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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7407-7410, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600771

RESUMO

The most clinically relevant staphylococci in veterinary medicine are those that are coagulase-positive, namely Staphylococcus aureus. During microbiological udder health monitoring (2009-2018), a new S. aureus strain (coagulase-positive and maltose-negative) was discovered as an emerging udder pathogen during routine examinations of South African dairy herds. This study challenged the conventional microbiological diagnosis of staphylococci by comparing its results to those of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing. Both of these tests confirmed that the maltose-negative staphylococcus (MNS), identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by conventional microbiology, was S. aureus ST2992. Multi locus sequence typing was performed on 3 of the MNS isolates and indicated that these isolates were of single origin. These strains tested positive for both MALA and MALR genes (control: S. aureus ATCC 25923). Although the α-glucosidase gene was present, it was not expressed phenotypically. The latter may be attributed to the abnormal stop codon identified in the MALA gene sequence of S. aureus ST2992 (GenBank accession number, MN531305). The newly identified MNS has a field behavior different to that of maltose-positive S. aureus, and more similar to the low virulence of non-aureus staphylococci.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Coagulase/análise , Feminino , Maltose/análise , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407414

RESUMO

The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in food animals, associated products, and their zoonotic potential in Nigeria are poorly understood. This study aimed to provide data on the prevalence, genetic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and persons in contact with the carcasses at slaughterhouses in Nigeria. Surface swabs were collected randomly from 600 chicken and 600 pig carcasses. Nasal swabs were collected from 45 workers in chicken slaughterhouses and 45 pig slaughterhouse workers. S. aureus isolates were analyzed by spa typing. They were also examined for presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) and mecA genes, as well as for antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Overall, 53 S. aureus isolates were recovered (28 from chicken carcasses, 17 from pig carcasses, 5 from chicken carcass handlers and 3 from pig carcass handlers). Among the isolates, 19 (35.8%) were PVL-positive and 12 (22.6%) carried the mecA gene. The 53 isolates belonged to 19 spa types. The Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) algorithm separated the isolates into 2 spa-clonal complexes (spa-CC) and 9 singletons including 2 novel spa types (t18345 and t18346). The clonal complexes (CC) detected were CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC88 and CC152. CC15-related isolates represented by spa type t084 (32.1%) and CC5 represented by spa type t311 (35.3%) predominated among isolates from chicken carcasses/ handlers, and pig carcasses/ handlers, respectively. Multidrug resistance exhibited by all the CC except CC8, was observed among isolates from chicken carcasses (64.3%), pig carcasses (41.2%), handlers of chicken meat (40.0%) and handlers of pork (33.3%). All the CC showed varying degrees of resistance to tetracycline while CC15 and CC5 exhibited the highest resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and erythromycin, respectively. The predominant antimicrobial resistance pattern observed was penicillin-tetracycline-sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (PEN-TET-SXT). In conclusion, food animals processed in Enugu State in Southeast Nigeria are potential vehicles for transmission of PVL-positive multiple-drug resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus from farm to slaughterhouse and potentially to the human population. Public health intervention programs at pre- and post-slaughter stages should be considered in Nigerian slaughterhouses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 374, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated Staphylococcus aureus and oral bacterial concentrations are known to correlate with pneumonia hospitalization in nursing home residents. However, the effects of a professional oral care intervention on these factors remain unclear. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were to compare bacterial concentrations in saliva and sputum, oral health status, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia status before and after a professional oral care intervention. METHODS: A purposive sample of residents from two nursing homes was divided into an intervention group that received a weekly professional oral care intervention and a control group. Oral bacterial concentration was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Staphylococcus aureus distribution was determined by bacterial culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After data collection, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Most residents were unconscious (80%), and most had a history of pneumonia (76%). Baseline demographic data did not significantly differ between the two groups. After the intervention, the intervention group had significant improvements in plaque index (1.66 ± 0.78 vs. 0.94 ± 0.64, p <  0.01), gingival index (2.36 ± 0.76 vs. 1.65 ± 0.83, p <  0.01), tongue coating index (0.96 ± 1.10 vs. 0.16 ± 0.47, p <  0.01), distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in salivary samples (11.11 ± 14.47% vs. 1.74 ± 3.75%, p = 0.02), and salivary bacterial concentration ([4.27 ± 3.65] × 105 vs. [0.75 ± 1.20] × 105, p <  0.01). Sputum bacterial concentration did not significantly differ. The intervention group also had a significantly lower annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization (1.24 ± 1.51 vs. 0.48 ± 0.59, p = 0.01), especially in residents whose salivary bacterial concentration exceeded the median. However, the duration of pneumonia hospitalization did not significantly differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A professional oral care intervention in nursing home residents can improve oral health, reduce levels of salivary bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus, and decrease the annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03874962. Registered 12 March 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Taiwan
4.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103482, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336356

