Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.335
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five globally. When it is associated with bacteremia, mortality is even higher. However, bacteraemia in diarrheal children has gained little attention in spite of its deleterious impact in under-five mortality. So, we aimed to evaluate associated clinical and laboratory factors for death in under-five children hospitalized with both diarrhea and bacteremia. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used patients' electronic database of Dhaka Hospital of 'icddr,b', and enrolled all under-five children with diarrhea and bacterial growth in their blood samples on admission between June-2014 and May-2017. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between those who died and who survived with a special attention to bacterial pathogens related to deaths and their sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: In a total of 401 diarrheal children with bacteraemia, 45 (11%) died. Although Salmonella Typhi (34%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staphylococcus species (16%) and Pseudomonas species (9%), children who died more often had E. coli (OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.42-13.39, p = <0.001) and Klebsiella bacteraemia (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.84-11.46, p = 0.001) compared to those who survived. However, none of them was significantly associated with deaths in regression analysis when adjusted with other potential confounders. E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin, 41% to gentamicin, and 73% to ceftriaxone and Klebsiella species was 96% resistant to ampicillin, 42% to gentamicin, and 62% to ceftriaxone. Study children who died had significantly higher overall resistance pattern shown in World Health Organization (WHO) recommended one of the first line antibiotics in treating childhood sepsis such as ampicillin (80% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and in second line antibiotic such as ceftriaxone (49% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) compared to the survivors. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that clinical sepsis (aOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.60-8.96, p = 0.002), hypoxemia (aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.74-10.12, p = 0.001), and hyperkalaemia (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.91, p = 0.039) were found to be independent predictors of deaths and receipt of sensitive antibiotic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.048) was revealed as the independent protective factor for deaths in this population. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our data suggest that diarrheal children with bacteremia who died more often had gram negative bacteremia compared to those who survived and these pathogens are highly resistant to WHO recommended first line and second line antibiotics. The results further emphasize the critical importance of early identification of important clinical problems such as clinical sepsis, hypoxemia and hyperkalaemia in diarrheal children and treat them with potential sensitive antibiotic(s) in order to reduce bacteremia related mortality in children with diarrhea, especially in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Klebsiella , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Thorax ; 75(12): 1058-1064, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled tobramycin powder/solution (TIP/S) use has resulted in improved clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, TIP/S effect on the CF sputum microbiome has not been explored. We hypothesised that TIP/S has additional 'off-target' effects beyond merely P. aeruginosa and that baseline microbiome prior to initiation of therapy is associated with subsequent patient response. METHODS: We drew sputum samples from a prospectively collected biobank. Patients were included if they had one sputum sample in the 18 months before and after TIP/S. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling was used to characterise the sputum microbiome. RESULTS: Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria and 151 sputum samples were assessed. At baseline, median age was 30.4 years (IQR 24.2-35.2) and forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1) second was 57% predicted (IQR 44-74). Nineteen patients were defined a priori as responders having no net decrease in FEV1 in the year following TIP/S. No significant changes were observed in key microbiome metrics of alpha (within-sample) or beta (between-sample) diversity for samples collected before and after TIP/S. However, significant beta-diversity (Bray-Curtis) differences were noted at baseline between patients based on response status. Notably, responders were observed to have a higher abundance of Staphylococcus in pretherapy baseline samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal study demonstrates that the sputum microbiome of patients with CF is relatively stable following inhaled tobramycin over many months. Intriguingly, our findings suggest that baseline microbiome may associate with patient response to TIP/S-suggesting the sputum microbiome could be used to personalise therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pós , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Soluções , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3855-3862, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026613

