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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 646, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is known as a new viral infection. Viral-bacterial co-infections are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. To date, few studies have investigated bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 patients. Hence, we designed the current study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Nineteen patients admitted to our ICUs were enrolled in this study. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. Endotracheal aspirate samples were also collected and cultured on different media to support the growth of the bacteria. After incubation, formed colonies on the media were identified using Gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out based on the CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of nineteen COVID-19 patients, 11 (58%) patients were male and 8 (42%) were female, with a mean age of ~ 67 years old. The average ICU length of stay was ~ 15 days and at the end of the study, 18 cases (95%) expired and only was 1 case (5%) discharged. In total, all patients were found positive for bacterial infections, including seventeen Acinetobacter baumannii (90%) and two Staphylococcus aureus (10%) strains. There was no difference in the bacteria species detected in any of the sampling points. Seventeen of 17 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to the evaluated antibiotics. No metallo-beta-lactamases -producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain was found. One of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was detected as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and isolated from the patient who died, while another Staphylococcus aureus strain was susceptible to tested drugs and identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the concern of superinfection in COVID-19 patients due to Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial co-infections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/complicações , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4774, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963224

RESUMO

Detection of microbial nucleic acids in body fluids has become the preferred method for rapid diagnosis of many infectious diseases. However, culture-based diagnostics that are time-consuming remain the gold standard approach in certain cases, such as sepsis. New culture-free methods are urgently needed. Here, we describe Single MOLecule Tethering or SMOLT, an amplification-free and purification-free molecular assay that can detect microorganisms in body fluids with high sensitivity without the need of culturing. The signal of SMOLT is generated by the displacement of micron-size beads tethered by DNA probes that are between 1 and 7 microns long. The molecular extension of thousands of DNA probes is determined with sub-micron precision using a robust and rapid optical approach. We demonstrate that SMOLT can detect nucleic acids directly in blood, urine and sputum at sub-femtomolar concentrations, and microorganisms in blood at 1 CFU mL-1 (colony forming unit per milliliter) threefold faster, with higher multiplexing capacity and with a more straight-forward protocol than amplified methodologies. SMOLT's clinical utility is further demonstrated by developing a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of sepsis-causing Candida species directly in whole blood.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Urina
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies manufacturing anti-staphylococcal antibiotics were contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Register: 27 February 2020. Online trials registries were also searched. Most recent search of online trials registries: 15 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of continuous oral prophylactic antibiotics (given for at least one year) compared to intermittent antibiotics given 'as required', in people with cystic fibrosis of any disease severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors assessed studies for eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. The review's primary outcomes of interest were lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)) and the number of people with one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive strains). MAIN RESULTS: We included four studies, with a total of 401 randomised participants aged zero to seven years on enrolment; one study is ongoing. The two older included studies generally had a higher risk of bias across all domains, but in particular due to a lack of blinding and incomplete outcome data, than the two more recent studies. We only regarded the most recent study as being generally free of bias, although even here we were not certain of the effect of the per protocol analysis on the study results. Evidence quality was judged to be low for all outcomes assessed after being downgraded based on GRADE assessments. Downgrading decisions were due to limitations in study design (all outcomes), for imprecision and for inconsistency . Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics probably make little or no difference to lung function measured as FEV1 % predicted after six years (mean difference (MD) -2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.59 to 8.99, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence); but may reduce the number of children having one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at two years (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35, three studies, n = 315, low-quality evidence). At the same time point, there may be little or no effect on nutrition as reported using weight z score (MD 0.06, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.45, two studies, n = 140, low-quality evidence), additional courses of antibiotics (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.60, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence) or adverse effects (low-quality evidence). There was no difference in the number of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa between groups at two years (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.23, three studies, n = 312, low-quality evidence), though there was a trend towards a lower cumulative isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the prophylaxis group at two and three years and towards a higher rate from four to six years. As the studies reviewed lasted six years or less, conclusions cannot be drawn about the long-term effects of prophylaxis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to fewer children having isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, when commenced early in infancy and continued up to six years of age. The clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. Further research may establish whether the trend towards more children with CF with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after four to six years of prophylaxis, is a chance finding and whether choice of antibiotic or duration of treatment might influence this.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 634, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have increased risk of acquiring blood-transmitted chronic viral infections such as Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as increased risk of acquiring bacterial infections. We aimed to identify and describe bacteraemic episodes, their recurrence rates, predictive and prognostic factors amongst hospitalised PWID. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 257 hospitalised PWID during 2000-2006 with follow up at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Data collection included comorbidity (HBV-, HCV-, HIV-, and psychiatric comorbidities), social information (contact to an addiction treatment centre, homelessness), opioid substitution treatment (OST), treatment completion and microbiology findings. There was a 10-years follow-up regarding mortality. RESULTS: The study identified 257 patients classified as PWID. Of these, 58 (22.6%) had at least one episode of bacteraemia during their first hospital admission. Recurrence was found in 29 (50.0%) of the bacteraemia cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the dominant microorganism of both first and recurrent episodes with 24 (41.4%) and nine (31.4%) of cases, respectively. A psychiatric diagnose was significantly associated with a lower risk of bacteraemia in the multivariate analysis (OR: 0.29, [95%CI: 0.11-0.77], P = 0.01). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with bacteraemia (17.2% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.01, OR: 6.67 [95%CI: 2.33-20], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised PWID, bacteraemia was found in 22.6% and was associated with at higher mortality. The most common microorganism of bacteraemia was S. aureus. Psychiatric comorbidity was significantly associated with a lower risk of bacteraemia.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/mortalidade
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 583, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is endemic and a leading health problem in Sri Lanka. Increased incidence of concurrent bacteremia in patients with dengue infection is a recognized complication. However, Staphylococcal endocarditis following dengue fever is uncommon. Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported in QAV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Sri Lankan male presented to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with recurrence of fever and acute left hemiplegia following an uncomplicated recovery of dengue fever. He was diagnosed to have Staphylococcal infective endocarditis of quadricuspid aortic valve, with septic emboli to brain and spleen. He was managed with intravenous vancomycin initially, however, due to inadequate response, intravenous linezolid was added. He developed rhabdomyolysis with very high creatine phosphokinase leading to acute kidney injury, which settled with the cessation of linezolid. The patient succumbed to his illness despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy and maximum supportive care while being assessed for aortic valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates three clinical issues that a clinician should be aware of. Firstly, the possibility of a serious secondary bacterial infection as a cause for recurrence of fever following dengue infection. Secondly, this case highlights the importance of identifying QAV as a cause for complicated infective endocarditis of increased severity. The report also denotes the value of being vigilant of linezolid induced rhabdomyolysis which had a causal relationship with the commencement of the drug and its cessation.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Dengue/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocultura , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Evolução Fatal , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linezolida/farmacologia , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Rabdomiólise/induzido quimicamente , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3970, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769975

