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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 683-685, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025939

RESUMO

AIM: The higher success rate (>90%) of dental implants over 5 years has made this treatment option favorable for dental surgeons as well as for patients. The present in vitro study was conducted to assess microleakage and microgap of two dissimilar internal implant-abutment associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty dental implants were divided into two groups: trilobe internal connection fixtures in group I and internal hexagonal geometry fixtures in group II. For the immersion of implant abutment assemblies, sterilized tubes containing 4 mL of Staphylococcus aureus broth culture were incubated at 37°C for 2 weeks. Gram's stain and biochemical reactions were used for identification of colonies. RESULTS: The mean log10 colony-forming unit (CFU) in group I was 8.6 and was 9.3 in group II. The disparity among two groups was found to be significant (p < 0.05). The mean microgap in group I was 7.2 µm and was 10.4 µm in group II. The disparity among the two groups was found to be significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Authors found that microscopic space between implant and abutment may be the site of penetration of bacteria. There was significant higher log10 CFU in dental implant fixtures with an internal hexagonal geometry compared to the dental implant fixtures with a trilobe internal connection. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Microscopic space between implant and abutment may be the site of penetration of bacteria. This information will help to avoid microleakage to improve implant success rate.


Assuntos
Dente Suporte , Implantes Dentários , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 583-598, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025952

RESUMO

Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are one of the most common types of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The standard of care for ABSSSI includes glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin, oxazolidinones and fluoroquinolones, which are potent broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Unfortunately, due to indiscriminate utilization, resistance to these agents is rising and identification of novel agents is an urgent unmet medical need. In this context, levonadifloxacin (WCK-771) is a novel, hydrate arginine salt of nadifloxacin with improved bactericidal activity against MRSA as well as fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus by targeting bacterial DNA supercoiling enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Levonadifloxacin displays a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and bioterror pathogens with a very low frequency of mutation. Levonadifloxacin also displays improved activity under low pH biofilm environments. The drug has successfully completed phase I, phase II and phase III clinical trials in India. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation to levonadifloxacin for the treatment of MRSA infections in August 2014.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 289-292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004728

RESUMO

Objective: In this coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, pediatric children who are admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more susceptible to ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the second-most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric ICU. Oral hygiene maintenance is a challenge here. To maintain oral hygiene and to prevent colonization of microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus which cause ventilator-associated pneumonia, a study was conducted, which aimed at finding the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) wipes (as an oral hygiene aid) on colonization of these organisms in pediatric ICU. Methods and Methodology: The study was conducted among twenty children (8 in ventilation and 12 without ventilation) in the age range of 6-14 years admitted in the pediatric ICU. Swab sample was taken on the 1st day from both groups. Culturing of swab sample was done for colonization of microorganisms. CHX gluconate with a concentration of 0.2% was used as wipes. Swab sample was collected at the end of the 2nd day. Culturing of swab sample was done for colonization of microorganisms. Statistical analysis was done. Results: A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.04) was seen in the ventilator group with a mean of 0.75 ± 13.241 in the reduction of S. aureus count. P. aeruginosa growth was not seen in either of the groups before or after the use of CHX wipe. Conclusions: Standard oral hygiene practice has the potential to contribute to improved oral and general health of children in pediatric ICU. CHX wipes significantly reduced S. aureus count in ventilator patients. Hence, it could be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in pediatric ICU.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040504