RESUMO

In this study, 53 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains were typed by 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) typing and staphylococcal enterotoxin gene (SEg) typing for all the staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin (sel) genes known to date, revealing a higher discriminatory power than that of multi locus sequence typing. Six strains, one of each ISR- and SEg-type, were genome sequenced and the ability to produce some classical and new SEs when growing in milk was investigated. The manual analysis of the six genomes allowed us to confirm, correct and expand the results of common available genomic data pipelines such as VirulenceFinder. Moreover, it enabled us to (i) investigate the actual location of se and sel genes, even for genes such as selY, whose location (in the core genome) was so far unknown, (ii) find novel allelic variants of se and sel genes and pseudogenes, (iii) correctly annotate se and sel genes and pseudogenes, and (iv) discover a novel type of enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), i.e. the egc type 5 in strains 356P and 364P, while S. argenteus MSHR1132 harbored the egc type 6. Four of the six S. aureus strains produced sufficient amounts of SEA, SEC, SED and SEH in milk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), with S. aureus 372 P being the highest producer of SED in milk found to date, producing as much as ca. 47,300 ng/mL and 49,200 ng/mL of SED, after 24 and 48 h of incubation in milk at 37 °C, respectively. S. aureus 372 P released a low amount of SER in milk, most likely because the seR gene was present as a pseudogene, putatively encoding only 51 amino acids. These findings confirm that not only the classical SEs, but also the new ones can represent a potential hazard for the consumers' health if produced in foods in sufficient amounts. Therefore, the detection of SEs in foods, especially if involved in SFP cases, should focus not only on classical, but also on all the new SEs and SEls known to date. Where reference methods are unavailable, the presence of the relevant genes, by using the conventional and real time PCR protocols we exhaustively provided herein, and their nucleotide sequences, should be investigated.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Família Multigênica , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(2): 18-20, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122094

RESUMO

Hospital antibiograms, because they are typically derived from samples obtained from hospitalized patients, may overestimate the prevalence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus in individuals presenting to the hospital for surgery. Because hospital antibiograms are commonly used to justify empiric perioperative prophylactic antibiotic selection prior to surgery, this may lead to unnecessary treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics such as vancomycin. In a single-institution study, we observed that in our hospital antibiogram the proportion of S. aureus that are methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was significantly higher (45%) than isolates in preoperative nasal cultures obtained at the same hospital in outpatients prior to their lower extremity joint replacement surgery (13%): mean difference 0.32, [95% CI 0.25, 0.39], p <0.0001. These data suggest that hospital antibiograms may overstate the true prevalence of MRSA in those at risk for MRSA surgical site infections who present from the outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4717-4731, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171518