RESUMO

The rise of antibiotic resistance in many bacterial pathogens has been driven by the spread of a few successful strains, suggesting that some bacteria are genetically pre-disposed to evolving resistance. Here, we test this hypothesis by challenging a diverse set of 222 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in a large-scale evolution experiment. We find that a single efflux pump, norA, causes widespread variation in evolvability across isolates. Elevated norA expression potentiates evolution by increasing the fitness benefit provided by DNA topoisomerase mutations under ciprofloxacin treatment. Amplification of norA provides a further mechanism of rapid evolution in isolates from the CC398 lineage. Crucially, chemical inhibition of NorA effectively prevents the evolution of resistance in all isolates. Our study shows that pre-existing genetic diversity plays a key role in shaping resistance evolution, and it may be possible to predict which strains are likely to evolve resistance and to optimize inhibitor use to prevent this outcome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Evolução Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Bacteriano , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1132-1144, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812863

RESUMO

Introduction. While colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in haemodialysis patients has been assessed, knowledge about colonization by beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is still limited.Aim. To describe clinical and molecular characteristics in haemodialysis patients colonized by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) and beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in an ambulatory renal unit.Methodology. The study included patients with central venous catheters in an outpatient haemodialysis facility in Medellín, Colombia (October 2017-October 2018). Swab specimens were collected from the nostrils and skin around vascular access to assess colonization by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA). Stool samples were collected from each patient to evaluate beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli colonization. Molecular typing included PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC). Clinical information was obtained from medical records and personal interview.Results. A total of 210 patients were included in the study. S. aureus colonization was observed in 33.8 % (n=71) of the patients, 4.8 % (n=10) of which were colonized by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Stool samples were collected from 165 patients and of these 41.2 % (n=68) and 11.5 % (n=19) were colonized by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant bacilli, respectively. Typing methods revealed high genetic diversity among S. aureus and ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB). Antibiotic use and hospitalization in the previous 6 months were observed in more than half of the studied population.Conclusion. The high colonization by ESBL-GNB in haemodialysis patients shows evidence for the need for stronger surveillance, not only for S. aureus but also for multidrug-resistant bacilli in order to avoid their spread. Additionally, the high genetic diversity suggests other sources of transmission outside the renal unit instead of horizontal transmission between patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Lactamas/farmacologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic infected wounds are generally difficult to manage and treatment can be particularly challenging in resource-limited settings where diagnostic testing is not readily available. In this study, the epidemiology of microbial pathogens in chronically infected wounds in rural Ghana was assessed to support therapeutic choices for physicians. METHODS: Culture-based bacterial diagnostics including antimicrobial resistance testing were performed on samples collected from patients with chronic wounds at a hospital in Asante Akim North Municipality, Ghana. Fungal detection was performed by broad-range fungal PCR and sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: In total, 105 patients were enrolled in the study, from which 207 potential bacterial pathogens were isolated. Enterobacteriaceae (n = 84, 41%) constituted the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. On species level, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 50, 24%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 28, 14%) were predominant. High resistance rates were documented, comprising 29% methicillin resistance in S. aureus as well as resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in 33% and 58% of Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. One P. aeruginosa strain with carbapenem resistance was identified. The most frequently detected fungi were Candida tropicalis. CONCLUSIONS: The pathogen distribution in chronic wounds in rural Ghana matched the internationally observed patterns with a predominance of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Very high resistance rates discourage antibiotic therapy but suggest an urgent need for microbiological diagnostic approaches, including antimicrobial resistance testing to guide the management of patients with chronic wounds in Ghana.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Circ J ; 84(10): 1887, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779609