RESUMO

Objective:To observe the microbiological characteristics and clinical correlation of chronic rhinosinusitis with different clinical phenotypes. Method:One hundred and ninety-six patients with chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS) underwent nasal endoscopic surgery, including 126 patients with Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps(CRSwNP) and 70 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps(CRSsNP); 78 patients with nasal septum deviation(control group) were enrolled. The nasal discharge samples were collected before operation, and the bacteria were isolated and identified by the traditional culture method. The bacteria were compared between the two groups by Pearson chi-square test or Fisher exact test, and the bacteria were compared between groups by Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Out statistically significant variables(P<0.05). Result:The total bacterial detection rate was 73.0% in the three groups, 76.2% in the CRSwNP group, 68.6% in the CRSsNP group and 71.8% in the control group, respectively(P=0.579). The detection rate of the bacteria was mainly Gram-positive bacteria. The higher detection rate included: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudodiphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzaemola, Haemella influenzaemola. The detection rate of Haemophilus influenzae in the CRSwNP group and the control group(13.5% vs 2.6%, P=0.009), but there were statistical differences CRSsNP.There was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of the bacteria(8.6% vs 2.6%, P=0.15) between the CRSsNP group and the control group; The difference of staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSwNP group and ECRSwNP group was statistically significant (9.6% vs 28.1%,P=0.017).There was no significant difference in staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSsNP group and ECRSsNP group (9.4% vs 16.7%, P=0.482). Conclusion:Haemophilus influenzae may be a potential cause of CRSwNP; S. aureus may promote the eosinophilic granulocyte inflammatory response to CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Fenótipo , Staphylococcus aureus
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 286, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063151