RESUMO

Mastitis is an important constraint to milk production in pastoralist camel (Camelus dromedarius) herds in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and bacterial panorama of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in pastoralist camel herds in Isiolo County, Kenya. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility in udder pathogens was studied. A cross-sectional sample of 206 camels from 20 milking herds was screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and quarter milk was subjected to bacterial culturing. Isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method. Interviews focusing on herd management were conducted with camel owners. Subclinical mastitis, defined as a CMT score ≥ 3 (scale 1 to 5) and absence of clinical symptoms in the udder, were present in all visited herds. On the individual level, 46% of the camels had at least 1 quarter affected with SCM, and on the quarter level the prevalence was 26%. Intramammary infections (IMI) were common; out of 798 quarter milk samples, 33% yielded conclusive bacterial growth. The sensitivity and specificity of CMT for correctly identifying quarters with IMI were 82% and 92%, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Streptococcus agalactiae (72% of IMI-positive quarters), followed by non-aureus staphylococci (19%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that only a low proportion (4.9%) of Strep. agalactiae isolates was sensitive to tetracycline. For Staph. aureus, 59.1% of isolates exhibited sensitivity to penicillin. Skin lesions on the teats or udder were a risk factor for SCM. Increased age, parity, and stage of lactation were associated with increased risk of both SCM and IMI. Older camels with a blind teat or a previous history of mastitis were more likely to be infected with Strep. agalactiae. Hygiene routines for milking were largely absent in the observed herds, and knowledge of adequate milk handling was limited. The poor udder health is likely to depend on multiple factors, most prominently the within-herd maintenance of contagious udder pathogens, in combination with difficult sanitary conditions and lack of awareness among camel keepers. This study showed that in pastoralist camel herds around Isiolo town, SCM and IMI specifically caused by Strep. agalactiae are common udder health problems and are associated with increasing age, parity, and stage of lactation, and skin lesions on the teats and udder. Resistance to tetracycline in Strep. agalactiae was common. Control strategies specifically targeting SCM and adapted to pastorally managed camel herds need to be developed to reduce disease, combat antimicrobial resistance, and improve the livelihoods of pastoralists.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Camelus/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mastite/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/classificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Higiene , Quênia/epidemiologia , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163464

RESUMO

We characterised 80 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human patients with SSTIs at a rural hospital in Ethiopia. Susceptibility to antibiotic of all strains was tested. The MLST method was used to type and a phylogenetic analysis was conducted employing the sequences of 7 housekeeping genes. PCR amplification was used to investigate the presence of the following virulence genes in all strains: hla (α-haemolysin), tstH (toxic shock syndrome toxin), luk PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin), fnbA (fibronectin binding protein A) and mecA (methicillin resistance). Most of the strains were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, but only 3 strains were resistant to oxacillin, and 1 of them was a true MRSA. The MLST results showed a high diversity of sequence types (ST), 55% of which were new, and ST152 was the most prevalent. A phylogeny study showed that many of the new STs were phylogenetically related to other previously described STs, but bore little relationship to the only ST from Ethiopia described in the database. Virulence gene detection showed a high prevalence of strains encoding the hla, fnbA and pvl genes (98.77%, 96.3% and 72.84%, respectively), a low prevalence of the tst gene (13.58%) and a markedly low prevalence of MRSA (1.25%). S. aureus strains isolated from patients in a rural area in Ethiopia showed low levels of antibiotic resistance, except to penicillin. Moreover, this study reveals new STs in Eastern Africa that are phylogenetically related to other previously described STs, and confirm the high prevalence of the pvl gene and the low prevalence of MRSA on the continent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/classificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Etiópia , Exotoxinas/classificação , Exotoxinas/genética , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Leucocidinas/classificação , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nasopharynx can from time to time accommodate otherwise pathogenic bacteria. This phenomenon is called asymptomatic carriage. However, in case of decreased immunity, viral infection or any other enhancing factors, severe disease can develop. Our aim in this study was to survey the nasal carriage rates of four important respiratory pathogens in three different age groups of children attending nurseries, day-care centres and primary schools. This is the first study from Hungary about the asymptomatic carriage of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. METHODS: Altogether 580 asymptomatic children were screened in three Hungarian cities. Samples were collected from both nostrils with cotton swabs. The identification was based on both colony morphology and species-specific PCRs. Serotyping was performed for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined with agar dilution, according to the EUCAST guidelines. Clonality was examined by PFGE. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the carriage rates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis clearly decreased with age, that of S. aureus showed an opposite tendency. Multiple carriage was least prevalent if S. aureus was one of the participants. The negative association between this bacterium and the others was statistically significant. For pneumococcus, the overall carriage rate was lower compared to earlier years, and PCV13 serotypes were present in only 6.2% of the children. The majority of H. influenzae isolates was non-typeable and no type b was detected; serotype A was dominant among M. catarrhalis. All four bacteria were more sensitive to antibiotics compared to clinical isolates. No MRSAs were detected, but we found three mupirocin resistant strains. The positive effect of Hib- and PCV-vaccination is undoubted. Continued surveillance of these pathogens is required.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae , Moraxella catarrhalis , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/classificação , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moraxella catarrhalis/classificação , Moraxella catarrhalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Moraxella catarrhalis/genética , Moraxella catarrhalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Sorogrupo , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108535, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902507

