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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1132-1144, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812863

RESUMO

Introduction. While colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in haemodialysis patients has been assessed, knowledge about colonization by beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is still limited.Aim. To describe clinical and molecular characteristics in haemodialysis patients colonized by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) and beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in an ambulatory renal unit.Methodology. The study included patients with central venous catheters in an outpatient haemodialysis facility in Medellín, Colombia (October 2017-October 2018). Swab specimens were collected from the nostrils and skin around vascular access to assess colonization by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA). Stool samples were collected from each patient to evaluate beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli colonization. Molecular typing included PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC). Clinical information was obtained from medical records and personal interview.Results. A total of 210 patients were included in the study. S. aureus colonization was observed in 33.8 % (n=71) of the patients, 4.8 % (n=10) of which were colonized by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Stool samples were collected from 165 patients and of these 41.2 % (n=68) and 11.5 % (n=19) were colonized by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant bacilli, respectively. Typing methods revealed high genetic diversity among S. aureus and ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB). Antibiotic use and hospitalization in the previous 6 months were observed in more than half of the studied population.Conclusion. The high colonization by ESBL-GNB in haemodialysis patients shows evidence for the need for stronger surveillance, not only for S. aureus but also for multidrug-resistant bacilli in order to avoid their spread. Additionally, the high genetic diversity suggests other sources of transmission outside the renal unit instead of horizontal transmission between patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Lactamas/farmacologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008733, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817694

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide, and antibiotic resistant strains such as Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are a major threat and burden to public health. MRSA not only infects immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals and has rapidly spread from the healthcare setting to the outside community. However, all vaccines tested in clinical trials to date have failed. Immunocompromised individuals such as patients with HIV or decreased levels of CD4+ T cells are highly susceptible to S. aureus infections, and they are also at increased risk of developing fungal infections. We therefore wondered whether stimulation of antifungal immunity might promote the type of immune responses needed for effective host defense against S. aureus. Here we show that vaccination of mice with a fungal ß-glucan particle (GP) loaded with S. aureus antigens provides protective immunity to S. aureus. We generated glucan particles loaded with the four S. aureus proteins ClfA, IsdA, MntC, and SdrE, creating the 4X-SA-GP vaccine. Vaccination of mice with three doses of 4X-SA-GP promoted protection in a systemic model of S. aureus infection with a significant reduction in the bacterial burden in the spleen and kidneys. 4X-SA-GP vaccination induced antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cell and antibody responses and provided long-term protection. This work suggests that the GP vaccine system has potential as a novel approach to developing vaccines for S. aureus.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Coagulase/administração & dosagem , Coagulase/genética , Coagulase/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Vacinação , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804931

RESUMO

Genome editing is now widely used in plant science for both basic research and molecular crop breeding. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology, through its precision, high efficiency and versatility, allows for editing of many sites in plant genomes. This system has been highly successful to produce knock-out mutants through the introduction of frameshift mutations due to error-prone repair pathways. Nevertheless, recent new CRISPR-based technologies such as base editing and prime editing can generate precise and on demand nucleotide conversion, allowing for fine-tuning of protein function and generating gain-of-function mutants. However, genome editing through CRISPR systems still have some drawbacks and limitations, such as the PAM restriction and the need for more diversity in CRISPR tools to mediate different simultaneous catalytic activities. In this study, we successfully used the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) for the introduction of frameshift mutations in the tetraploid genome of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). We also developed a S. aureus-cytosine base editor that mediate nucleotide conversions, allowing for precise modification of specific residues or regulatory elements in potato. Our proof-of-concept in potato expand the plant dicot CRISPR toolbox for biotechnology and precision breeding applications.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Mutação INDEL , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Plasmídeos/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 621, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) among gold mine workers. METHODS: In February 2018, we retrospectively reviewed a random sample of 50 medical records from 243 cases and conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Pus aspirates were sent to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases from prospectively-identified cases (November 2017-March 2018). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected during a colonisation survey in February 2018. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were screened with a conventional PCR for lukS/F-PV. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine the genetic relatedness among the isolates. A sample of isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS). We conducted an assessment on biological risks associated with mining activities. RESULTS: From January 2017 to February 2018, 10% (350/3582) of mine workers sought care for cutaneous abscesses. Forty-seven medical files were available for review, 96% were male (n = 45) with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 7). About 52% (24/46) were involved in stoping and 28% (13/47) worked on a particular level. We cultured S. aureus from 79% (30/38) of cases with a submitted specimen and 14% (12/83) from colonisation swabs. All isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin. Seventy-one percent of S. aureus isolates (30/42) were PVL-PCR-positive. Six PFGE clusters were identified, 57% (21/37) were closely related. WGS analysis found nine different sequence types. PFGE and WGS analysis showed more than one cluster of S. aureus infections involving closely related isolates. Test reports for feed and product water of the mine showed that total plate counts were above the limits of 1000 cfu/ml, coliform counts > 10 cfu/100 ml and presence of faecal coliforms. Best practices were poorly implemented as some mine workers washed protective clothing with untreated water and hung them for drying at the underground surface. CONCLUSIONS: PVL-producing MSSA caused an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses among underground workers at a gold mining company. To our knowledge, no other outbreaks of PVL-producing S. aureus involving skin and soft tissue infections have been reported in mining facilities in South Africa. We recommend that worker awareness of infection prevention and control practices be strengthened.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adulto , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3970, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769975