RESUMO

The present study aimed to provide a detailed characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from cows and buffaloes with mastitis. The study included seventy-five CoNS isolates (60 came from cattle and 15 from buffaloes) originating from 68 individual quarters of 67 dairy cows (53 cattle and 14 buffaloes). The animals belonged to five different small holding dairy herds (n = 140 cows) that show clinical or subclinical mastitis. CoNS isolates were phenotypically characterized using MALDI-TOF-MS and were further genotypically characterized by microarray-based assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility of CoNS strains which carried the mecA gene was examined by broth microdilution. The occurrence of CoNS in the respective five herds was 10.5%, 14.7%, 14.8%, 12.8%, and 9.9%, with an average of 12.4%. Six different CoNS species were identified: S. sciuri (n = 37; 30 from cattle and 7 from buffaloes), S. chromogenes (n = 14; 8 from cattle and 6 from buffaloes), S. haemolyticus (n = 10; nine from cattle and one buffalo), S. xylosus (n = 10; nine from cattle and one buffalo), S. hyicus (n = 2), S. warneri (n = 1), and unidentified CoNS (n = 1). Twenty percent (20%) of CoNS isolates (17.3% of cattle origin) carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene, while 4% of the isolate including two isolates of S. haemolyticus and one S. warneri of cattle origin carried the mecA gene and were phenotypically identified as methicillin-resistant strains. The genes detected were blaZ (16%), followed by tet(K) (8%), aacA-aphD (4%), aphA3 (2.6%), msr(A) (2.6%), [far1 (2.6%), and fusC (2.6%)], sat (2.6%), and cat (1.3%) conferring resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, neomycin/kanamycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, streptothricin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. The majority of investigated CoNS strains displayed considerably low prevalence of resistance genes, while resistance to more than three antibiotics was found in S. haemolyticus and S. warneri. Implementing effective preventive measures is, therefore, important for limiting the transmission of CoNS, rather than using antibiotics to control mastitis in bovines.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mastite/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Coagulase , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750089

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common isolates from blood culture in neonates resulting in high mortality and morbidity. This study investigated CoNS obtained from blood cultures of neonates for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, and possible association with inflammatory response (C-reactive protein). A total of 93 CoNS isolates were collected from 76 blood cultures of neonates at the Maternity hospital in Kuwait in a six-month period and investigated for susceptibility to antibiotics, carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and virulence-associated genes. The 93 CoNS isolates consisted of S. epidermidis (76; 81.7%), S. capitis (12; 12.9%), S. hominis (2; 2.1%), S. warneri (2; 2.1%) and S. haemolyticus (1; 1.0%). Eighty-six (92.4%) of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (MR-CoNS) while 49 (52.7%) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance. The methicillin-resistant isolates (MR-CoNS) carried SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa and four combinations of SCCmec types including SCCmec types I+IVa (one S. warneri and 25 S. epidermidis isolates), types I+III (one S. epidermidis isolate), types III+IVa (six S. epidermidis isolates) and types I+III+IVa (one S. epidermidis isolate). The most common virulence-related genes were icaC, seb, arc detected in 69.7%, 60.5%, 40.8% of the isolates respectively. Two isolates were positive for tst1. No association between C-reactive protein and antibiotic resistance or virulence factors was established. This study revealed that S. epidermidis carrying different SCCmec genetic elements, was the dominant CoNS species isolated from neonatal blood cultures with 90.3% and 36.6% of the isolates positive for genes for biofilm and ACME production respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801179

