elaeisis still need to be investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Bt on parental and first-generation P. elaeisis parasitizing Bt-susceptible and -resistant Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). An additional aim was to determine the toxicity of Bt to susceptible third-instar S. frugiperda larvae. Larvae were exposed to lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of Bt and then allowed to be parasitized by P. elaeisis. Parasitoid longevity, immature production, reproductive performance, and behavioral responses were evaluated. Bt repelled P. elaeisis and reduced immature production. Parental and first filial generation parasitoids of both sexes emerged from Bt-treated larvae showed lower survivorship than controls. Parasitoids had poorer reproductive performance in Bt-susceptible and -resistant pupae than in untreated pupae. Palmistichus elaeisis emerged from Bt-susceptible and -resistant S. frugiperda showed altered host-searching behavior and reproductive parameters, which indicates low compatibility between the bioinsecticide agent and the parasitoid wasp.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pupa/microbiologia , Pupa/parasitologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/microbiologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia
16.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 381-385, dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057404

RESUMO

Abstract The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important maize pest. Due to the environmental impact and emergence of resistance caused by chemical pesticides and transgenic events, the use of baculoviruses becomes a safe and useful alternative for its control in integrated pest management strategies. Here we report the identification of a novel isolate of a granulovirus of S. frugiperda native to the central region of Argentina, named SfGV ARG. We observed that larvae infected with SfGV ARG showed a yellowish coloration, swollen body and, in some cases, severe lesions in the last abdominal segments. We confirmed the identity of the isolate by sequencing fragments of the lef-8, lef-9 and granulin genes and by calculating evolutionary distances using the Kimura-2-Parameter model. SfGV ARG DNA restriction pattern allowed to estimate a genome of at least 135 kb.


Resumen La oruga militar tardía, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), es una plaga importante del maíz. Debido al impacto ambiental y a la aparición de resistencia causados por los pesticidas químicos y los eventos transgénicos, el uso de baculovirus resulta una alternativa útil y saludable para su control en estrategias de manejo integrado de plagas. En este trabajo reportamos la identificación de un nuevo aislamiento del granulovirus de la S. frugiperda nativo de la región central de Argentina, SfGV ARG. Se observó que larvas infectadas con SfGV ARG mostraron coloración amarillenta, hinchazón y, en algunos casos, lesiones graves en los últimos segmentos abdominales. Se confirmó la identidad del aislamiento por secuenciación de fragmentos de los genes lef-8, lef-9y granulina, y por cálculo de distancias evolutivas usando el parámetro de Kimura-2. El patrón de restricción generado con el ADN genómico de SfGV ARG permitió estimar un tamaño de genoma de al menos 135 kb.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Granulovirus/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas , Argentina , Baculoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pragas da Agricultura
17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 95: 101-107, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776419

RESUMO

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is regulated during the innate immune response. However, its translational regulation under innate immune suppression remains largely unexplored. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV), a symbiotic virus harbored by the parasitoid wasp, Microplitis bicoloratus, suppresses innate immunity in parasitized Spodoptera litura. Here, we generated eIF4E dsRNA and used it to silence the eIF4E gene of S. litura, resulting in a hallmark immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased apoptosis of hemocytes and retardation of head capsule width development. In response to natural parasitism, loss of eIF4E function was associated with similar immunosuppression, and we detected no significant differences between the response to parasitism and treatment with eIF4E RNAi. Under MbBV infection, eIF4E overexpression significantly suppressed MbBV-induced increase in apoptosis and suppressed apoptosis to the same extent as co-expression of both eIF4E and eIF4A. There were no significant differences between MbBV-infected and uninfected larvae in which eIF4E was overexpressed. More importantly, in the eIF4E RNAi strain, eIF4A RNAi did not increase apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicate that eIF4E plays a nodal role in the MbBV-suppressed innate immune response via the eIF4E-eIF4A axis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Polydnaviridae/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Vespas/imunologia , Vespas/microbiologia
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(3): 326-337, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746603

RESUMO

Chelonus insularis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval endoparasitoid that attacks several lepidopteran species, including the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, as one of its main hosts. In this study, we identified the volatiles emitted by maize plants undamaged and damaged by S. frugiperda larvae that were attractive to virgin C. insularis females. In a Y-glass tube olfactometer, parasitoid females were more attracted to activated charcoal extracts than Porapak Q maize extracts. Chemical analysis of activated charcoal extracts from maize plants damaged by S. frugiperda larvae by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) showed that the antennae of virgin female wasps consistently responded to three compounds, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as α-pinene, α-longipinene and α-copaene. These compounds are constitutively released by maize plants but induction via herbivory affects their emissions. α-Longipinene and α-copaene were more abundant in damaged maize plants than in healthy ones, whereas α-pinene was produced in higher amounts in healthy maize plants than in damaged ones. Female parasitoids were not attracted to EAD-active compounds when evaluated singly; however, they were attracted to the binary blend α-pinene + α-copaene, which was the most attractive blend, even more attractive than the tertiary blend (α-pinene + α-longipinene + α-copaene) and the damaged maize plant extracts. We conclude that C. insularis is attracted to a blend of herbivore-induced volatiles emitted by maize plants.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Himenópteros/patogenicidade , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623473