RESUMO

The rise of antibiotic resistance in many bacterial pathogens has been driven by the spread of a few successful strains, suggesting that some bacteria are genetically pre-disposed to evolving resistance. Here, we test this hypothesis by challenging a diverse set of 222 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in a large-scale evolution experiment. We find that a single efflux pump, norA, causes widespread variation in evolvability across isolates. Elevated norA expression potentiates evolution by increasing the fitness benefit provided by DNA topoisomerase mutations under ciprofloxacin treatment. Amplification of norA provides a further mechanism of rapid evolution in isolates from the CC398 lineage. Crucially, chemical inhibition of NorA effectively prevents the evolution of resistance in all isolates. Our study shows that pre-existing genetic diversity plays a key role in shaping resistance evolution, and it may be possible to predict which strains are likely to evolve resistance and to optimize inhibitor use to prevent this outcome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Evolução Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Bacteriano , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3526, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665571

RESUMO

Gene tandem amplifications are thought to drive bacterial evolution, but they are transient in the absence of selection, making their investigation challenging. Here, we analyze genomic sequences of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 isolates from the same geographical area to identify variations in gene copy number, which we confirm by long-read sequencing. We find several hotspots of variation, including the csa1 cluster encoding lipoproteins known to be immunogenic. We also show that the csa1 locus expands and contracts during bacterial growth in vitro and during systemic infection of mice, and recombination creates rapid heterogeneity in initially clonal cultures. Furthermore, csa1 copy number variants differ in their immunostimulatory capacity, revealing a mechanism by which gene copy number variation can modulate the host immune response.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genótipo , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 912-918, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620719

RESUMO

Background: Investigating genetic relatedness between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from humans and different animal species may clarify the epidemiological characteristic of MRSA infections together. Aim: The aim of the study was to perform genotypic characterization and type strains of MRSA isolated from different clinical sources, by molecular techniques. Materials and Methods: The molecular characterization of the strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using several specific oligonucleotides. These were as follows: S. aureus species-specific sau gene, mecA gene coding PBP2a responsible for methicillin resistance, femA gene coding for a protein, which influences the level of methicillin resistance of S. aureus, and is universally present in all MRSA strains; spa gene coding for protein A; coa gene coding for coagulase, and blaZ gene coding for the production of beta-lactamase. To determine the genetic diversity of these strains, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was performed. Results: Among the 415 S. aureus strains, 61 were phenotypically identified as MRSA, and confirmed as S. aureus by amplification of sau gene. However, 90.16% of the strains were mecA positive, while all were negative for femA gene. The presence and polymorphism of coa and spa genes were investigated and 83.60% and 18.03% strains were positive for coa and spa, respectively. While these strains were grouped into six coa-types by PCR, no polymorphism was found for spa gene among strains having only single 190 bp of the band. bla genes were found in 75.40% of strains. These strains were divided into 12 RAPD types. Conclusions: The results showed the relatively high heterogeneity and variation of coa gene among MRSA strains, while further studies on sequencing of these strains may identify which sequence type is predominant in this region.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Coagulase/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Meticilina , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008779, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730248