RESUMO

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius causes opportunistic infections in dogs. It also has significant zoonotic potential, with the emergence of multidrug resistance leading to difficulty treating both animal and human infections. Manuka honey has previously been reported to inhibit many bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and is successfully utilized in both clinical and veterinary practice. Here, we evaluated the ability of manuka honey to inhibit strains of S. pseudintermedius grown alone and in combination with antibiotics, as well as its capacity to modulate virulence within multiple S. pseudintermedius isolates. All 18 of the genetically diverse S. pseudintermedius strains sequenced and tested were inhibited by ≤12% (wt/vol) medical-grade manuka honey, although tolerance to five clinically relevant antibiotics was observed. The susceptibility of the isolates to four of these antibiotics was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) when combined with sublethal concentrations of honey, although sensitivity to oxacillin was decreased. Virulence factor (DNase, protease, and hemolysin) activity was also significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in over half of isolates when cultured with sublethal concentrations of honey (13, 9, and 10 isolates, respectively). These findings highlight the potential for manuka honey to be utilized against S. pseudintermedius infections.IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important member of the skin microbial community in animals and can cause opportunistic infections in both pets and their owners. The high incidence of antimicrobial resistance in S. pseudintermedius highlights that this opportunistic zoonotic pathogen can cause infections which require prolonged and intensive treatment to resolve. Manuka honey has proven efficacy against many bacterial pathogens and is an accepted topical treatment for infections in both veterinary and clinical practice, and so it is a particularly appropriate antimicrobial for use with zoonotic pathogens such as S. pseudintermedius Here, we demonstrate that not only is manuka honey highly potent against novel multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, it also acts synergistically with clinically relevant antibiotics. In addition, manuka honey modulates S. pseudintermedius virulence activity, even at subinhibitory concentrations. In a clinical setting, these attributes may assist in controlling infection, allowing a more rapid resolution and reducing antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/análise , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 359-368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713031

RESUMO

Staphylococci from Sheedal of Northeast India was isolated, identified and characterized. All the isolated staphylococci were found to be coagulase negative. Based on the rpoB gene sequences followed by analysis using NCBI-BLAST software, seven species of Staphylococcus namely, S. piscifermentans, S. condimenti, S. arlettae, S. sciuri, S. warneri, S. nepalensis and S. hominis were recognized. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three major cluster groups. All the seven Staphylococcus showed their NaCl tolerance from 2 to 8%. No species was able to grow at 55°C. Except S. arlettae and S. sciuri, all the isolated staphylococcal species exhibited growth at pH 4-8. No isolated species was able to ferment mannitol, sucrose and arabinose. All the species exhibited moderate to maximum proteolytic and lipolytic activities. All the seven species were found to be sensitive to the antibiotics, namely, erythromycin, norfloxacin, ampicillin, streptomycin and vancomycin, whereas all were resistant to co-trimoxazole. Only S. piscifermentans was found antagonist to Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, although the clear zone was minimal. All the staphylococcal species except S. arlettae and S. sciuri exhibited hydrophobicity ranging from 25 to 66%. The observed characteristics of isolated Staphylococci from Sheedal revealed their role in fish fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Fermentação , Peixes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia , Filogenia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética
8.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e40, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476314

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from companion animals. A total of 931 clinical specimens were collected from diseased pets. The detection of mupirocin-resistant bacteria and plasmid-mediated mupirocin resistance genes were evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing analysis. Four-hundred and six (43.6%) bacteria were isolated and 17 (4.2%), including 14 staphylococci and 3 Corynebacterium were high-level mupirocin-resistant (MICs, ≥ 1,024 ug/mL) harboring mupA. Six staphylococci of HLMR strains had plasmid-mediated mupA-IS257 flanking regions. The results show that HLMR bacteria could spread in veterinary medicine in the near future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10092, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572099

RESUMO

A Kashmir Himalayan (India) soil isolate, Streptomyces sp. SM01 was subjected to small scale fermentation for the production of novel antimicrobials, picolinamycin (SM1). The production has been optimized which found to be maximum while incubated in AIA medium (pH 7) for 7 days at 30 °C. Seven days grew crude cell-free culture media (50 µL) showed a larger zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus compared to streptomycin (5 µg) and ampicillin (5 µg). Extraction, purification, and chemical analysis of the antimicrobial component has been proved to be a new class of antibiotic with 1013 dalton molecular weight. We have named this new antibiotic as picolinamycin for consisting picolinamide moiety in the center of the molecule and produced by a Streptomyces sp. In general, the antimicrobial potency of this newly characterized antibiotic found to be higher against Gram-positive organisms than the tested Gram-negative organisms. The MIC of this antimicrobial compound was found to be 0.01 µg/ml for tested Gram-positive organisms and 0.02 to 5.12 µg/ml for Gram-negative organisms. Furthermore, it showed strong growth impairments of several multidrug resistance (MDR) strains, including methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci with the MIC value of 0.04 to 5.12 µg/ml and MDR (but methicillin-sensitive) strains of S. aureus with the MIC value of 0.084 µg/ml. It also showed anti-mycobacterial potential in higher concentrations (MIC is 10.24 µg/ml). Picolinamycin however did not show toxicity against tested A549 human cell line indicating that the spectrum of its activity limited within bacteria only.