RESUMO

Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is a polydnavirus found in the parasitic wasp M. bicoloratus. Although MbBV is a known inducer of apoptosis in host hemocytes, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive. In this study, we found that expression of cyclophilin A (CypA) was significantly upregulated in Spodoptera litura hemocytes at 6-day post-parasitization. Similar results were reported in High Five cells (Hi5 cells) infected by MbBV, suggesting that the upregulation of CypA is linked to MbBV infection in insect cells. cDNA encoding CypA was cloned from parasitized hemocytes of S. litura, and bioinformatic analyses showed that S. litura CypA belongs to the cyclophilin family of proteins. Overexpression of S. litura CypA in Hi5 cells revealed that the protein promotes MbBV-induced apoptosis in vitro. Conversely, suppression of the expression and activity of CypA protein significantly rescued the apoptotic phenotype observed in MbBV-infected Hi5 cells, suggesting that it plays a key role in this process. MbBV infection also promoted the cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of CypA in Hi5 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MbBV infection upregulates the expression of CypA, which is required for MbBV-mediated apoptosis. Our findings provide insight into the role that CypA plays in insect cellular immune response.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Ciclofilina A/genética , Imunidade Celular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Polydnaviridae , Spodoptera/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Ciclofilina A/química , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemócitos/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Polydnaviridae/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Regulação para Cima , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/fisiologia
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e1112018, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1009457

RESUMO

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the main pests in maize crop with developing resistance to chemical products and Bt technology. Therefore, alternative control methods such as essential oils are important steps in the implementation management strategies for this pest. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of essential oils (EOs) of Corymbia citriodora, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae), Lippia microphylla (Verbenaceae) and Piper umbelattum (Piperaceae) in controlling S. frugiperda. The OEs were extracted and mortality tests were conducted with topic and volatile applications, in 30 second-instar caterpillars originated from insect rearing and artificial diet. As a control, we conducted tests with distilled water and acetone. EOs that provided mortality rates above 80% were submitted to chemical analysis for constituent identification. The efficient EOs were only those of C. citriodora and L. microphylla. For EO of C. citriodora, the LD80 was 7.06 ± 0.73 mg.g-1 in topical application and 5.85 ± 0.75 µL via volatile application. On the other hand, for EO of L. microphylla, DL80 was 9.95 ± 1.25 mg.g-1 in topical application and 18.56 ± 3.55 µL via volatile application. Chemical analysis showed that the main constituents were citronella for the EO of C. citriodora and (E)-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol to the EO of L. microphylla. EOs of C. citriodora and L. microphylla are promising for controlling S. frugiperda, with emphasis on the volatile effect of C. citriodora oil.(AU)


A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepdoptera: Noctuidae), é uma das principais pragas na cultura do milho e nos últimos anos vem desenvolvendo resistência a produtos químicos e à tecnologia Bt. Métodos alternativos de controle, como o emprego de óleos essenciais, são um passo importante na implementação de estratégias de manejo para essa praga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de Corymbia citriodora, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae), Lippia microphylla (Verbenaceae) e Piper umbelattum (Piperaceae) no controle de S. frugiperda. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos e testes de mortalidade com aplicação tópica e de voláteis foram conduzidos com 30 lagartas de segundo instar provenientes de criação massal e em dieta artificial. Como testemunha, foram conduzidos testes com água destilada e acetona. Os óleos essenciais que proporcionaram taxas de mortalidade acima de 80% foram submetidos à análise química para identificação de seus constituintes. Entre os óleos essenciais, mostraram-se eficientes apenas os de C. citriodora e L. microphylla. Para o óleo essencial de C. citriodora, a DL80 foi de 7,06 ± 0,73 mg.g-1 em aplicação tópica e 5,85 ± 0,75 µL via aplicação do volátil. Já para o óleo essencial de L. microphylla, a DL80 foi de 9,95 ± 1,25 mg.g-1 em aplicação tópica e 18,56 ± 3,55 µL via aplicação do volátil. A análise química demonstrou que os principais constituintes foram citronelal para o óleo essencial de C. citriodora, e (E)-cariofileno e (E)-nerolidol para o de L. microphylla. Os óleos essenciais de C. citriodora e L. microphylla são promissores para o controle de S. frugiperda, com destaque para o efeito volátil do óleo de C. citriodora.(AU)


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Zea mays , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle de Pragas , Lippia
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