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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134410, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678876

RESUMO

In Europe, monitoring contaminant concentrations and their effects in the marine environment is required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC). The striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) is the most abundant small cetacean species in Portuguese oceanic waters, representing a potential biomonitoring tool of contaminant levels in offshore waters. Concentrations of nine trace elements were evaluated by ICP-MS in kidney, liver and muscle samples of 31 striped dolphins stranded in the Portuguese continental coast. The mean renal Cd concentration was high (19.3 µg.g-1 wet weight, range 0.1-69.3 µg.g-1 wet weight) comparing to striped dolphins from other locations. Therefore, the present study reports a possibly concerning level of Cd in the oceanic food chain in Portuguese offshore areas. This study also aimed at evaluating potential relationships between trace element concentrations and striped dolphins' biological and health-related variables. Individual length was related with some of the trace element concentrations detected in striped dolphins. Indeed, Cd, Hg and Se bioaccumulated in larger animals, whereas the reverse was observed for Mn and Zn. Striped dolphins with high parasite burdens showed higher levels of Hg, while animals showing gross pathologies presented higher concentrations of Cd and Se. This study reported relationships between trace element concentrations and health-related variables for the first time in striped dolphins and it also provided information on the relative contamination status of Portuguese oceanic waters in comparison to other regions in the world.


Assuntos
/métodos , Stenella/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 239-247, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590782

RESUMO

Small cetaceans continue to be exposed to elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The goals of this study were to use data from remote biopsy sampling and photographic-identification to compare POP concentrations between small cetacean stocks in the northern Gulf of Mexico. During 2015-2017, 74 remote biopsies were collected in St. Andrew Bay and adjacent coastal waters from two species: common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (N = 28, ♀; N = 42, ♂) and Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) (N = 2, ♀; N = 2, ♂). Common bottlenose dolphin POP concentrations were significantly higher in St. Andrew Bay than coastal waters. Male St. Andrew Bay dolphins had the highest Σ DDT (dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane) levels measured in the southeastern U.S. (67 µg/g, 50-89 µg/g; geometric mean and 95% CI) and showed a significant negative relationship between Σ DDT and sighting distance from a St. Andrew Bay point source.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Stenella , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Feminino , Golfo do México , Masculino , Fotografação , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 381, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inferring the microbiota diversity of helminths enables depiction of evolutionarily established ecological and pathological traits that characterize a particular parasite-host interaction. In turn, these traits could provide valuable information for the development of parasitosis control and mitigation strategy. The parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) realizes the final stage of its life-cycle within gastric chambers of aquatic mammals, causing mild-to-moderate granulomatous gastritis with eosinophilic infiltrate, to severe ulcerative gastritis with mixed inflammatory infiltrate, often associated with bacterial colonies. However, its interaction with the host microbiota remains unknown, and might reveal important aspects of parasite colonization and propagation within the final host. METHODS: MySeq Illumina sequencing was performed for the 16S rRNA gene from microbiota isolated from larvae, and uterus and gut of adult A. pegreffii parasitizing stranded striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). To assess the potential presence of Brucella ceti within isolated microbiota, Brucella-targeted real-time PCR was undertaken. In addition, TEM of the gastrointestinal tract of the infective third-stage (L3) and transitioning fourth-stage larvae (L4) was performed to characterize the morphological differences and the level of larval feeding activity. RESULTS: In total, 230 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified across all samples (n = 20). The number of shared taxa was lower than the number of taxa found specifically in each parasite stage or organ. The dominant taxon was Mycoplasmataceae (genus Mycoplasma) in the gut and uterus of adult A. pegreffii, whereas Fusobacteriaceae (genus Cetobacterium) was the most abundant in 40% of larvae, alongside Mycoplasmataceae. No B. ceti DNA was detected in any of the microbiota isolates. TEM revealed differences in gut ultrastructure between L3 and L4, reflecting a feeble, most likely passive, level of feeding activity in L3. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota from L3 was more related to that of the gut rather than the uterus of adult A. pegreffii. Taxa of the larval microbiota showed qualitative and quantitative perturbations, likely reflecting the propagation through different environments during its life-cycle. This suggests an ontogenetic shift in the alpha and beta diversity of microbial communities from uterus-derived towards cetacean-derived microbiota. Although TEM did not reveal active L3 feeding, microbiota of the latter showed similarity to that of an actively feeding adult nematode.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura , Microbiota , Stenella/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oceanos e Mares , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Útero/microbiologia
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 132(3): 203-208, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188135