Assuntos
Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/química
10.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 25, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Above 80% of urinary tract infections are caused by enteric bacteria, which are known for years by their drug-resistant ability. Though the prevalence of drug-resistant strains is increasing in the world, it is not well known in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Multi-drug resistance, Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases production, and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from March to May 2017. A total of 384 clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from study participants. Bacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing were done following standard microbiological techniques; Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase production was screened using a disc diffusion test and confirmed by a combination disc test. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 15.9% (95% CI 12.8-20.1%). E. coli (49.2%), CoNS (27.9%), and S. aureus (18%) were the main uropathogens. The prevalence of MDR uropathogens was 60.65%. The prevalence of ESBLs production among cases caused by Enterobacteriaceae was 18.2%. The drug resistance rate of Gram-negative isolates was higher for ampicillin (90.9%), cephalothin (84.8%), and augmentin (57.6%). The drug nitrofurantoin showed the highest activity (100%) against Gram-negative isolates. Gram-positive isolates were showed low susceptibility to penicillin (89.3%) and cotrimoxazole (75%); however highest susceptibility rate for gentamicin (100%), amikacin (100%), and nitrofurantoin (98.36%) was recorded. Prior antibiotic therapy (AOR = 5.46, 95% CI 1.38-21.65) was a risk factor for the presence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The multi-drug resistance prevalence was high among uropathogen, thus treatment of urinary tract infection during pregnancy; should be based on the antibacterial susceptibility testing result. The isolation of drug-resistant strains like Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in this study calls for the need of periodic and continuous follow-up of antibiotic usage among pregnant women. Nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin showed higher activity against bacterial uropathogen.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , Controle de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Resistência beta-Lactâmica
11.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 394-399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557652

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48·61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS), while the predominant species were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Staphylococcus spp. isolates presented high antibiotic resistance frequencies to tetracycline (97·1%) or clindamycin (80·0%) and low antibiotic resistance frequencies to fusidic acid (14·3%). No methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, and all Staphylococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Among the 26 S. aureus isolates, 21 (80·76%) possessed staphylococcal enterotoxin genes with seven different enterotoxin gene profiles. The predominant enterotoxin profile was seg, sei and sej with seven S. aureus isolates. The occurrence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus spp. in pig tonsils indicate public health risk to pork consumers and handlers in developing antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442199

RESUMO

Staphylococcus warneri is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus that is a normal inhabitant of the skin. It is also considered to be an opportunistic etiological agent causing significant infections in human and animals. Currently, relatively little attention has been paid to the genome biology of S. warneri pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, which are emerging issues for this etiological agent with considerably clinical significance. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of S. warneri strain GD01 recovered from the sampled muscle abscess tissue of a diseased pig in South China. The genome of S. warneri is composed of a circular chromosome of 2,473,911 base pairs as well as eight plasmid sequences. Genome-wide metabolic reconstruction revealed 82 intact functional modules driving the catabolism of respiration and fermentation for energy production, uptake of distinct sugars as well as two-component regulatory systems. The evidence uncovered herein enables better understanding for metabolic potential and physiological traits of this etiological agent. The antibiotic susceptibility test demonstrated that S. warneri GD01 was resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, vancomycin, and sulfisoxazole. The associations between antibiotic phenotypes and the related genotypes were identified to reveal the molecular basis conferring resistance to this pathogen. A number of genes coding for potential virulence factors were firstly depicted in the genome of S. warneri GD01, including adhesins, exoenzymes, capsule, and iron acquisition proteins. Our study provides a valuable genomic context of the genes/modules devoting to metabolism, antibiotic resistance, and virulence of S. warneri.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , China , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 97(3): 115040, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354459