11.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 628-634, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842382

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates. Methods: The clinical data of children with MRSA infection and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates from 11 children's hospitals in Infectious Diseases Surveillance of Paediatrics (ISPED) group of China between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 were collected retrospectively. The children's general condition, high-risk factors, antimicrobial therapy and prognosis, differences in clinical disease and laboratory test results between different age groups, and differences of antibiotic sensitivity between community-acquired (CA)-MRSA and hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA were analyzed. The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for statistical analysis of the quantitative data and Chi-square test were used for comparison of rates. Results: Among the 452 patients, 264 were males and 188 were females, aged from 2 days to 17 years. There were 233 cases (51.5%) in the ≤1 year old group, 79 cases (17.5%) in the>1-3 years old group, 29 cases (6.4%) in the >3-5 years old group, 65 cases (14.4%) in the >5-10 years old group, and 46 cases (10.2%) in the>10 years old group. The main distributions of onset seasons were 55 cases (12.2%) in December, 47 cases (10.4%) in February, 46 cases (10.2%) in November, 45 cases (10.0%) in January, 40 cases (8.8%) in March. There were 335 cases (74.1%) CA-MRSA and 117 (25.9%) cases HA-MRSA. Among all cases, 174 cases (38.5%) had basic diseases or long-term use of hormone and immunosuppressive drugs. During the period of hospitalization, 209 cases (46.2%) received medical interventions. There were 182 patients (40.3%) had used antibiotics (ß-lactams, glycopeptides, macrolides, carbapenems, oxazolones, sulfonamides etc) 3 months before admission. The most common clinical disease was pneumonia (203 cases), followed by skin soft-tissue infection (133 cases), sepsis (92 cases), deep tissue abscess (42 cases), osteomyelitis (40 cases), and septic arthritis (26 cases), suppurative meningitis (10 cases). The proportion of pneumonia in the ≤1 year old group was higher than the >1-3 years old group,>3-5 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (57.5% (134/233) vs. 30.4% (24/79), 31.0% (9/29), 38.5% (25/65), 23.9% (11/46), χ(2)=17.374, 7.293, 7.410, 17.373, all P<0.01) The proportion of skin and soft tissue infections caused by CA-MRSA infection was higher than HA-MRSA (33.4% (112/335) vs. 17.9% (21/117), χ(2)=10.010, P=0.002), and the proportion of pneumonia caused by HA-MRSA infection was higher than CA-MRSA (53.0% (62/117) vs. 42.1% (141/335), χ(2)=4.166, P=0.041). The first white blood cell count of the ≤1 year old group was higher than that children > 1 year old ((15±8)×10(9)/L vs. (13±7)×10(9)/L, t=2.697, P=0.007), while the C-reactive protein of the ≤1 year old group was lower than the 1-3 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (8.00 (0.04-194.00) vs.17.00 (0.50-316.00), 15.20 (0.23-312.00), 21.79(0.13-219.00) mg/L, Z=3.207, 2.044, 2.513, all P<0.05), there were no significant differences in procalcitonin (PCT) between different age groups (all P>0.05). After the treatment, 131 cases were cured, 278 cases were improved, 21 cases were not cured, 12 cases died, and 10 cases were abandoned. The 452 MRSA isolates were all sensitive to vancomycin (100.0%), linezolid (100.0%), 100.0% resistant to penicillin, highly resistant to erythromycin (85.0%, 375/441), clindamycin (67.7%, 294/434), less resistant to sulfonamides (5.9%, 23/391), levofloxacin (4.5%, 19/423), gentamicin (3.2%, 14/438), rifampicin (1.8%, 8/440), minocycline (1.1%, 1/91). The antimicrobial resistance rates were not significantly different between the CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The infection of MRSA is mainly found in infants under 3 years old. The prevalent seasons are winter and spring, and MRSA is mainly acquired in the community. The main clinical diseases are pneumonia, skin soft-tissue infection and sepsis. No MRSA isolate is resistant to vancomycin, linezolid. MRSA isolates are generally sensitive to sulfonamides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, minocycline, and were highly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. To achieve better prognosis. clinicians should initiate anti-infective treatment for children with MRSA infection according to the clinical characteristics of patients and drug sensitivity of the isolates timely and effectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759380