RESUMO

Methicillin resistant S. aureus from cows with mastitis has received a growing interest worldwide. The present study aimed to provide a detailed description of the resistance and virulence traits of isolates from bovine mastitis samples. A total of 550 quarter milk samples were collected from 140 mastitic household dairy cows and buffalo from five herds at Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, during 2017 and 2018. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and differentiated using MALDI-TOF MS. A genotypic characterization was performed for S. aureus isolates using DNA-microarray and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Furthermore, antibiotic resistances were phenotypically confirmed using broth microdilution. Six different clonal lineages (CC1-MRSA, CC5-MRSA, CC45-MRSA, CC97-MSSA, CC50-MSSA and CC1153-MSSA), including seven spa types (t127, t688, t132, t267, t521, t224 and t903) were identified. Spa type t267 was the most dominant among the investigated herds. This is the first report of the occurrence of clonal lineages CC97, CC1, CC45, CC50 and CC1153 from bovine mastitis in Egypt. All MRSA isolates and 33.3 % of MSSA were multi-resistant (i.e. resistant to more than three classes of compounds). Various virulence determinants were also observed including leukocidins, hemolysins, and enterotoxins. The study demonstrates a low diversity of S. aureus isolates recovered from several dairy herds. The findings of the observed virulotypes can be useful for future studies on anti-virulence therapies, immunogenicity and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Animais , Búfalos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Proteína Estafilocócica A/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(3): 381.e1-381.e6, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a serious health issue for military personnel. Of particular importance are those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus (PVL-SA), as they have been associated with outbreaks of SSTIs. A prospective observational study was conducted in Royal Marine (RM) recruits to investigate the prevalence of PVL-SA carriage and any association with SSTIs. METHODS: A total of 1012 RM recruits were followed through a 32-week training programme, with nose and throat swabs obtained at weeks 1, 6, 15 and 32. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, spa typing, presence of mecA/C and PVL genes. Retrospective review of the clinical notes for SSTI acquisition was conducted. RESULTS: S. aureus colonization decreased from Week 1 to Week 32 (41% to 26%, p < 0.0001). Of 1168 S. aureus isolates, three out of 1168 (0.3%) were MRSA and ten out of 1168 (0.9%) PVL-positive (all MSSA) and 169 out of 1168 (14.5%) were resistant to clindamycin. Isolates showed genetic diversity with 238 different spa types associated with 25 multi-locus sequence type (MLST) clonal complexes. SSTIs were seen in 35% (351/989) of recruits with 3 training days lost per recruit. SSTI acquisition rate was reduced amongst persistent carriers (p < 0.0283). CONCLUSIONS: Nose and throat carriage of MRSA and PVL-SA was low among recruits, despite a high incidence of SSTIs being reported, particularly cellulitis. Carriage strains were predominantly MSSA with a marked diversity of genotypes. Persistent nose and/or throat carriage was not associated with SSTI acquisition. Putative person-to-person transmission within troops was identified based on spa typing requiring further research to confirm and explore potential transmission routes.