RESUMO

The CoViD-19 pandemic has caused a sudden spike in demand and production of hand sanitisers. Concerns are rising regarding the quality of such products, as the safeguard of consumers is a priority worldwide. We analyse here the ethanolic content of seven off-the-shelf hand sanitiser gels (two biocides and five cosmetics) from the Italian market, using gas chromatography. The WHO recommends that products containing ethanol should have 60-95% (v/v) alcohol. Four of the tested hand gels have ethanolic contents within the recommended range, while three products (all cosmetics) contain < 60% (v/v), i.e. 52.1% (w/w), ethanol. The product with the lowest alcoholic content has 37.1% w/w ethanol. Toxic methanol is not found in any of the hand sanitisers. We show, in addition, that products with the highest ethanolic content have generally greater antibacterial activity. In conclusion, all tested products are complying with the EU regulations, as the three "substandard" products are classified as cosmetics, whose purpose is cleaning and not disinfecting. Nevertheless, if such hand cleaners were inappropriately used as hand disinfectants, they might be ineffective. Thus, consumer safety relays on awareness and ability to distinguish between biocidal and cosmetics hand gels. The obtained results might sensitise the scientific community, health agencies and ultimately consumers towards the risks of using hand sanitisers of substandard alcoholic concentration. If the wrong product is chosen by consumers, public health can be compromised by the inappropriate use of "low-dosed" cosmetic gels as disinfectants, particularly during the period of the CoViD-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Higienizadores de Mão/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cosméticos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/análise , Europa (Continente) , Géis , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia , Higienizadores de Mão/normas , Metanol/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(6): 42-49, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a comparative assessment of the bactericidal and fungicidal effects of various parts of the radiation spectrum (Ultraviolet A, red, green and blue). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included strains of the most clinically significant microorganisms, which are the most common causes of purulent keratitis - S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and fungi C. albicans. After populating the surface of Petri dishes uniformly with microorganisms of each culture, on four out of the five specimens the central zone of the surface with a diameter of 1 cm was irradiated with light of different spectrum - from ultraviolet to red, with a total radiation energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. One specimen remained as the control subject. After irradiation, scanning electron microscopy with lanthanides contrasting (SEMLC) was used to evaluate the total metabolic activity, the activity of the efflux systems and the morphological characteristics of the microorganisms. RESULTS: The damaging effect of visible spectrum light and UVA radiation on S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans cultures was proved by SEMLC. Green spectrum emission with a wavelength of 500 nm had the highest antimicrobial activity. It was manifested by a decrease in the overall level of metabolic activity (from 40-63 c.u. to 26-37 c.u. (S. aureus (p<0.01), P. aeruginosa (p<0.01) and C. albicans (p<0.05)), as well as a 2-fold increase in the proportion of S. aureus cells with active efflux systems. CONCLUSION: SEMLC allows evaluation of parameters of the microorganisms` state: morphological (form and size) and functional (general metabolic activity, activation of efflux systems). Investigation of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans cultures using SEMLC demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of green spectrum radiation of 500 nm wavelength. This will serve as a basis for further research and development of a method of treating infectious keratitis using green light.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos , Luz , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1615-1619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To perform microbiological investigation and analytic mathematic prediction of clinical isolates of S. aureus to aminoglycosides in patients with severe burns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We analyzed resistance of 199 S. aureus strains to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin) and doxycycline from 435 patients treated in the regional hospital due to burns for the period from 2011-2017. RESULTS: Results: We created predictive curves for the prediction of susceptibility of S. aureus strains to aminoglycosides and doxycycline based on the changes in S. aureus resistance during the years of observation and expressed in mathematic equations. Susceptibility of S. aureus to gentamicin was 42.86 % at the end of observation and will decline in future. Despite tobramycin was efficient against 72.86 % of strains in 2017, mathematic modeling indicates rapid decline in its efficacy in future. Efficacy of amikacin was dropping during the last years, but according to the equation it efficacy will increase over 60 % in 2018. S. aureus susceptibility to doxycycline was 65.38 % in 2017 and mathematic modeling indicates its gradual decline in the nearest future. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Predicitive values of S. aureus susceptibility indicates not sufficient efficacy of these drugs in patients with infectious complications of burns. Tendency of the slight decline of S. aureus susceptibility to doxycycline still indicates sufficient levels of its efficacy in the nearest future. This justify its use as a second-line therapy with the causative agent in patients with burns.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Doxiciclina , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1655-1658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To follow-up nitric oxide content values in rat serum at the development of Staphylococcus aureus infected radiation skin injuries and their photodynamic therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Eighty WAG male rats were studied in an experiment. Four groups were identified for evaluation. Group 1 included unaffected intact rats (n=20). Group 2 involved rats (n=20) with a modeled radiation-induced ulcer of the skin. The rats (n=20) with a modeled radiation-induced skin ulcer followed by infecting with Staphylococcus aureus were referred to group 3. Group 4 included rats (n=20) with Staphylococcus aureus infected radiation skin ulcer exposed to photodynamic therapy. Rats of groups 1-4 were sampled for biochemical blood examination on days 7, 14, 21, 30 and 45. Total nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites and nitrates) were measured according to V.A. Metelskaya et al. method. RESULTS: Results: Infectious agent (Staphylococcus aureus) present in skin ulcer impairs nitric oxide metabolism in rat blood serum that manifested in decreased total nitric oxide metabolites content on day 7, followed by its increase within days 14 to 45. While photodynamic therapy exposed on the Staphylococcus aureus infected radiation skin ulcer, total nitric oxide metabolites in blood serum had increased by day 7, but days 14 to 45 level was compliant with physiological norm. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Infecting radiation skin ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus causes impaired nitric oxide metabolism, while photodynamic therapy helps to normalize the metabolism of the above-mentioned chemical compound that can improve healing of radiation skin ulcers.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico , Ratos , Pele , Staphylococcus aureus , Cicatrização
9.
Rev Prat ; 70(6): 653-656, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058612

RESUMO

Skin microbiome: role in human health and skin inflammatory diseases. The skin barrier is a major interface between the human host and its environment. It is colonized by more than 1000 different bacterial species which live at the skin surface or within skin appendages but also of by fungi, virus and mites. In adults, the most abundant bacterial genera are Cutibacterium, Corynebacterium and coagulase negative staphylococci. The composition of the skin microbiome mostly varies according to localization, reflecting different physical, chemical and environmental conditions. Despite constant environmental exposure, the skin microbiome of adults is stable over time. Coagulase negative staphylococci play an important role in skin defense by preventing colonization by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, demonstrating mutualistic relationships with the human host. Skin inflammatory diseases are associated with specific dysbiotic features that probably play an important role in their pathophysiology and may be treatment targets in the future.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Dermatopatias , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Humanos , Pele , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 128-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086854