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of community and health care-associated bacteremia, with authors of recent studies estimating the incidence of S aureus bacteremia (SAB) in high-income countries between 8 and 26 per 100 000 children per year. Despite this, <300 children worldwide have ever been randomly assigned into clinical trials to assess the efficacy of treatment of SAB. A panel of infectious diseases physicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric SAB identified 7 key clinical questions. The available literature is systematically appraised, summarizing SAB management in children in relation to these priority clinical questions. The management of neonates, children, and adolescents with SAB is predominantly based on clinical experience and trial data extrapolated from adult studies, with limited high-quality evidence available to guide management. The optimal, comprehensive management strategies for SAB in children will remain unknown until the questions outlined are answered through prospective observational cohorts and inclusion of children with SAB in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnica Delfos , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Glicopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravenosas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was done to assess the etiology and infectious complications of CVC in children on long term hemodialysis. METHODS: Children newly undergoing hemodialysis and having indwelling CVC were included. They were followed up to a period of 2-years to assess infectious complications. Catheter bundle care approach was employed to prevent infections and other complications. Automated culture from the central catheter and peripheral vein and 2D echocardiography were done in each hemodialysis. Serial procalcitonin (PCT) was measured. Differential time of positivity (DTP) was used to detect CLABSI. During homestay in weekly telephone conversations were done to assess features of infection, and whenever having, we have asked to admit to the tertiary care unit. Logistic regression was performed, and the significant outcome variable was considered following multivariable analysis as a risk factor. RESULTS: Blood cultures were positive in 1090 (74.5%) out of 1462 children. According to DTP, 410 (28%) were having CLABSI, while 520 (35.6%) were having bacteremia without CLABSI. Out of 410 CLABSI patients, 79 (19.2%) were asymptomatic. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) bacteremia was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI. Right-sided infective endocarditis (RS-IE) was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia without CLABSI. CoNS was associated significantly in RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia. PCT was in asymptomatic CLABSI was 1.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL while in symptomatic CLABSI was 11.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml (P = 0.02). CoNS bloodstream infection, tunneled CVC, peripherally inserted central catheter, femoral site, the number of line days > 90, receipt of vancomycin, meropenem, or linezolid in the 5 days before CLABSI diagnosis and recurrent bacteremia were risk factors for asymptomatic CLABSI. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic CLABSI could be a rare occurrence. CoNS was predominantly isolated in patients with asymptomatic CLABSI. RS- IE is a well-known complication in long term indwelling CVC. CoNS was significantly associated with RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI. Regular procalcitonin, microbiological, and imaging studies would be essential to detect infectious complications in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients implanted with long term indwelling CVCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal septicemia is a life threatening medical emergency that requires timely detection of pathogens with urgent rational antibiotics therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2017 to September 2018 among 317 septicemia suspected neonates at neonatal intensive care unit, Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Mekelle, Tigray, North Ethiopia. A 3 mL of blood was collected from each participant. Identification of bacterial species was done using the standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done using disk diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed using computer software SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the association between variables. RESULTS: Of the 317 (190 male and 127 female) neonates, 116 (36.6%) were found to be with culture proven septicemia. Klebsiella species were the predominant etiologic agents. Length of hospital stay (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) = 3.65 (2.17-6.13), p < 0.001) and low birth weight (AOR = 1.64 (1.13-2.78), p = 0.04) were the factors associated with neonatalsepticemia. Most isolates showeda frightening drug resistance rate to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were 57% to100% resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamycin, amoxacillin-clavulunic acid and ampicillin. All, 9 (100%) isolates of S. aureus were resistant to oxacilline, ampicillin,erythromycin and gentamycin. Furthermore, 55.6% S. aureus isolates were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Neonaltal septicemia is found to be significantly high in the present study. As most of the isolates are potentially related to hospital acquired infections, prevention and control policy should have to be more strengthening in the neonatal intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Sepse Neonatal , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Oxacilina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(6): 487-492, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotising otitis externa is a progressive infection of the external auditory canal which extends to affect the temporal bone and adjacent structures. Progression of the disease process can result in serious sequelae, including cranial nerve palsies and death. There is currently no formal published treatment guideline. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to integrate current evidence and data from our own retrospective case series in order to develop a guideline to optimise necrotising otitis externa patient management. METHODS: A retrospective review of necrotising otitis externa cases within NHS Lothian, Scotland, between 2013 and 2018, was performed, along with a PubMed review. RESULTS: Prevalent presenting signs, symptoms and patient demographic data were established. Furthermore, features of cases associated with adverse outcomes were defined. A key feature of the guideline is defining at-risk patients with initial intensive treatment. Investigations and outcomes are assessed and treatment adjusted appropriately. CONCLUSION: This multi-departmental approach has facilitated the development of a succinct, systematic guideline for the management of necrotising otitis externa. Initial patient outcomes appear promising.