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that can grow in a wide array of conditions: on abiotic surfaces, on the skin, in the nose, in planktonic or biofilm forms and can cause many type of infections. Consequently, S. aureus must be able to adapt rapidly to these changing growth conditions, an ability largely driven at the posttranscriptional level. RNA helicases of the DEAD-box family play an important part in this process. In particular, CshA, which is part of the degradosome, is required for the rapid turnover of certain mRNAs and its deletion results in cold-sensitivity. To understand the molecular basis of this phenotype, we conducted a large genetic screen isolating 82 independent suppressors of cold growth. Full genome sequencing revealed the fatty acid synthesis pathway affected in many suppressor strains. Consistent with that result, sublethal doses of triclosan, a FASII inhibitor, can partially restore growth of a cshA mutant in the cold. Overexpression of the genes involved in branched-chain fatty acid synthesis was also able to suppress the cold-sensitivity. Using gas chromatography analysis of fatty acids, we observed an imbalance of straight and branched-chain fatty acids in the cshA mutant, compared to the wild-type. This imbalance is compensated in the suppressor strains. Thus, we reveal for the first time that the cold sensitive growth phenotype of a DEAD-box mutant can be explained, at least partially, by an improper membrane composition. The defect correlates with an accumulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex mRNA, which is inefficiently degraded in absence of CshA. We propose that the resulting accumulation of acetyl-CoA fuels straight-chained fatty acid production at the expense of the branched ones. Strikingly, addition of acetate into the medium mimics the cshA deletion phenotype, resulting in cold sensitivity suppressed by the mutations found in our genetic screen or by sublethal doses of triclosan.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17228-17239, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616573

RESUMO

The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to infect many different tissue sites is enabled, in part, by its transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that coordinates its gene expression to respond to different environments. We elucidated the organization and activity of this TRN by applying independent component analysis to a compendium of 108 RNA-sequencing expression profiles from two S. aureus clinical strains (TCH1516 and LAC). ICA decomposed the S. aureus transcriptome into 29 independently modulated sets of genes (i-modulons) that revealed: 1) High confidence associations between 21 i-modulons and known regulators; 2) an association between an i-modulon and σS, whose regulatory role was previously undefined; 3) the regulatory organization of 65 virulence factors in the form of three i-modulons associated with AgrR, SaeR, and Vim-3; 4) the roles of three key transcription factors (CodY, Fur, and CcpA) in coordinating the metabolic and regulatory networks; and 5) a low-dimensional representation, involving the function of few transcription factors of changes in gene expression between two laboratory media (RPMI, cation adjust Mueller Hinton broth) and two physiological media (blood and serum). This representation of the TRN covers 842 genes representing 76% of the variance in gene expression that provides a quantitative reconstruction of transcriptional modules in S. aureus, and a platform enabling its full elucidation.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator sigma/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
11.
An Real Acad Farm ; 86(2): 117-124, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193547

RESUMO

Uno de los quesos frescos tradicionales típicos del Ecuador es el queso de hoja, un queso de pasta hilada, que se elabora de manera artesanal envuelto en hoja de achira (Canna indica), mientras en la industria es empacado al vacío en bolsas de polietileno. En el presente estudio se comparó la calidad microbiológica de estos quesos, evaluando los indicadores de la calidad higiénico-sanitaria, además se cuantificaron y caracterizaron fenotípicamente bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL). Las muestras se recolectaron en queseras artesanales y plantas industriales de la ciudad de Latacunga. Se determinaron recuentos de aerobios mesófilos aplicando la Norma Técnica Ecuatoriana NTE INEN 1529 5, coliformes totales, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus se analizaron utilizando placas Petrifilm (AOAC 991.14 - AOAC 2003.07). El recuento de bacterias ácido lácticas empleó el método PRT-712.02-047. Los resultados de los indicadores de la calidad higiénico-sanitaria: coliformes, E. coli y S. aureus examinados en los quesos de hoja artesanales y de elaboración industrial, en todos los casos superaron los límites de aceptabilidad establecidos por la normativa ecuatoriana, sugiriendo deficiente calidad higiénica de los procesos o incorrecta manipulación de la leche empleada como materia prima. Los recuentos de Lactobacillus y Lactococcus en los quesos industriales presentaron una reducción estadísticamente significativa comparados con los recuentos de estos microorganismos en los quesos artesanales, esto corresponde a una diferencia en porcentaje de 18,15 % y 14,27 % respectivamente. Se aisló un total de 32 cepas de bacterias de ácido láctico, estas mostraron características fenotípicas similares, pero tuvieron una respuesta diferente a la tolerancia a niveles de pH (4.4; 9.4) y NaCl (6.5 %). Es importante complementar la evaluación microbiológica con un análisis sensorial para evaluar el efecto de las BAL sobre las características organolépticas de los quesos de hoja de procedencia artesanal e industrial