RESUMO

Úvod: Biomarkery jsou u septických pacientů využívány jak k diagnostice sepse, tak k antibiotickému stewardshipu. Sepse vyvolaná gramnegativními bakteriemi mívá odlišné charakteristiky, především vysoký prokalcitonin vs C-reaktivní protein v porovnání se sepsí vyvolanou grampozitivními bakteriemi. Avšak jednotlivá infekční agens, především Streptococcus pyogenes, nemusí do tohoto schématu zapadat, což může vest k nesprávné iniciální volbě antibiotika. Metody: Retrospektivní analýza biomarkerů, iniciální volby antibiotické léčby a výsledků léčby u pacientů se sepsí vyvolanou S. pyogenes, Escherichia coli a Staphylococcus aureus. Hodnoty biomarkerů byly porovnány pomocí Kruskal-Wallis testu s následným Dunn post-Hoc testem s prahem p < 0,05. Výsledky: Hodnoty prokalcitoninu byly nejvyšší u sepse vyvolané S. pyogenes (12,51 ng/ml, IQR: 6,26-48,38 ng/ml) oproti sepsi vyvolaná E. coli (4,30 ng/ml, IQR: 1,50-10,00 ng/ml, p < 0,001) a S. aureus (0,75 ng/ml, QR: 0,34-1,62 ng/ml, p < 0,001). Poměr neutrofilů a lymfocytů vykazoval stejné charakteristiky jako prokalcitonin. Správná iniciální antibiotická léčba byla v souboru S. pyogenes 11,29 % v porovnání s 99,3 % a 100 % u S. aureus a E. coli skupin. Závěr: Oproti předchozím studiím byly v našem souboru pozorovány nejvyšší hodnoty prokalcitoninu u pacientů se sepsí vyvolanou S. pyogenes spíše než gramnegativními bakteriemi. Vysoké hodnoty prokalcitoninu imitující gramnegativní zánětlivou odpověď přispěli k ovlivnění výběru iniciální antibiotické léčby (bez znalosti původce), což mohlo vést k vyšší mortalitě u této skupiny pacientů. Proto doporučujeme přehodnocení významu prokalcitoninu v diagnostice sepse pro zlepšení přežití i kvality života pacientů.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Biomarcadores , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 646, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is known as a new viral infection. Viral-bacterial co-infections are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. To date, few studies have investigated bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 patients. Hence, we designed the current study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Nineteen patients admitted to our ICUs were enrolled in this study. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. Endotracheal aspirate samples were also collected and cultured on different media to support the growth of the bacteria. After incubation, formed colonies on the media were identified using Gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out based on the CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of nineteen COVID-19 patients, 11 (58%) patients were male and 8 (42%) were female, with a mean age of ~ 67 years old. The average ICU length of stay was ~ 15 days and at the end of the study, 18 cases (95%) expired and only was 1 case (5%) discharged. In total, all patients were found positive for bacterial infections, including seventeen Acinetobacter baumannii (90%) and two Staphylococcus aureus (10%) strains. There was no difference in the bacteria species detected in any of the sampling points. Seventeen of 17 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to the evaluated antibiotics. No metallo-beta-lactamases -producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain was found. One of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was detected as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and isolated from the patient who died, while another Staphylococcus aureus strain was susceptible to tested drugs and identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the concern of superinfection in COVID-19 patients due to Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial co-infections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/complicações , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 608-612, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the contamination status of Staphylococcus aureus in food and processing. METHODS: From July 2017 to January 2018, raw/cooked meat products, aquatic products, soybean products and other foods for sale were collected from five districts and counties of Chengdu, and some processing samples were collected from school cantons, farms and slaughterhouses of Chengdu. Staphylococcus aureus in food and processing in Chengdu was detected by plate method and PCR method, staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin was determined by enzyme-linked fluorescence immunoassay, and Risk Ranger software was used for semi-quantitative Risk assessment. RESULTS: A total of 429 samples were collected from food and processing in Chengdu. 78 strains(18. 2%) of Staphylococcus aureus were detected by plate method, among which 76 strains were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by PCR. The highest detection rate was found in raw meat(34. 1%), and the highest detection rate was found in raw chicken(54. 2%). The detection rate of Staphylococcus aureus in samples from farmers' markets(34. 0%) was higher than that of supermarkets(28. 3%). Eighteen of the 78 strains produced enterotoxin, raw chicken and duck meat from supermarkets(9) and farmers' markets(6), and hand smears by school cafeteria workers(2). According to the risk score, the food safety risks are in descending order from raw meat products(55 points), soybean products(50 points), cooked meat products(43 points) and aquatic products(43 points). CONCLUSION: Raw meat and soybean products are high risk foods contaminated by S. aureus, cooked meat and aquatic products are medium risk foods.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Enterotoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4774, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963224