Assuntos
Meato Acústico Externo/microbiologia , Necrose/etiologia , Otite Externa/complicações , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/etiologia , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Otite Externa/epidemiologia , Otite Externa/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Osso Temporal/microbiologia
16.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 34-41, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bacterial flora in patients with deep sternal wound infection and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy on eradication of the pathogen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 102 patients with deep wound infection after cardiac surgery. Mean age was 66.9±9.9 years. Diabetes mellitus was detected in 21 (20.5%) cases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - in 15 (14.7%). Wound debridement via daily dressings was performed in 64 patients; vacuum-assisted dressings were applied in 38 patients. Bacteriological analysis of discharge was carried out every week.Results. Mixed infection was observed in 38 (37.3%) patients. S.aureus was the most common pathogen (n=51, 50%), Gram negative bacteria were found in 36 (35.3%) patients. Negative pressure wound therapy ensured eradication of S.aureus within 3 weeks while dressings were associated with only 40% decrease of the incidence of positive analyses (p<0.05). Effectiveness of the method was not obtained for Gram negative bacteria. CONCLUSION: Negative pressure wound therapy accelerates eradication of Gram positive pathogens but does not affect eradication of Gram negative microbes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Desbridamento , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/etiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/terapia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Esterno/microbiologia , Esterno/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555702

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the principal causative agents of bacteremia which can progress to sepsis. Rapid diagnostic tests for identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of S. aureus would improve patient outcomes and antibiotic stewardship, but existing methods require a lengthy culture step to obtain enough material for testing. Complexity of the host matrix, where pathogenic microbes are often present, also interferes with many diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a straightforward and rapid method for enriching viable S. aureus using bio-orthogonal, or "click," chemistry methods. Bacteria labeled in this manner can potentially be cultured, interrogated using molecular methods for pathogen identification, or used to test antibiotic susceptibility.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Sepse/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598400