RESUMO

This study reports gross, histopathological, and molecular features of a Chlamydia abortus infection in a stranded female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba from the Tyrrhenian coast of southern Italy. Post-mortem examination revealed liver congestion, splenic lymphoid depletion with capsular petechiae, and pneumonia. Histology revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation with vasculitis and congestion. Hepatocellular and acute myocardial degeneration were also observed. Basophilic, coccobacillary inclusions consistent with Chlamydia spp. were observed histologically in the type II pneumocytes, myocardial fibers, and hepatocytes, and in macrophages and plasma cells of liver, spleen, and prescapular lymph nodes. Chlamydial antigen was detected by immunofluorescence assay using genus-specific anti-Chlamydia antibodies. PCR assay revealed C. abortus in spleen, liver, heart, and lungs. C. abortus was the only pathogen detected. The main pathological changes suggest that Chlamydia infection may have been the cause of stranding and death of the striped dolphin. This case represents the first molecular detection of a member of the Chlamydiaceae in a marine mammal.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Stenella , Animais , Feminino , Itália
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 132(3): 215-220, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188137

RESUMO

An unusual mortality event (UME) of striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba occurred in the period July to December 2016 along the Italian Ionian coastline. We conducted a complete postmortem examination on 28 specimens and detected dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), by means of biomolecular analyses, in the target tissues of 17 animals. Unlike previous outbreaks occurring in the Mediterranean Sea in 2011 and 2013, we observed typical pathological changes suggestive of morbilliviral infection in an acute/subacute phase and immunohistochemical reactivity. The same findings were observed in 13 other specimens beached along the Italian coastline during 2016 with no temporal and geographical relationship with the ongoing epidemic outbreak. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that DMV sequences detected in Italy in 2016 clustered with those identified in Portugal and Galicia (Spain), representing a novel DMV strain of Atlantic origin which entered the Mediterranean Sea and affected a naïve striped dolphin population. DMV sequences detected in the previous Mediterranean outbreaks exhibited a marked genetic relatedness and diverged from those detected in cetaceans stranded along the Galician and Portuguese coasts since 2007.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Stenella , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Espanha
6.
Chemosphere ; 229: 580-588, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100629

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) concentrations in internal tissues of 72 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Murcia Region (Mediterranean coastline) have been investigated for the first time. Hg showed the highest concentration, followed by Se, Cd, As and Pb. In general, the levels of metal found in this study were similar to those described in similar studies in the Mediterranean Sea. However, in some adult specimens, Hg liver concentrations were related with toxic effects in cetacean. A significant correlation was observed with age, likewise between Se and Hg and Cd in tissues, which agree with detoxify effect attributed to Se through inert complex formation. Molar ratio Hg:Se in liver was close to 1:1 in some specimens, which would indicate overload of the Hg-Se detoxify function and compromised health. These results could contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of these persistent pollutants in the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Stenella , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Fígado/química , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais/farmacocinética , Selênio/análise , Espanha , Distribuição Tecidual , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213363, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893365