One of the traditional fresh cheeses in Ecuador is the artisanal leafcheese, a kind of stretched-curd cheese. The artisanal product is wrapped in achira leaves (Canna indica), while the industrial leafcheese is packed at vacuum in high density polyethylene bags. In this study the microbiological quality of both products was compared. The hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified. The LAB isolated were characterized phenotypically. The samples were obtained from artisanal cheese-making and industrial located in Latacunga city province Cotopaxi. The total aerobic mesophilic count was made based on national regulations (NTE INEN 1529 5); total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using petrifilm methods (AOAC 991.14 - AOAC 2003.07) and to LAB was used PRT-712.02-047. The results show high quantities of total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus in both products, these data exceed the limits of acceptability established in Ecuadorian regulations, this evidence poor hygienic quality of the processes or incorrect controls of milk as raw material. The lactic acid bacteria count showed statistically significant differences, the industrial cheeses had a reduction of 18,15% of Lactobacillus and 14,27% of Lactococcus compared with artisanal cheeses. A total of 32 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated, these showed similar phenotypic characteristics, but these had a different response at the level of pH (4,4;9,4) and NaCl (6,5%). The sensory evaluation will be an important complement in this type of study


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Coliformes , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Equador , Queijo/normas , Escherichia coli/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fenótipo
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 601-606, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high mortality rates, physicians can alter the course of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) by following recommended standards of care. We aim to assess the adherence of these guidelines and their impact on mortality. METHODS: Substudy from a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with SAB from three hospitals from Peru. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and the performance of standards of care: removal of central venous catheters (CVC), follow-up blood cultures, echocardiography, correct duration, and appropriate definitive antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: 150 cases of SAB were evaluated; 61.33% were MRSA. 30-day attributable mortality was 22.39%. CVC removal was done in 42.86% of patients. Follow-up blood cultures and echocardiograms were performed in 8% and 29.33% of cases, respectively. 81.33% of cases had appropriate empirical treatment, however, only 22.41% of MSSA cases were given appropriate definitive treatment, compared to 93.47% of MRSA. The adjusted regression for all-cause mortality found a substantial decrease in hazards when removing CVC (aHR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.74) and instituting appropriate definitive treatment (aHR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.86), while adjusting for standards of care, qPitt bacteraemia score, comorbidities, and methicillin susceptibility; similar results were found in the attributable mortality model (aHR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.70 and aHR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.71, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Deficient adherence to standards of care was observed, especially definitive treatment for MSSA. CVC removal and the use of appropriate definitive antibiotic therapy reduced the hazard mortality of SAB.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492060

RESUMO

Several studies have shown the ubiquitous presence of bacteria in hospital surfaces, staff, and patients. Frequently, these bacteria are related to HAI (healthcare-associated infections) and carry antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These HAI-related bacteria contribute to a major public health issue by increasing patient morbidity and mortality during or after hospital stay. Bacterial high-throughput amplicon gene sequencing along with identification of AMR genes, as well as whole genome sequencing (WGS), are biotechnological tools that allow multiple-sample screening for a diversity of bacteria. In this paper, we used these methods to perform a one-year cross sectional profiling of bacteria and AMR genes in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and NICU) in a Brazilian public, tertiary hospital. Our results showed high abundances of HAI-related bacteria such as S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii complex, E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. aeruginosa in patients and hospital surfaces. Most abundant AMR genes detected throughout ICU and NICU were mecA, blaCTX-M-1 group, blaSHV-like, and blaKPC-like. We found that NICU environment and patients were more widely contaminated with pathogenic bacteria than ICU. Patient samples, despite the higher bacterial load, have lower bacterial diversity than environmental samples in both units. Finally, we also identified contamination hotspots in the hospital environment showing constant frequencies of bacterial and AMR contamination throughout the year. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), 16S rRNA oligotypes, and AMR identification allowed a high-resolution characterization of the hospital microbiome profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2934, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523110