RESUMO

Drosophila melanogaster's blood cells (hemocytes) play essential roles in wound healing and are involved in clearing microbial infections. Here, we report the transcriptional changes of larval plasmatocytes after clean injury or infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli or the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus compared to hemocytes recovered from unchallenged larvae via RNA-Sequencing. This study reveals 676 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in hemocytes from clean injury samples compared to unchallenged samples, and 235 and 184 DEGs in E. coli and S. aureus samples respectively compared to clean injury samples. The clean injury samples showed enriched DEGs for immunity, clotting, cytoskeleton, cell migration, hemocyte differentiation, and indicated a metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis, a well-defined metabolic adaptation observed in mammalian macrophages. Microbial infections trigger significant transcription of immune genes, with significant differences between the E. coli and S. aureus samples suggesting that hemocytes have the ability to engage various programs upon infection. Collectively, our data bring new insights on Drosophila hemocyte function and open the route to post-genomic functional analysis of the cellular immune response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Sepse/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Hemócitos/microbiologia , Incidência , Larva/genética , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA-Seq/métodos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) facilitate Staphylococcus aureus adherence to host tissue. We hypothesized that S. aureus isolates from implant-associated infections (IAIs) would differ in MSCRAMM profile and biofilm formation in vitro compared to skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) isolates. METHODS: Pediatric patients and their isolates were identified retrospectively. IAI and SSTI isolates were matched (1:4). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed to group isolates as USA300 vs. non-USA300. Whole genome sequencing was performed and raw sequence data were interrogated for presence of MSCRAMMs (clfA, clfB, cna, ebh, efb, fnbpA, fnbpB, isdA, isdB, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE), biofilm-associated (icaA,D,B,C), and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV) genes, accessory gene regulator group, and multilocus sequence types. In vitro biofilm formation was assessed for 47 IAI and 47 SSTI isolates using a microtiter plate assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed for analysis of matched data (STATA11, College Station, TX). RESULTS: Forty-seven IAI and 188 SSTI isolates were studied. IAI isolates were more often methicillin susceptible S. aureus and non-USA300 vs. SSTI isolates [34 (72%) vs. 79 (42%), p = 0.001 and 38 (81%) vs. 57 (30%) p <0.001, respectively]. Greater than 98% of isolates carried clfA, clfB, efb, isdA, isdB, and icaA,D,B,C while cna was more frequently found among IAI vs. SSTI isolates (p = 0.003). Most isolates were strong biofilm producers. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus IAI isolates were significantly more likely to be MSSA and non-USA300 than SSTI isolates. Carriage of MSCRAMMs and biofilm formation did not differ significantly between isolates. Evaluation of genetic polymorphisms and gene expression profiles are needed to further delineate the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of IAIs.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/genética , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/genética , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492060

RESUMO

Several studies have shown the ubiquitous presence of bacteria in hospital surfaces, staff, and patients. Frequently, these bacteria are related to HAI (healthcare-associated infections) and carry antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These HAI-related bacteria contribute to a major public health issue by increasing patient morbidity and mortality during or after hospital stay. Bacterial high-throughput amplicon gene sequencing along with identification of AMR genes, as well as whole genome sequencing (WGS), are biotechnological tools that allow multiple-sample screening for a diversity of bacteria. In this paper, we used these methods to perform a one-year cross sectional profiling of bacteria and AMR genes in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and NICU) in a Brazilian public, tertiary hospital. Our results showed high abundances of HAI-related bacteria such as S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii complex, E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. aeruginosa in patients and hospital surfaces. Most abundant AMR genes detected throughout ICU and NICU were mecA, blaCTX-M-1 group, blaSHV-like, and blaKPC-like. We found that NICU environment and patients were more widely contaminated with pathogenic bacteria than ICU. Patient samples, despite the higher bacterial load, have lower bacterial diversity than environmental samples in both units. Finally, we also identified contamination hotspots in the hospital environment showing constant frequencies of bacterial and AMR contamination throughout the year. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), 16S rRNA oligotypes, and AMR identification allowed a high-resolution characterization of the hospital microbiome profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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