RESUMO

Staphylococci are the most common causes of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). TNP-2092 is an investigational hybrid drug composed of rifamycin and quinolizinone pharmacophores conjugated via a covalent linker. We determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm bactericidal concentration (MBBC) values of TNP-2092 against 80 PJI-associated Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates compared to ciprofloxacin and rifampin alone and in combination, alongside daptomycin and vancomycin. TNP-2092 exhibited the following activity against S. aureus: MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.0075/0.015 µg/mL; MBC50/MBC90, 0.5/4 µg/mL; and MBBC50/MBBC90, 0.5/2 µg/mL, and the following activity against S. epidermidis: MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.0075/0.015 µg/mL; MBC50/MBC90, 0.015/0.125 µg/mL; and MBBC50/MBBC90, 0.06/0.25 µg/mL. TNP-2092 MIC, MBC, and MBBC values were >8 µg/mL for 1 isolate, while MIC values were ≤0.25 µg/mL and MBC and MBBC values were ≤4 µg/mL for all other isolates. Results of this study show that TNP-2092 has promising in vitro activity against PJI-associated staphylococci.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Articular/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Anal Biochem ; 600: 113764, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360199

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a facile and rapid multichannel approach for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of multiple bacterial species. The proposed assay employed four short antimicrobial peptides (SAMPs) for recognition due to their disparity in antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains, and utilized fluorescence measurements to explicate the bacterial recognition and disintegration disparity of the SAMPs. Then, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to effectively discriminate and classify the observed characteristic fluorescence patterns of SAMPs towards target bacteria, exhibiting excellent bacterial discrimination and classification accuracy. This is the first report on the use of SAMPs as recognition units for simultaneous multiple bacterial detection and discrimination. The presented approach was simple, fast, highly repeatable, and required no labelling processes. According to the corresponding LDA discriminant results, six different target bacterial species could be effectively identified and discriminated within 30 min.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Discriminante , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 109, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. According to the One Health concept, an important step is to monitor the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends of bacteria isolated from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were investigated. RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics for Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcus spp. were determined to establish representatives of different antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. For Coagulase-positive and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, resistance to fluoroquinolones was below 13%, but resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was high (20-88%). A total of 9.5, 12.1, and 40.3% of staphylococcal isolates from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff, respectively, were confirmed to be mecA positive. For Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (0-11.1%). The Enterococcus spp. isolates showed no resistance to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the Staphylococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from stray cats were usually lower than those of isolates from hospital-admitted cats and veterinary staff, but the Enterococcus spp. isolates revealed the opposite. Thus, the antimicrobial resistance varied across bacterial species according to the source from which they were isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to critically important compounds were low. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance in cat isolates is of both public health and animal health concern.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Médicos Veterinários
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108631, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273010