RESUMO

Detection of microbial nucleic acids in body fluids has become the preferred method for rapid diagnosis of many infectious diseases. However, culture-based diagnostics that are time-consuming remain the gold standard approach in certain cases, such as sepsis. New culture-free methods are urgently needed. Here, we describe Single MOLecule Tethering or SMOLT, an amplification-free and purification-free molecular assay that can detect microorganisms in body fluids with high sensitivity without the need of culturing. The signal of SMOLT is generated by the displacement of micron-size beads tethered by DNA probes that are between 1 and 7 microns long. The molecular extension of thousands of DNA probes is determined with sub-micron precision using a robust and rapid optical approach. We demonstrate that SMOLT can detect nucleic acids directly in blood, urine and sputum at sub-femtomolar concentrations, and microorganisms in blood at 1 CFU mL-1 (colony forming unit per milliliter) threefold faster, with higher multiplexing capacity and with a more straight-forward protocol than amplified methodologies. SMOLT's clinical utility is further demonstrated by developing a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of sepsis-causing Candida species directly in whole blood.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Urina
14.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1341-1348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993339

RESUMO

AIMS: Preoperative nasal Staphylococcus aureus screening and eradication reduces surgical site infections (SSIs) but its impact on reducing early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains controversial. This study aims to assess the effect of preoperative nasal S. aureus screening and eradication on the incidence of early PJI in general and S. aureus-induced early PJI. METHODS: All primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) and total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed from January 2006 to April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of early PJI. Demographic parameters, risk factors for PJI (American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, body mass index, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus) and implant types were collected. A preoperative screening and eradication protocol for nasal colonization of S. aureus was introduced in October 2010. The incidence of early PJI was compared before and after the implementation of the protocol. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation by chained equations. Inverse probability weighting was used to account for differences between patients in both groups. Weighted univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the incidence of early PJI for both groups. RESULTS: In total, 10,486 THAs and TKAs were performed in the research period. After exclusion, a cohort of 5,499 screened cases and 3,563 non-screened cases were available for analysis. Overall, no significant reduction in early PJI was found in the screened group (odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.11; p = 0.173). However, the incidence of S. aureus-induced PJI was significantly reduced (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92; p = 0.027) in the screened group. CONCLUSION: A preoperative nasal S. aureus screening and eradication protocol did not significantly reduce the overall incidence of early PJI after THA or TKA. However, a decreased incidence of S. aureus-induced early PJI was established. These findings can help to establish better consensus around the value of these screening protocols. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1341-1348.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Programas de Rastreamento , Período Pré-Operatório , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000856, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941420