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a major natural cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans worldwide and results in epidemic and endemic fatalities. The pathogenesis of CeMV has not been fully elucidated, and questions remain regarding tissue tropism and the mechanisms of immunosuppression. We compared the histopathologic and viral immunohistochemical features in molecularly confirmed CeMV-infected Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Southwestern Atlantic (Brazil) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Northeast-Central Atlantic (Canary Islands, Spain) and the Western Mediterranean Sea (Italy). Major emphasis was placed on the central nervous system (CNS), including neuroanatomical distribution of lesions, and the lymphoid system and lung were also examined. Eleven Guiana dolphins, 13 striped dolphins, and 3 bottlenose dolphins were selected by defined criteria. CeMV infections showed a remarkable neurotropism in striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins, while this was a rare feature in CeMV-infected Guiana dolphins. Neuroanatomical distribution of lesions in dolphins stranded in the Canary Islands revealed a consistent involvement of the cerebrum, thalamus, and cerebellum, followed by caudal brainstem and spinal cord. In most cases, Guiana dolphins had more severe lung lesions. The lymphoid system was involved in all three species, with consistent lymphoid depletion. Multinucleate giant cells/syncytia and characteristic viral inclusion bodies were variably observed in these organs. Overall, there was widespread lymphohistiocytic, epithelial, and neuronal/neuroglial viral antigen immunolabeling with some individual, host species, and CeMV strain differences. Preexisting and opportunistic infections were common, particularly endoparasitism, followed by bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. These results contribute to understanding CeMV infections in susceptible cetacean hosts in relation to factors such as CeMV strains and geographic locations, thereby establishing the basis for future neuro- and immunopathological comparative investigations.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Golfinhos/virologia , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Morbillivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Stenella/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893376

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in geomorphological and hydrographical conditions throughout the Mediterranean Sea could be the driving factors behind the significant differences between putative sub-populations, although the existence of a large panmictic population of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen 1833) in this marine region could not be excluded. However, understanding the ecological implications of such genetic differentiation is difficult, as inferences about gene flow are usually made on evolutionary time scales and not along the ecological time frame over which most management and conservation practices are applied. In fact, as stated by the IUCN Red List, in the case of species assessed as vulnerable, the degree of genetic exchange between populations within a biogeographic region and its ecological implications represent a fascinating challenge that should be very deeply explored. This is even more significant in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), where the geomorphological and hydrographic characteristics support the hypothesis of a separated striped dolphin population genetically diverging from its original Mediterranean counterpart. To assess this hypothesis, a genetic analysis was carried out on DNA fragments of the mitochondrial cyt b gene to explore the evolutionary origin of S. coeruleoalba in the investigated area and its genetic diversity in comparison with available sequences from other Mediterranean and Atlantic populations. Results were discussed indicating ecological implications and suggesting conservation objectives. Moreover, a delphinid systematic was also suggested.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Linhagem da Célula , Citocromos b/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Stenella/genética , Animais , Ecologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia , Stenella/classificação
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 167: 485-493, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368142

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) levels were assessed in the liver and muscle of two data-deficient threatened dolphin species, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, n = 4) and the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis, n = 6), sampled off the Southeastern Brazilian coast. PCB concentrations were greater in liver compared to muscle, with males presenting higher concentrations than females. The three main detected PCB congeners were PCBs 138, 153 and 180. A predominance of hexachlorinated congeners was observed, followed by hepta- and penta-PCBs. For both species, Cl 3 and Cl 4 levels were higher in muscle compared to liver, while Cl 5 to Cl 8 and ∑PCBs were higher in liver. PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in Atlantic spotted dolphin muscle and liver compared to bottlenose dolphins. Similarly to PCBs, the highest PBDE concentrations were observed in males. The presence of PBDE congeners BDE-47, -100 and -99 in the muscle and liver of both species suggests the existence of a pollution source in Brazil by a penta-BDE mixture, as PBDEs have never been produced in Brazil. Interspecific PCB and PBDE profiles were very similar, which may be related to the similar characteristics of the analyzed species, mainly geographic distribution and life and feeding habits. This study furthers knowledge on environmental PCB and PBDE contamination, assisting in the establishment of dolphin population conservation strategies. In addition, this study calls into question the current threshold values established for PCBs and PBDEs, and demonstrates the lack of information and knowledge in this regard for cetaceans.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Stenella , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 137: 56-60, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503469

RESUMO

In the French West Indies (Caribbean), the insecticide Chlordecone (CLD) has been extensively used to reduce banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) infestations in banana plantations. Previous studies have shown high CLD concentrations in freshwater and coastal communities of the region. CLD concentrations, however, have not yet been assessed in marine top predators. We investigated CLD concentrations in cetacean blubber tissues from Guadeloupe, including Physeter macrocephalus, Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata and Pseudorca crassidens. Chlordecone was detected in all blubber samples analysed, with the exception of four P. macrocephalus. Concentrations (range: 1 to 329 ng·g-1 of lipid weight) were, however, lower than those found in species from fresh and brackish water. Ecological factors (open ocean habitat), CLD kinetics, and cetacean metabolism (high or specific enzymatic activity) might explain low concentrations found in cetacean blubber. Future analyses that include internal organ sampling would help to confirm CLD levels observed in this study.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/metabolismo , Clordecona/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Região do Caribe , Clordecona/metabolismo , Golfinhos/metabolismo , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Guadalupe , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Cachalote/metabolismo , Stenella/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/análise
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 129: 325-337, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218775

RESUMO

Natural interspecific hybridization might be more important for the evolutionary history and speciation of animals than previously thought, considering several demographic and life history traits as well as habitat disturbance as factors that promote it. In this aspect, cetaceans comprise an interesting case in which the occurrence of sympatric species in mixed associations provides excellent opportunities for interspecific sexual interaction and the potential for hybridization. Here, we present evidence of natural hybridization for two cetacean species commonly occurring in the Greek Seas (Stenella coeruleoalba and Delphinus delphis), which naturally overlap in the Gulf of Corinth by analyzing highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences in skin samples from 45 individuals of S. coeruleoalba, 12 D. delphis and three intermediate morphs. Employing several phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we found 15 individuals that are potential hybrids including the three intermediate morphs, verifying the occurrence of natural hybridization between species of different genera. Their hybrids are fertile and able to reproduce not only with the other hybrids but also with each of the two-parental species. However, current evidence does not allow firm conclusions whether hybridization might constitute a step towards the generation of a new species and/or the swan song of an already existing species (i.e., D. delphis). Given that the focal species form mixed pods in several areas of Mediterranean, this study is an excellent opportunity to understand the mechanisms leading to hybridization in the context of gene flow and urges for the evaluation of the genetic status of common dolphins in the Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Golfinhos Comuns/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oceanos e Mares , Stenella/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geografia , Grécia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética
13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 130(2): 153-158, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198490

RESUMO

We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of fungal hyphate infection in a juvenile female Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis found dead off Arguineguin, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). On necropsy examination, the animal had a large cranial intrathoracic mass and multiple variably-sized nodules throughout the larynx and trachea that obliterated the lumen. Microscopically, the masses were composed of abundant pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous fungal hyphae. These were pauciseptate (coenocytic) and had non-parallel walls, non-dichotomous irregular to right angle branching, and bulbous dilations. PCR analysis from these inflammatory foci yielded Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae). This fungal pathogen is often ascribed to opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed humans and animals. In the present case, a potential cause for immunosuppression was not identified; PCR analysis for cetacean morbillivirus was negative. Herein, we report the first confirmed case of R. arrhizus infection in a free-living Atlantic cetacean. These findings add to the body of knowledge on fungal disease in cetaceans in general and, in particular, in odontocetes, where respiratory involvement is common.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Micoses , Rhizopus , Stenella , Animais , Feminino , Micoses/veterinária , Rhizopus/isolamento & purificação , Espanha , Stenella/parasitologia
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 203: 1-9, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064049

RESUMO

The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the aquatic environment is an issue of major concern which may be a cause of increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine mammals. Although, cell culture model development and in vitro investigation approach is a prime need of time to progress immunotoxic research on aquatic mammals. In this study, we stablished fibroblast cell line (pantropic spotted dolphin) to assess the potential effects of PBDEs on cytokines response. Cells were grown in 6 well cell culture plate and complete media (DMEM and Ham's F12 nutrient mixture, fetal bovine serum, antibiotic and essential amino acids) was provided. The primary culture of (PSP-LWH) cells identification was achieved by vimentin (gene and protein) expressions. Karyotyping revealed pantropic spotted dolphin chromosomes 20 pairs with XX. Transfection was achieved by SV40 LT antigen and transfected cells were expended for passages. Stability of cell line was confirmed at various passages intervals using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence methods. After confirmation, cell line was exposed to BDE-47 (250 ng/ml), BDE-100 (250 ng/ml) and BDE-209 (1000 ng/ml), with control group (PBS), positive control DMSO (0.1%) and negative control LPS (500 ng/ml) for 24 h. The ELISA results showed significant increase in IL-6 in BDE- 100 and BDE-209 while IL-1ß and IL-8 were found higher in BDE-47 and BDE-100. TNFα and IL-10 secretion was noted higher in control and positive control groups. Altogether, these results emphasize importance of transfected (PSP-LWHT) cell line in aquatic research and potential effects of PBDEs on fibroblast provides evident to understand immune modulating effects of PBDEs in marine mammals. The impact of PBDEs on dolphin's fibroblast cells immune response and altered cytokine response have been presented for the first time.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Stenella/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação , Derme/citologia , Feminino , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Cariótipo , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Transfecção , Vimentina/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 248, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the three dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990-1992, 2006-2008 and 2011 that affected Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Systemic infection caused by DMV in the Mediterranean has been reported only during these outbreaks. RESULTS: We report the infection of five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Spanish Mediterranean coast of Valencia after the last DMV outbreak that ended in 2011. Animal 1 stranded in late 2011 and Animal 2 in 2012. Systemic infection affecting all tissues was found based on histopathology and positive immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction positive results. Animal 3 stranded in 2014; molecular and immunohistochemical detection was positive only in the central nervous system. Animals 4 and 5 stranded in 2015, and DMV antigen was found in several tissues. Partial sequences of the DMV phosphoprotein (P), nucleoprotein (N), and hemagglutinin (H) genes were identical for Animals 2, 3, 4, and 5, and were remarkably different from those in Animal 1. The P sequence from Animal 1 was identical to that of the DMV strain that caused the epizootic of 2011 in the Spanish Mediterranean. The corresponding sequence from Animals 2-5 was identical to that from a striped dolphin stranded in 2011 on the Canary Islands and to six dolphins stranded in northeastern Atlantic of the Iberian Peninsula. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the existence of an endemic infection cycle among striped dolphins in the Mediterranean that may lead to occasional systemic disease presentations outside epizootic periods. This cycle involves multiple pathogenic viral strains, one of which may have originated in the Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/genética , Stenella/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Morbillivirus/classificação , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e19-e23, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025595

RESUMO

Fishing activities are considered one of the most relevant threats for cetaceans and sea turtles conservation since these animals are sometimes found dead entangled in fishing gears. Currently, postmortem diagnosis is based mainly on the presence of nets and lines on the body and the related marks and injuries evident at gross examination. A more detailed and objective evidence is needed to clarify doubts cases and the diatoms technique, used in forensic human medicine, could support drowning diagnosis also in this field. Diatoms' investigation was implemented to be applied in marine vertebrate on 8 striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and 1 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins and 5 sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the Italian coastlines with a likely cause of death hypothized on necropsies carried out by veterinary pathologists. Diatoms were microscopically searched in the bone marrow collected from long bones implementing protocols used in human medicine and their presence was observed in 4 cetaceans and 2 sea turtles. Despite a clear relation between diatoms' presence and amount and the likely cause of death was not proved due to the poor number of samples, the higher burden of diatoms was found in 3 animals deemed to be death for the interaction with human activity. Despite more studied are necessary to identify the possible relation between the cause of death and diatoms' findings, the present study implemented this technique to be adapted to marine animals, confirming its possible application also in veterinary forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Stenella , Tartarugas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/veterinária , Ciências Forenses , Projetos Piloto
17.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(8): 3613-3632, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980931

RESUMO

The cytoskeletal protein doublecortin (DCX) is a marker for neuronal cells retaining high potential for structural plasticity, originating from both embryonic and adult neurogenic processes. Some of these cells have been described in the subcortical white matter of neonatal and postnatal mammals. In mice and humans it has been shown they are young neurons migrating through the white matter after birth, reaching the cortex in a sort of protracted neurogenesis. Here we show that DCX+ cells in the white matter of neonatal and young Cetartiodactyla (dolphin and sheep) form large clusters which are not newly generated (in sheep, and likely neither in dolphins) and do not reach the cortical layers, rather appearing "trapped" in the white matter tissue. No direct contact or continuity can be observed between the subventricular zone region and the DCX+ clusters, thus indicating their independence from any neurogenic source (in dolphins further confirmed by the recent demonstration that periventricular neurogenesis is inactive since birth). Cetartiodactyla include two orders of large-brained, relatively long-living mammals (cetaceans and artiodactyls) which were recognized as two separate monophyletic clades until recently, yet, despite the evident morphological distinctions, they are monophyletic in origin. The brain of Cetartiodactyla is characterized by an advanced stage of development at birth, a feature that might explain the occurrence of "static" cell clusters confined within their white matter. These results further confirm the existence of high heterogeneity in the occurrence, distribution and types of structural plasticity among mammals, supporting the emerging view that multiple populations of DCX+, non-newly generated cells can be abundant in large-brained, long-living species.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Substância Branca/citologia , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Masculino , Neurogênese , Carneiro Doméstico , Especificidade da Espécie , Stenella , Substância Branca/metabolismo
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 139: 57-63, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754735

RESUMO

Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N from liver and muscle) was used to assess trophic relationships between Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) (Thunnus thynnus) and striped dolphin (SC) (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Strait of Gibraltar (SoG). δ15N values from ABFT muscle and liver tissues were significantly different from those of dolphin samples, but no for δ13C values. Diet estimation by MixSIAR models from muscle and liver revealed that ABFT fed mainly on squids (Todaropsis eblanae and Illex coindetii). The shrimp Pasiphaea sp. was estimated to be the most important prey-species in the diet of SC. Trophic positions estimated from muscle and liver isotopic data suggested that ABFT occupy a higher trophic level than SC. Estimations of isotopic niche, as measured by the standard ellipse area, indicated that ABFT show a broader trophic niche than SC; furthermore, SEAc did not show trophic overlap between both predators. The results of this study suggest that resource partitioning occurs between ABFT and SC in the SoG ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Stenella/fisiologia , Atum/fisiologia , Animais , Ecologia , Gibraltar , Isótopos , Estado Nutricional
19.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 128(1): 73-79, 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565255

RESUMO

We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. PCR analysis from the dolphin's lung yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, and the fungus from the whale's mesenteric lymph node showed the greatest identity to Nanniziopsis obscura and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum These cases represent the first reports of pulmonary aspergillosis by A. fumigatus in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and systemic mycosis by a possibly novel Onygenales in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Masculino , Micoses/epidemiologia
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 137-144, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384483

RESUMO

A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit. A pan-Herpesvirus nested-PCR assay on frozen samples obtained from multiple organs was positive. Phylogenetic analysis on the partial DNA polymerase gene revealed that the striped dolphin isolate was closely related to known cetacean Alphaherpesvirus sequences from the same host species. Attempted virus isolation was unsuccessful. The tissue levels of different persistent organic pollutants and the toxicological stress, evaluated using a theoretical model, showed a severely impaired immune response. This study reports the first case of occlusive mycotic tracheobronchitis in a free-living cetacean and the first molecular identification of an Alphaherpesvirus in a free-ranging striped dolphin stranded on the coast of Italy.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Bronquite/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella/microbiologia , Traqueíte/veterinária , Animais , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Traqueíte/epidemiologia , Traqueíte/microbiologia
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