Assuntos
Militares , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 201-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elaborate on and validate a score for the early diagnosis of mediastinitis after cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, patients who experienced thoracic surgical-site infection after cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled. Laboratory, clinical, and chest CT findings were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up until hospital discharge or intra-hospital death. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: 950 surgical-site infections were found and analyzed (131 mediastinitis, 819 superficial/deep infections). Of the 131 mediastinitis episodes, 88% required surgical thoracic debridement,Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 43%, and overall mortality was 42%. The following variables were related to mediastinitis diagnosis: sternal diastasis (OR=2.5; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-5.3; P=0.012), bilateral pleural effusion (OR=1.9; 95%CI: 1.0-3.6; P=0.04), leukocyte count ≥14,000cells/mm3 (OR=2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.7; P=0.006), male sex (OR=2; 95%CI: 1.11-4; P=0.022), and positive blood culture (OR=3.0; 95%CI: 1.6-5.6; P=0.001). The score predicted with reasonable accuracy mediastinitis in the derivation cohort (AUC-ROC, 0.7476) and the validation cohort (AUC-ROC, 0.7149). Groups with high (31%) and low (5%) risk of mediastinitis were identified. CONCLUSIONS: An early diagnostic score in patients with surgical-site infection after cardiothoracic surgery identified groups with a low and high risk for mediastinitis.


Assuntos
Mediastinite/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mediastinite/etiologia , Mediastinite/microbiologia , Mediastinite/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Esterno , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Infect Immun ; 88(2)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740526

RESUMO

The staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus infections, including osteomyelitis, and the msaABCR operon has been implicated as an important factor in modulating expression of sarA Thus, we investigated the contribution of msaABCR to sarA-associated phenotypes in the S. aureus clinical isolates LAC and UAMS-1. Mutation of msaABCR resulted in reduced production of SarA and a reduced capacity to form a biofilm in both strains. Biofilm formation was enhanced in a LAC msa mutant by restoring the production of SarA, but this was not true in a UAMS-1 msa mutant. Similarly, extracellular protease production was increased in a LAC msa mutant but not a UAMS-1 msa mutant. This difference was reflected in the accumulation and distribution of secreted virulence factors and in the impact of extracellular proteases on biofilm formation in a LAC msa mutant. Most importantly, it was reflected in the relative impact of mutating msa as assessed in a murine osteomyelitis model, which had a significant impact in LAC but not in UAMS-1. In contrast, mutation of sarA had a greater impact on all of these in vitro and in vivo phenotypes than mutation of msaABCR, and it did so in both LAC and UAMS-1. These results suggest that, at least in osteomyelitis, it would be therapeutically preferable to target sarA rather than msaABCR to achieve the desired clinical result, particularly in the context of divergent clinical isolates of S. aureus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genótipo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética
13.
Infect Immun ; 88(2)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740530

RESUMO

While investigating the virulence traits of Staphylococcus aureus adhering to the skin of atopic-dermatitis (AD) patients, we identified a novel open reading frame (ORF) with structural similarity to a superantigen from genome sequence data of an isolate from AD skin. Concurrently, the same ORF was identified in a bovine isolate of S. aureus and designated SElY (H. K. Ono, Y. Sato'o, K. Narita, I. Naito, et al., Appl Environ Microbiol 81:7034-7040, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01873-15). Recombinant SElYbov had superantigen activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It further demonstrated emetic activity in a primate animal model, and it was proposed that SElY be renamed SEY (H. K. Ono, S. Hirose, K. Narita, M. Sugiyama, et al., PLoS Pathog 15:e1007803, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007803). Here, we investigated the prevalence of the sey gene in 270 human clinical isolates of various origins in Japan. Forty-two strains were positive for the sey gene, and the positive isolates were from patients with the skin diseases atopic dermatitis and impetigo/staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), with a detection rate of ∼17 to 22%. There were three variants of SEY (SEY1, SEY2, and SEY3), and isolates producing SEY variants formed three distinct clusters corresponding to clonal complexes (CCs) 121, 59, and 20, respectively. Most sey + isolates produced SEY in broth culture. Unlike SEYbov, the three recombinant SEY variants exhibited stability against heat treatment. SEY predominantly activated human T cells with a particular T-cell receptor (TCR) Vα profile, a unique observation since most staphylococcal enterotoxins exert their superantigenic activities through activating T cells with specific TCR Vß profiles. SEY may act to induce localized inflammation via skin-resident T-cell activation, facilitating the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection in disrupted epithelial barriers.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/análise , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Enterotoxinas/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Tipagem Molecular , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/química
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(2): 333-338, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720943