RESUMO

Antibiotic combination therapies are important for the efficient treatment of many types of infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Combination treatment strategies are typically used under the assumption that synergies are conserved across species and strains, even though recent results show that the combined treatment effect is determined by specific drug-strain interactions that can vary extensively and unpredictably, both between and within bacterial species. To address this problem, we present a new method in which antibiotic synergy is rapidly quantified on a case-by-case basis, allowing for improved combination therapy. The novel CombiANT methodology consists of a 3D-printed agar plate insert that produces defined diffusion landscapes of 3 antibiotics, permitting synergy quantification between all 3 antibiotic pairs with a single test. Automated image analysis yields fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICis) with high accuracy and precision. A technical validation with 3 major pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, showed equivalent performance to checkerboard methodology, with the advantage of strongly reduced assay complexity and costs for CombiANT. A synergy screening of 10 antibiotic combinations for 12 E. coli urinary tract infection (UTI) clinical isolates illustrates the need for refined combination treatment strategies. For example, combinations of trimethoprim (TMP) + nitrofurantoin (NIT) and TMP + mecillinam (MEC) showed synergy, but only for certain individual isolates, whereas MEC + NIT combinations showed antagonistic interactions across all tested strains. These data suggest that the CombiANT methodology could allow personalized clinical synergy testing and large-scale screening. We anticipate that CombiANT will greatly facilitate clinical and basic research of antibiotic synergy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Algoritmos , Andinocilina/administração & dosagem , Andinocilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Nitrofurantoína/administração & dosagem , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Trimetoprima/administração & dosagem , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
17.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(4): 51-58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ZnO nanocoating on mechanical properties of NiTi orthodontic wires and antibacterial activity. METHODS: 0.016 x 0.022-in NiTi orthodontic wires were coated with ZnO nanoparticles using an electrochemical deposition method with three electrodes system in 0.1M Zn(NO3)2. Mechanical properties and frictional resistance of the coated wires were investigated using an universal testing machine. Antibacterial effect of ZnO coating was also investigated. RESULTS: A stable adhered ZnO nanocoating on NiTi wires was obtained. The coated wires have a significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pyogens and E. coli, and a reduction of frictional forces by 34%. CONCLUSION: ZnO nanocoating may improve the antibacterial effects of NiTi wires and reduce the frictional resistance. Coating may be implanted in orthodontic practice for faster and safer treatment.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ligas Dentárias , Escherichia coli , Teste de Materiais , Níquel , Fios Ortodônticos , Staphylococcus aureus , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/farmacologia , Zinco
18.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13396-13404, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867467

RESUMO

Rapid, accurate, reliable, and risk-free tracking of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level is critical to achieve efficient source control and prevent outbreaks of microbial infectious diseases. For the first time, we report a promising approach for integrating the concepts of a remarkably large Stokes shift and dual-recognition into a single matrix to develop a pathogenic microorganism stimuli-responsive ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe with speed, cost efficiency, stability, ultrahigh specificity, and sensitivity. As a proof-of-concept, we selected the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the target analyte model, which easily bound to its recognition aptamer and the broad-spectrum glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van). To improve the specificity and short sample-to-answer time, we employed classic noncovalent π-π stacking interactions as a driving force to trigger the binding of Van and aptamer dual-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent Apt-Van-QDs to the surface of an unreported blue fluorescent π-rich electronic carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), achieving S. aureus stimuli-responsive ratiometric nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs. In the assembly of Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs, the blue CNPs (energy donor) and NIR Apt-Van-QDs (energy acceptor) became close to allow the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process, leading to a remarkable blue fluorescence quenching for the CNPs at ∼465 nm and a clear NIR fluorescence enhancement for Apt-Van-QDs at ∼725 nm. In the presence of S. aureus, the FRET process from CNPs to Apt-Van-QDs was disrupted, causing the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs to display a ratiometric fluorescent response to S. aureus, which exhibited a large Stokes shift of ∼260 nm and rapid sample-to-answer detection time (∼30.0 min). As expected, the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs showed an ultrahigh specificity for ratiometric fluorescence detection of S. aureus with a good detection limit of 1.0 CFU/mL, allowing the assay at single-cell level. Moreover, we also carried out the precise analysis of S. aureus in actual samples with acceptable results. We believe that this work offers new insight into the rational design of efficient ratiometric nanoprobes for rapid on-site accurate screening of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level in the early stages, especially during the worldwide spread of COVID-19 today.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies manufacturing anti-staphylococcal antibiotics were contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Register: 27 February 2020. Online trials registries were also searched. Most recent search of online trials registries: 15 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of continuous oral prophylactic antibiotics (given for at least one year) compared to intermittent antibiotics given 'as required', in people with cystic fibrosis of any disease severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors assessed studies for eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. The review's primary outcomes of interest were lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)) and the number of people with one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive strains). MAIN RESULTS: We included four studies, with a total of 401 randomised participants aged zero to seven years on enrolment; one study is ongoing. The two older included studies generally had a higher risk of bias across all domains, but in particular due to a lack of blinding and incomplete outcome data, than the two more recent studies. We only regarded the most recent study as being generally free of bias, although even here we were not certain of the effect of the per protocol analysis on the study results. Evidence quality was judged to be low for all outcomes assessed after being downgraded based on GRADE assessments. Downgrading decisions were due to limitations in study design (all outcomes), for imprecision and for inconsistency . Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics probably make little or no difference to lung function measured as FEV1 % predicted after six years (mean difference (MD) -2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.59 to 8.99, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence); but may reduce the number of children having one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at two years (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35, three studies, n = 315, low-quality evidence). At the same time point, there may be little or no effect on nutrition as reported using weight z score (MD 0.06, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.45, two studies, n = 140, low-quality evidence), additional courses of antibiotics (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.60, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence) or adverse effects (low-quality evidence). There was no difference in the number of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa between groups at two years (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.23, three studies, n = 312, low-quality evidence), though there was a trend towards a lower cumulative isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the prophylaxis group at two and three years and towards a higher rate from four to six years. As the studies reviewed lasted six years or less, conclusions cannot be drawn about the long-term effects of prophylaxis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to fewer children having isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, when commenced early in infancy and continued up to six years of age. The clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. Further research may establish whether the trend towards more children with CF with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after four to six years of prophylaxis, is a chance finding and whether choice of antibiotic or duration of treatment might influence this.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 27-32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965245

RESUMO

Сhronic endometritis is a medical and social problem that leads to impaired reproductive health of women. Even after elimination of the causative agent of inflammation detect changes in the endometrium by determining immunohistochemical markers (СD 138). The purpose of this study is to analyze the incidence of chronic endometritis in women of reproductive age with reproductive health disorders.; We performed hysteroscopy and determination СD 138 30 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, 47 women with primary infertility and 36 women who applied for a pregnancy planning examination and endometrial polyps detected during routine ultrasound. In patients with habitual miscarriage, primary infertility, and women in the planning of pregnancy and endometrial polyps, a high frequency of bacterial vaginosis and recurrent inflammatory diseases of the lower parts of the reproductive system was noted (p>0.01). In the study of infectious agents of the lower parts of the reproductive system of patients of all groups found in the pathological growth of ureoplasmic infection and a group of non-specific infections (Enterococcus faecalis, Esherichia coli, Proteus sp, Klebsiella sp, S. aureus, agactactia) (p>0.05). Hysteroscopic changes in endometrial pathology were present in 57% of women with habitual miscarriage and primary infertility (p>0.05). In immunohistochemical examination of the endometrium, chronic endometritis was diagnosed in 80% of patients with habitual miscarriage, in 55% of women with primary infertility and in 61% of women when planning pregnancy and polyps of the endometrium (p>0.01).


Assuntos
Endometrite/complicações , Endometrite/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Staphylococcus aureus
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