RESUMO

The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is an increasingly serious threat to global health, necessitating the development of innovative antimicrobials. Here we report the development of a series of CRISPR-Cas13a-based antibacterial nucleocapsids, termed CapsidCas13a(s), capable of sequence-specific killing of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by recognizing corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes. CapsidCas13a constructs are generated by packaging programmed CRISPR-Cas13a into a bacteriophage capsid to target antimicrobial resistance genes. Contrary to Cas9-based antimicrobials that lack bacterial killing capacity when the target genes are located on a plasmid, the CapsidCas13a(s) exhibit strong bacterial killing activities upon recognizing target genes regardless of their location. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the CapsidCas13a(s) can be applied to detect bacterial genes through gene-specific depletion of bacteria without employing nucleic acid manipulation and optical visualization devices. Our data underscore the potential of CapsidCas13a(s) as both therapeutic agents against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and nonchemical agents for detection of bacterial genes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) facilitate Staphylococcus aureus adherence to host tissue. We hypothesized that S. aureus isolates from implant-associated infections (IAIs) would differ in MSCRAMM profile and biofilm formation in vitro compared to skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) isolates. METHODS: Pediatric patients and their isolates were identified retrospectively. IAI and SSTI isolates were matched (1:4). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed to group isolates as USA300 vs. non-USA300. Whole genome sequencing was performed and raw sequence data were interrogated for presence of MSCRAMMs (clfA, clfB, cna, ebh, efb, fnbpA, fnbpB, isdA, isdB, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE), biofilm-associated (icaA,D,B,C), and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV) genes, accessory gene regulator group, and multilocus sequence types. In vitro biofilm formation was assessed for 47 IAI and 47 SSTI isolates using a microtiter plate assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed for analysis of matched data (STATA11, College Station, TX). RESULTS: Forty-seven IAI and 188 SSTI isolates were studied. IAI isolates were more often methicillin susceptible S. aureus and non-USA300 vs. SSTI isolates [34 (72%) vs. 79 (42%), p = 0.001 and 38 (81%) vs. 57 (30%) p <0.001, respectively]. Greater than 98% of isolates carried clfA, clfB, efb, isdA, isdB, and icaA,D,B,C while cna was more frequently found among IAI vs. SSTI isolates (p = 0.003). Most isolates were strong biofilm producers. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus IAI isolates were significantly more likely to be MSSA and non-USA300 than SSTI isolates. Carriage of MSCRAMMs and biofilm formation did not differ significantly between isolates. Evaluation of genetic polymorphisms and gene expression profiles are needed to further delineate the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of IAIs.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/genética , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/genética , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2738, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483131

RESUMO

Almost half of all enzymes utilize a metal cofactor. However, the features that dictate the metal utilized by metalloenzymes are poorly understood, limiting our ability to manipulate these enzymes for industrial and health-associated applications. The ubiquitous iron/manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) family exemplifies this deficit, as the specific metal used by any family member cannot be predicted. Biochemical, structural and paramagnetic analysis of two evolutionarily related SODs with different metal specificity produced by the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus identifies two positions that control metal specificity. These residues make no direct contacts with the metal-coordinating ligands but control the metal's redox properties, demonstrating that subtle architectural changes can dramatically alter metal utilization. Introducing these mutations into S. aureus alters the ability of the bacterium to resist superoxide stress when metal starved by the host, revealing that small changes in metal-dependent activity can drive the evolution of metalloenzymes with new cofactor specificity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Evolução Molecular , Ferro/química , Isoenzimas/classificação , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Manganês/química , Metaloproteínas/química , Metaloproteínas/genética , Mutação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxidos/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407414

RESUMO

The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in food animals, associated products, and their zoonotic potential in Nigeria are poorly understood. This study aimed to provide data on the prevalence, genetic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and persons in contact with the carcasses at slaughterhouses in Nigeria. Surface swabs were collected randomly from 600 chicken and 600 pig carcasses. Nasal swabs were collected from 45 workers in chicken slaughterhouses and 45 pig slaughterhouse workers. S. aureus isolates were analyzed by spa typing. They were also examined for presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) and mecA genes, as well as for antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Overall, 53 S. aureus isolates were recovered (28 from chicken carcasses, 17 from pig carcasses, 5 from chicken carcass handlers and 3 from pig carcass handlers). Among the isolates, 19 (35.8%) were PVL-positive and 12 (22.6%) carried the mecA gene. The 53 isolates belonged to 19 spa types. The Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) algorithm separated the isolates into 2 spa-clonal complexes (spa-CC) and 9 singletons including 2 novel spa types (t18345 and t18346). The clonal complexes (CC) detected were CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC88 and CC152. CC15-related isolates represented by spa type t084 (32.1%) and CC5 represented by spa type t311 (35.3%) predominated among isolates from chicken carcasses/ handlers, and pig carcasses/ handlers, respectively. Multidrug resistance exhibited by all the CC except CC8, was observed among isolates from chicken carcasses (64.3%), pig carcasses (41.2%), handlers of chicken meat (40.0%) and handlers of pork (33.3%). All the CC showed varying degrees of resistance to tetracycline while CC15 and CC5 exhibited the highest resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and erythromycin, respectively. The predominant antimicrobial resistance pattern observed was penicillin-tetracycline-sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (PEN-TET-SXT). In conclusion, food animals processed in Enugu State in Southeast Nigeria are potential vehicles for transmission of PVL-positive multiple-drug resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus from farm to slaughterhouse and potentially to the human population. Public health intervention programs at pre- and post-slaughter stages should be considered in Nigerian slaughterhouses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 374, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated Staphylococcus aureus and oral bacterial concentrations are known to correlate with pneumonia hospitalization in nursing home residents. However, the effects of a professional oral care intervention on these factors remain unclear. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were to compare bacterial concentrations in saliva and sputum, oral health status, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia status before and after a professional oral care intervention. METHODS: A purposive sample of residents from two nursing homes was divided into an intervention group that received a weekly professional oral care intervention and a control group. Oral bacterial concentration was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Staphylococcus aureus distribution was determined by bacterial culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After data collection, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Most residents were unconscious (80%), and most had a history of pneumonia (76%). Baseline demographic data did not significantly differ between the two groups. After the intervention, the intervention group had significant improvements in plaque index (1.66 ± 0.78 vs. 0.94 ± 0.64, p <  0.01), gingival index (2.36 ± 0.76 vs. 1.65 ± 0.83, p <  0.01), tongue coating index (0.96 ± 1.10 vs. 0.16 ± 0.47, p <  0.01), distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in salivary samples (11.11 ± 14.47% vs. 1.74 ± 3.75%, p = 0.02), and salivary bacterial concentration ([4.27 ± 3.65] × 105 vs. [0.75 ± 1.20] × 105, p <  0.01). Sputum bacterial concentration did not significantly differ. The intervention group also had a significantly lower annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization (1.24 ± 1.51 vs. 0.48 ± 0.59, p = 0.01), especially in residents whose salivary bacterial concentration exceeded the median. However, the duration of pneumonia hospitalization did not significantly differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A professional oral care intervention in nursing home residents can improve oral health, reduce levels of salivary bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus, and decrease the annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03874962. Registered 12 March 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Taiwan
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2200, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366839

RESUMO

Bacterial persister cells are phenotypic variants that exhibit a transient non-growing state and antibiotic tolerance. Here, we provide in vitro evidence of Staphylococcus aureus persisters within infected host cells. We show that the bacteria surviving antibiotic treatment within host cells are persisters, displaying biphasic killing and reaching a uniformly non-responsive, non-dividing state when followed at the single-cell level. This phenotype is stable but reversible upon antibiotic removal. Intracellular S. aureus persisters remain metabolically active but display an altered transcriptomic profile consistent with activation of stress responses, including the stringent response as well as cell wall stress, SOS and heat shock responses. These changes are associated with multidrug tolerance after exposure to a single antibiotic. We hypothesize that intracellular S. aureus persisters may constitute a reservoir for relapsing infection and could contribute to therapeutic failures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Células THP-1
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10989-10999, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354997

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus infections can lead to diseases that range from localized skin abscess to life-threatening toxic shock syndrome. The SrrAB two-component system (TCS) is a global regulator of S. aureus virulence and critical for survival under environmental conditions such as hypoxic, oxidative, and nitrosative stress found at sites of infection. Despite the critical role of SrrAB in S. aureus pathogenicity, the mechanism by which the SrrAB TCS senses and responds to these environmental signals remains unknown. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the SrrB histidine kinase contains several domains, including an extracellular Cache domain and a cytoplasmic HAMP-PAS-DHp-CA region. Here, we show that the PAS domain regulates both kinase and phosphatase enzyme activity of SrrB and present the structure of the DHp-CA catalytic core. Importantly, this structure shows a unique intramolecular cysteine disulfide bond in the ATP-binding domain that significantly affects autophosphorylation kinetics. In vitro data show that the redox state of the disulfide bond affects S. aureus biofilm formation and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 production. Moreover, with the use of the rabbit infective endocarditis model, we demonstrate that the disulfide bond is a critical regulatory element of SrrB function during S. aureus infection. Our data support a model whereby the disulfide bond and PAS domain of SrrB sense and respond to the cellular redox environment to regulate S. aureus survival and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas , Sequência de Bases , Biofilmes , Domínio Catalítico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocardite , Enterotoxinas , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Oxirredução , Domínios Proteicos , Coelhos , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sepse , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Superantígenos , Thermotoga maritima , Virulência/genética , Virulência/fisiologia
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