RESUMO

This study surveys the clinical relevance of the nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonization status on intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired S. aureus infections and compares molecular characteristics of isolates from the nose and infectious sites. The 390 patients included comprised 278 non-carriers and 112 carriers. Among the carriers, 56 were decolonized with mupirocin. Decolonization was verified through a second (negative) culture. Spa typing and virulence gene profiling were performed for all isolates. Twenty six S. aureus infections were detected in the carriage group and 20 in the non-carriage group. Eighteen of these 26 (69.2%) infections were among carriers, and 8 of these 26 (30.8%) infections occurred among decolonized carriers (p = 0.02). Overall, 31/112 (27.7%) of the colonized patients and 25/46 (60.1%) of infection were due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The highest frequency virulence genes were sea and hlg (both 100%) in nasal isolates and sea, hlg, fnb, and clf (100%) for infectious isolates. t030 was the most abundant spa type overall. S. aureus carriers were more likely to develop S. aureus infection compared with decolonized and non-carrying patients. The sources of ICU S. aureus infection appear to be exogenous mostly, and a predominant clone (spa type 030) plays an important role. We confirm that nasal mupirocin treatment prevents ICU infections even when there is an increased prevalence of nosocomial MRSA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Mupirocina/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Irã (Geográfico) , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(3): 171-185, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721603

RESUMO

Intensive poultry production due to public demand raises the risk of contamination, creating potential foodborne hazards to consumers. The prevalence and microbial load of the pathogens Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was determined by standard methods at the farm level. After disinfection, swab samples collected from wall crevices, drinkers, and vents were heavily contaminated, as accumulated organic matter and dust likely protected the pathogens from the disinfectants used. The annex floor also showed high microbial concentrations, suggesting the introduction of pathogens from external environments, highlighting the importance of erecting hygiene barriers at the entrance of the main shed. Therefore, pathogen control measures and proper application of disinfectants are recommended as intervention strategies. Additionally, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was evaluated as a quantification tool. qPCR showed limitations with samples containing low microbial counts because of the low detection limit of the method. Thus, bacterial pre-enrichment of test samples may be necessary to improve the detection of pathogens by qPCR.


Assuntos
Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/genética , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e323, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831085

RESUMO

Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of community-acquired S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with SSTIs in Shanghai, China. Between January 2015 and January 2018, 91 community-acquired S. aureus isolates were characterised by antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence typing (ST), staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) type and virulence genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were also characterised by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. Forty-one (45.1%) S. aureus isolates were MRSA. ST59 (33.0%, 30/91) was the most common sequence type, and t437 (18.7%, 17/91) was the most common spa type. SCCmec IV and V accounted for 61.0% and 34.1% of all MRSA isolates, respectively. Each isolate carried at least six virulence genes. The positive rates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among all S. aureus, MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were 30.8% (28/91), 39.0% (16/41) and 24% (12/50), respectively. The prevalence of community-associated MRSA was surprisingly high among children with community-acquired SSTIs in Shanghai. ST59-t437 was the most prevalent community-acquired S. aureus clone causing SSTIs.


Assuntos
Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
17.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 343-351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880880

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for removing implants after breast reconstruction in the course of treatment of breast cancer. The study involved 428 patients, who underwent a total of 648 breast reconstruction procedures using artificial implants. 47 out of 648 cases (7.3%) were identified in which the implant had to be removed. Of the 47 cases, 57.4% had undergone deferred reconstruction, and 42.6% immediate reconstruction; 27.7% had undergone pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 27.7% pre-operative chemotherapy, and 2.1% pre-operative radiotherapy; 6.4% were diabetic, 4.3% active smokers, and more than 50.0% had BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. In 83.0% of the analyzed cases, the reason for removal of the implant was infection, in 8.5% it was local recurrence of breast cancer, in 4.3% it was damage (leakage) of the implant, and in 2.1% it was post-operative pain. About 87.0% of infections appeared within one year of implantation; however, less than a half developed within 90 days of the reconstructive surgery, and up to 30 days only about 13.0% had appeared. Among the etiological agents of infections were: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (31.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.4%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and other Gram-negative fermenting rods accounted for 6.2%. Infections were the most common reason for removing the implant after breast reconstruction. and occurred most often as late infections (>30 days after surgery). The time of observation for infectious complications should be at least 1 year.The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for removing implants after breast reconstruction in the course of treatment of breast cancer. The study involved 428 patients, who underwent a total of 648 breast reconstruction procedures using artificial implants. 47 out of 648 cases (7.3%) were identified in which the implant had to be removed. Of the 47 cases, 57.4% had undergone deferred reconstruction, and 42.6% immediate reconstruction; 27.7% had undergone pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 27.7% pre-operative chemotherapy, and 2.1% pre-operative radiotherapy; 6.4% were diabetic, 4.3% active smokers, and more than 50.0% had BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. In 83.0% of the analyzed cases, the reason for removal of the implant was infection, in 8.5% it was local recurrence of breast cancer, in 4.3% it was damage (leakage) of the implant, and in 2.1% it was post-operative pain. About 87.0% of infections appeared within one year of implantation; however, less than a half developed within 90 days of the reconstructive surgery, and up to 30 days only about 13.0% had appeared. Among the etiological agents of infections were: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (31.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.4%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and other Gram-negative fermenting rods accounted for 6.2%. Infections were the most common reason for removing the implant after breast reconstruction. and occurred most often as late infections (>30 days after surgery). The time of observation for infectious complications should be at least 1 year.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Adulto , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 371-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880882

RESUMO

Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 541-548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880897

RESUMO

Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1023, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus carriage is a known risk factor for staphylococcal disease. However, the carriage rates vary by country, demographic group and profession. This study aimed to determine the S. aureus carriage rate in children in Eastern Uganda, and identify S. aureus lineages that cause infection in Uganda. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples from 742 healthy children less than 5 years residing in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the BD Phoenix™ system. Genotyping was performed by spa and SCCmec typing. RESULTS: The processed samples yielded 144 S. aureus isolates (one per child) therefore, the S. aureus carriage rate in children was 19.4% (144/742). Thirty one percent (45/144) of the isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA) yielding a carriage rate of 6.1% (45/742). All isolates were susceptible to rifampicin, vancomycin and linezolid. Moreover, all MRSA were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin. Compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (68.8%, 99/144), MRSA isolates were more resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials -trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 73.3% (33/45) vs. 27.3% (27/99) [p < 0.0001]; erythromycin 75.6% (34/45) vs. 24.2% (24/99) [p < 0.0001]; chloramphenicol 60% (27/45) vs. 19.2% (19/99) [p < 0.0001]; gentamicin 55.6% (25/45) vs. 25.3% (25/99) [p = 0.0004]; and ciprofloxacin 35.6% (16/45) vs. 2% (2/99) [p < 0.0001]. Furthermore, 42 MRSA (93.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and one exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. Overall, 61 MSSA (61.6%) were MDR, including three mupirocin and clindamycin resistant isolates. Seven spa types were detected among MRSA, of which t037 and t064 were predominant and associated with SCCmec types I and IV, respectively. Fourteen spa types were detected in MSSA which consisted mainly of t645 and t4353. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus carriage rate in healthy children in Eastern Uganda is high and comparable to rates for hospitalized patients in Kampala. The detection of mupirocin resistance is worrying as it could rapidly increase if mupirocin is administered in a low-income setting. S. aureus strains of spa types t064, t037 (MRSA) and t645, t4353 (MSSA) are prevalent and could be responsible for majority of staphylococcal infections in Uganda.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Nariz/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Mupirocina/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia
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