RESUMO

This work aimed at characterizing four Staphylococcus aureus and 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), recovered from the air and liquid manure tank of two swine farms with intensive- and semi-extensive-production types, for their antimicrobial resistance pheno-/genotypes and their virulence gene content. Molecular typing was performed by spa typing, MLST, agr typing, and SCCmec typing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments were performed to assess the transferability of the linezolid resistance gene cfr, and its genetic environment was determined by Whole-Genome-Sequencing. The four S. aureus (intensive-production farm, IP-farm) were typed as t011-agrI-CC398-ST398, were scn-negative and two of them were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) with the mecA gene (SCCmec-V). Multidrug resistance was seen in 87 % of the CoNS. Statistically significant differences among the antimicrobial resistance rates of CoNS from the two farms were observed for cefoxitin, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight methicillin-resistant CoNS, which were recovered from the IP-farm, carried the mecA gene. One S. simulans isolate was PVL-positive and three S. cohnii eta-positive. One S. equorum and one S. arlettae showed linezolid resistance and carried the cfr gene (IP-farm), which was non-transferable by conjugation into S. aureus. The cfr genetic context in both isolates was identical, with the lsa(B) gene located upstream of cfr. The environment of swine farms might contribute to the dissemination of CoNS that show multidrug resistance and harbor important virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 971-976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) (resistance genes, qac A/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ, in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius (MRSP) from dogs and the impact on in vitro chlorhexidine susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Seventy isolates from dogs colonized or infected with MRSP (n = 50) or MSSP (n = 20). METHODS: Agar dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine digluconate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of QAC resistance genes, qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ genes. RESULTS: One or more qac genes were identified in 52 of 70 (74%) isolates. Overall, there was no association between chlorhexidine MIC and the presence of one or more qac genes (P = .85) or the presence of qacA/B (P = .31), smr (P = .72) or qacJ (P = .93) individually. There was an association between qacG and MIC (P = .012), with a median MIC of 1.5 µg/mL for isolates possessing this gene and 1 µg/mL for those not possessing it. CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes were present in MRSP and MSSP isolates. With the exception of qacG, the presence of these genes was not associated with increased MIC. All isolates exhibited MIC 5000 to 80 000 times lower than the concentration recommended for use. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of QAC genes, chlorhexidine digluconate should be effective against MRSP and MSSP if used correctly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cães , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 128, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci belonging to S. haemolyticus, S. hominis subsp. hominis, S. simulans, and S. warneri are often described as etiological factors of infections. Staphylococci are a phylogenetically coherent group; nevertheless, there are differences among the species which may be important to clinicians. METHODS: We investigated selected virulence factors and antibiotic resistance that were phenotypically demonstrated, the presence and expression of genes encoding the virulence factors, and the type of the SCCmec cassette. RESULTS: The differences between the tested species were revealed. A great number of isolates produced a biofilm and many of them contained single icaADBC operon genes. Clear differences between species in the lipolytic activity spectrum could be related to their ability to cause various types of infections. Our studies also revealed the presence of genes encoding virulence factors homologous to S. aureus in the analysed species such as enterotoxin and pvl genes, which were also expressed in single isolates of S. simulans and S. warneri. S. haemolyticus and S. hominis subsp. hominis isolates were resistant to all clinically important antibiotics including ß-lactams. The identified SCCmec cassettes belonged to IV, V, VII, and IX type but most of the detected cassettes were non-typeable. Among the investigated species, S. hominis subsp. hominis isolates accumulated virulence genes typical for S. aureus in the most efficient way and were widely resistant to antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicated significant differences between the tested species, which might be a result of the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and can lead to the formation and selection of multi-drug resistant strains as well as strains with new virulence features. Such strains can have a new clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
20.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 160-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084346

RESUMO

The increasing rates of nosocomial infection associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the rationale for this study, aiming to categorize oxacillin-resistant CoNS species recovered from blood culture specimens of inpatients at the UNESP Hospital das Clínicas in Botucatu, Brazil, over a 20-year period, and determine their sensitivity to other antimicrobial agents. The mecA gene was detected in 222 (74%) CoNS samples, and the four types of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) were characterized in 19.4%, 3.6%, 54.5%, and 14.4% of specimens, respectively, for types I, II, III, and IV. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to inhibit 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of specimens were, respectively, 2 and >256µL/mL for oxacillin, 1.5 and 2µL/mL for vancomycin, 0.25 and 0.5µL/mL for linezolid, 0.094 and 0.19µL/mL for daptomycin, 0.19 and 0.5µL/mL for quinupristin/dalfopristin, and 0.125 and 0.38µL/mL for tigecycline. Resistance to oxacillin and tigecycline and intermediate resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin were observed. Eight (2.7%) of all 300 CoNS specimens studied showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Results from this study show high resistance rates of CoNS to antimicrobial agents, reflecting the necessity of using these drugs judiciously and controlling nosocomial dissemination of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Staphylococcus/química , Staphylococcus/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA