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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933093, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND We present a case of Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae or GBS) meningitis in a non-pregnant woman that likely originated from acute otitis media. Although invasive Group B Streptococcal infections are increasing in the United States, GBS meningitis is still rare in non-pregnant adults. At the end, we discuss risk factors for this disease and data that suggest that invasive GBS infection is increasing in the adult and elderly populations of the United States. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 55-year-old woman with a history of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis who presented with altered mental status after failure of outpatient treatment of otitis media with oral doxycycline and steroids. Upon admission, she was initially afebrile and hemodynamically stable, but she had a rapid decline and required emergent intubation. Blood cultures grew GBS. CSF PCR analysis performed by BioFire® FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel revealed GBS. Middle-ear fluid and CSF cultures drawn after 1 day of antibiotic therapy did not grow any organisms. Treatment was achieved with high-dose intravenous ceftriaxone for 14 days, and tympanoplasty. At the end of 14 days of antibiotic therapy, the patient had full neurological recovery, without any residual neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS GBS meningitis is classically associated with neonatal disease, but invasive GBS infection is fairly common in adults and appears to be increasing in incidence secondary to increasing populations living with diabetes, immunosuppressed conditions, and advanced age. Central nervous system infection with this organism is still rare. In this case report we describe a non-pregnant woman who presented with GBS meningitis.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas , Otite Média , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Adulto , Idoso , Ceftriaxona , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Média/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae
2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 889-895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization and neonatal early-onset GBS disease (GBS-EOD), and to study the factors associated with the development of GBS-EOD in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. METHODS: A total of 16 384 pregnant women and 16 634 neonates delivered by them were enrolled prospectively who had medical records in Xiamen Maternal and Child Care Hospital, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Capital Medical University, and Zhangzhou Zhengxing Hospital from May 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. Unified GBS screening time, culture method, and indication for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) were adopted in the three hospitals. The incidence rates of maternal GBS colonization and neonatal GBS-EOD were investigated. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with the development of GBS-EOD in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. RESULTS: In these three hospitals, the positive rate of GBS culture among the pregnant women in late pregnancy was 11.29% (1 850/16 384), and the incidence rate of neonatal GBS-EOD was 0.96‰ (16/16 634). The admission rate of live infants born to the GBS-positive pregnant women was higher than that of those born to the GBS-negative ones (P<0.05). The live infants born to the GBS-positive pregnant women had a higher incidence rate of GBS-EOD than those born to the GBS-negative ones [6.38‰ (12/1 881) vs 0.27‰ (4/14 725), P<0.05]. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that placental swabs positive for GBS and positive GBS in neonatal gastric juice at birth were independent predictive factors for the development of GBS-EOD (P<0.05), while adequate IAP was a protective factor (P<0.05) in the offspring of pregnant women with GBS colonization. CONCLUSIONS: GBS colonization of pregnant women in late pregnancy has adverse effects on their offspring. It is important to determine prenatal GBS colonization status of pregnant women and administer with adequate IAP based on the indications of IAP to reduce the incidence of neonatal GBS-EOD. Citation.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Placenta , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554080

RESUMO

Introduction. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive neonatal infections. These have been divided into early-onset disease (EOD; <7 days) and late-onset disease (LOD; 7-89 days), with different GBS clonal complexes (CCs) associated with different disease presentations.Hypothesis. Different GBS CCs are associated with timing of infection (EOD or LOD) and clinical presentation (sepsis, meningitis or pneumonia).Aim. To study infant GBS infections in Iceland from 1975 to 2019. Are specific GBS CCs related to disease presentation? Is CC17 overrepresented in infant GBS infections in Iceland?Methodology. All culture-confirmed invasive GBS infections in infants (<90 days) in Iceland from 1975 to 2019 were included. Clinical information was gathered from medical records.Results. A total of 127 invasive GBS infections in infants were diagnosed, but 105 infants were included in the study. Of these, 56 had EOD and 49 had LOD. The incidence of GBS infections declined from 2000 onwards but increased again at the end of the study period. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in LOD over the study period (P=0.0001). The most common presenting symptoms were respiratory difficulties and fever and the most common presentation was sepsis alone. Approximately one-third of the cases were caused by GBS CC17 of serotype III with surface protein RIB and pili PI-1+PI-2b or PI-2b. CC17 was significantly associated with LOD (P<0.001).Conclusion. CC17 is a major cause of GBS infection in infants in Iceland. This clone is associated with LOD, which has been increasing in incidence. Because intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis only prevents EOD, it is important to continue the development of a GBS vaccine in order to prevent LOD infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sorogrupo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/imunologia
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 720789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540718

RESUMO

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that asymptomatically colonizes the vaginal tract. However, during pregnancy maternal GBS colonization greatly predisposes the mother and baby to a wide range of adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), stillbirth, and neonatal infection. Although many mechanisms involved in GBS pathogenesis are partially elucidated, there is currently no approved GBS vaccine. The development of a safe and effective vaccine that can be administered during or prior to pregnancy remains a principal objective in the field, because current antibiotic-based therapeutic strategies do not eliminate all cases of invasive GBS infections. Herein, we review our understanding of GBS disease pathogenesis at the maternal-fetal interface with a focus on the bacterial virulence factors and host defenses that modulate the outcome of infection. We follow GBS along its path from an asymptomatic colonizer of the vagina to an invasive pathogen at the maternal-fetal interface, noting factors critical for vaginal colonization, ascending infection, and vertical transmission to the fetus. Finally, at each stage of infection we emphasize important host-pathogen interactions, which, if targeted therapeutically, may help to reduce the global burden of GBS.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Gravidez , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 679792, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568085

RESUMO

Binding to plasminogen (Plg) enables bacteria to associate with and invade host tissues. The cell wall protein PbsP significantly contributes to the ability of group B streptococci, a frequent cause of invasive infection, to bind Plg. Here we sought to identify the molecular regions involved in the interactions between Plg and PbsP. The K4 Kringle domain of the Plg molecule was required for binding of Plg to whole PbsP and to a PbsP fragment encompassing a region rich in methionine and lysine (MK-rich domain). These interactions were inhibited by free L-lysine, indicating the involvement of lysine binding sites in the Plg molecule. However, mutation to alanine of all lysine residues in the MK-rich domain did not decrease its ability to bind Plg. Collectively, our data identify a novel bacterial sequence that can interact with lysine binding sites in the Plg molecule. Notably, such binding did not require the presence of lysine or other positively charged amino acids in the bacterial receptor. These data may be useful for developing alternative therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking interactions between group B streptococci and Plg.


Assuntos
Lisina , Plasminogênio , Sítios de Ligação , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Streptococcus agalactiae
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 627, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the major bacterial pathogens responsible for neonatal sepsis. Whole genome sequencing has, in recent years, emerged as a reliable tool for capsular typing and antimicrobial resistance prediction. This study characterized vaginal and rectal isolates of Group B Streptococcus obtained from pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria using a whole-genome sequence-based approach. RESULTS: Capsular types Ia, Ib, II, III, IV and V were detected among the 43 isolates sequenced. Twelve sequence types (STs) were identified, with ST19 (n = 9, 27.3 %) and ST486 (n = 5, 15.2 %) the most frequent among non-duplicated isolates. Of the alpha-like proteins (alp) identified, Alp1 was the most prevalent in 11 (33.3 %) isolates. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance determinants were present in 15 (45.5 %) isolates; ermB was detected in 1 (3 %), ermTR in 7 (21.2 %) isolates, lnu gene was detected in 6 (18.2 %) and mef was identified in 3 (9.1 %) isolates. Resistance of GBS to erythromycin and clindamycin (predicted from presence of erm or mef genes) was found to be 30.3 % and 24.2 %, respectively. All isolates were predicted resistant to tetracycline with only the tetM gene identified. Fluoroquinolone-resistance conferring substitutions in gyrA + parC were detected in 9 (27.3 %) isolates and chloramphenicol resistance was predicted from presence of aac6'-aph2 gene in 11 (33.3 %). CONCLUSIONS: The data available from the whole genome sequencing of these isolates offers a small but insightful description of common serotypes and resistance features within colonizing GBS in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Streptococcus agalactiae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria , Gravidez , Gestantes , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2379-2388, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424183

RESUMO

Vertical transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) is among the leading causes of neonatal illness and death. Colonization with GBS usually is screened weeks before delivery during pregnancy, on the basis of which preventive measures, such as antibiotic prophylaxis, were taken. However, the accuracy of such an antenatal screening strategy has been questionable because of the intermittent nature of GBS carriage. We developed a simple-to-use, rapid, CRISPR-based assay for GBS detection. We conducted studies in a prospective cohort of 412 pregnant women and a retrospective validation cohort to evaluate its diagnostic performance. We demonstrated that CRISPR-GBS is highly sensitive and offered shorter turnaround times and lower instrument demands than PCR-based assays. This novel GBS test exhibited an overall improved diagnostic performance over culture and PCR-based assays and represents a novel diagnostic for potential rapid, point-of-care GBS screening.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380674

RESUMO

We report a case of cellulitis of the soft tissue of the neck with group B streptococcus (GBS) sepsis in a 4-week-old baby boy presented with a 1-day history of fever, irritability and feed refusal. While in the hospital, a left-sided submandibular swelling extending to preauricular area started emerging, which progressed dramatically. Ultrasound scan of the neck confirmed inflammation of the underlying soft tissue while revealing multiple enlarged lymph nodes without any abscess formation and overlying soft tissue oedema. Blood cultures were flagged positive at 9 hours for GBS. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 2 weeks. GBS is considered a common cause of early-onset sepsis in neonates. However, it can also lead to late-onset sepsis in infancy with variable presentations. In our case, GBS sepsis manifested with cellulitis of the soft tissue of the neck along with swelling of local lymph nodes.


Assuntos
Sepse , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pescoço , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae
11.
J Dairy Res ; 88(3): 286-292, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372953

RESUMO

This study aimed to obtain a better understanding of the regulatory genes and molecules involved in the development of mastitis. For this purpose, the transcription factors (TF) and MicroRNAs (miRNA) related to differentially expressed genes previously found in extracorporeal udders infected with Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated. The Gene-TF network highlighted LOC515333, SAA3, CD14, NFKBIA, APOC2 and LOC100335608 and genes that encode the most representative transcription factors STAT3, PPARG, EGR1 and NFKB1 for infected udders. In addition, it was possible to highlight, through the analysis of the gene-miRNA network, genes that could be post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNAs, such as the relationship between the CCL5 gene and the miRNA bta-miR-363. Overall, our data demonstrated genes and regulatory elements (TF and miRNA) that can play an important role in mastitis resistance. The results provide new insights into the first functional pathways and the network of genes that orchestrate the innate immune responses to infection by Streptococcus agalactiae. Our results will increase the general knowledge about the gene networks, transcription factors and miRNAs involved in fighting intramammary infection and maintaining tissue during infection and thus enable a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mastite Bovina/genética , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
J Dairy Res ; 88(3): 302-306, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372963

RESUMO

In this Research Communication we evaluate the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 380 bacteria isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Brazil. MALDI-TOF MS identifications were compared to previous identifications by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS achieved a typeability of 95.5%. The accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Staphylococcus isolates was 93.2%. The agreement between MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical identification of Streptococcus agalactiae was 96%, however, the agreement between these techniques for identifying other catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci was lower. Agreement in identifying Gram-negative bacteria at the genus level was 90.5%. Our findings corroborate that MALDI-TOF MS is an accurate, rapid and simple technique for identifying bovine mastitis pathogens. The availability of this methodology in some research institutions would represent a significant step toward increasing the diagnosis and epidemiological studies of bovine mastitis and other animal infectious diseases in Brazil.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Leite/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Staphylococcus/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
13.
Turk J Pediatr ; 63(4): 697-702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital outbreaks of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) infection are rare. There are only a few published reports of late-onset GBS outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report here three cases of late-onset GBS in our NICU. CASE: Three preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born at 24 -27 weeks gestation developed lateonset GBS sepsis within four weeks. Two asymptomatic GBS carriers were identified in the NICU prior to the outbreak. Tests of maternal rectovaginal GBS colonization were negative in all three cases; as such, vertical transmission was unlikely. All three GBS isolates were capsular serotype 1b, with comparable antibiotic susceptibility profiles. CONCLUSION: Preterm delivery and VLBW are associated with an increased risk of invasive late-onset GBS infection. This report underscores the ongoing risk of nosocomial transmission of GBS in the NICU.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Gravidez , Sorogrupo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 179-187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391940

RESUMO

The association of vaccines with immunostimulants such as ß-glucan, promote the production of cytokines, competent immune cells and antibodies. However, differences between ß-glucan types and trials make it difficult to understand ß-glucan's mechanism of action. In this study, three trials were carried out with control and fish fed ß-glucan, the first trial occurred at 15 days; the second trial occurred at 30 days when we associated ß-glucan and vaccine; and the third trial occurred at 15 days post-challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia (O. niloticus) in order to investigate immune-related gene expression in the head kidney and spleen using real-time qPCR. We found increases in HSP70, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10, Lys and C3 predominantly in the head kidney, except for IgM expression, which prevailed in the spleen, under vaccinated + ß-glucan action. This demonstrates the trade-off presented by the head kidney and spleen after immunostimulation in order to produce acquired immunity, as well as an increase in HSP70 expression in vaccinated + ß-glucan fish. The results suggest that ß-glucan stimulates the immune response through damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognition. Therefore, these dynamics of the immune response promote a more robust defense against disease.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae
15.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major contributor to neonatal sepsis worldwide. Late-onset group B Streptococcus disease (LOGBS) and its risk factors remain poorly understood. The isolation of GBS from breast milk has been described in cases of LOGBS. This potential association has raised concerns for mothers and clinicians regarding the safety of ongoing breastfeeding. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to breast milk is associated with increased risk of LOGBS. METHODS: A case-control study of LOGBS was conducted across 4 hospital networks in Victoria, Australia, including the 2 major tertiary pediatric centers in the state, to evaluate 11 years of data (2007-2017). Cases were captured initially from microbiology databases and recaptured with International Classification of Diseases discharge coding. Each case patient was matched with 4 controls to assess feeding status. Patients were matched for chronological age, gestation, discharge status, recruitment site, and calendar year. RESULTS: We identified 92 cases of LOGBS: 73 cases on initial capture and 76 cases on the recapture analysis. Case patients were matched with 368 controls: 4 controls to each patient. Seventy-two patients were exposed to breast milk at the time of LOGBS (78.3%), compared with 274 controls (74.5%; odds ratio 1.2 [95% confidence interval 0.7-2.3]). CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding was not associated with increased risk of LOGBS. Breast milk should not be tested for GBS during a first episode of LOGBS.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Streptococcus agalactiae
16.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105084, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246747

RESUMO

Stress triggered concurrent microbial/parasitic infections are prevalent in earthen pond based farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the current study, a total of thirty five O. niloticus were collected from a commercial fish farm with a history of severe mortalities at Port Said, Egypt. Nile tilapia samples were subjected to bacteriological, parasitological and pathological examinations. Twenty one Enterococcus fecalis and 15 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were presumptively identified utilizing the semi-automated API 20 Strept test kit. The identities of the retrieved bacteria were confirmed by the sequencing of 16 S rRNA gene. Moribund O. niloticus were found to be heavily infected by one or both of Centrocestus formosanus encysted metacercariae (EMC) and/or Myxobolus tilapiae spores presenting a unique form of synergistic and/or symbiotic relationship. The identities of both parasites were confirmed through morphological and molecular characterization. Variable circulatory, degenerative, necrotic and proliferative changes were also noticed in hematopoietic organs. Interestingly, multiple myxobolus spores and EMC were noticed in some histological sections. It was obvious that the current concurrent bacterial and parasitic infections are triggered by the deleterious effects of some stressing environmental conditions. The unfavorable climatic conditions (high temperature and high relative humidity) recorded at the surge of mortalities are probable predisposing stress factors.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxobolus , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Animais , Myxobolus/genética , Esporos Bacterianos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae
17.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 311(6): 151520, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273854

RESUMO

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B Streptococcus, is an aetiological agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in adults, including cystitis, pyelonephritis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Whereas ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) have been shown to grow and achieve higher culture denstity in human urine compared to uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) other phenotypic distinctions between S. agalactiae isolated from different forms of UTI are not known. Here, we define the hemolytic activities and biofilm-formation of a collection of clinical isolates of UPSA, ABSA and recurrent S. agalactiae bacteriuria (rSAB) strains to explore these phenotypes in the context of clinical history of isolates. A total of 61 UPSA, 184 ABSA, and 47 rSAB isolates were analyzed for relative hemolytic activity by spot assay on blood agar, which was validated using a erythrocyte lysis suspension assay. Biofilm formation was determined by microtiter plate assay with Lysogeny and Todd-Hewitt broths supplemented with 1% glucose to induce biofilm formation. We also used multiplex PCR to analyze isolates for the presence of genes encoding adhesive pili, which contribute to biofilm formation. Comparing the hemolytic activities of 292 isolates showed, surprisingly, that ABSA strains were significantly more likely to be highly hemolytic compared to other strains. In contrast, there were no differences between the relative abilities of strains from the different clinical history groups to form biofilms. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a propensity of S. agalactiae causing ABU to be highly hemolytic but no link between clinical history of UTI strains and ability to form biofilm.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria , Infecções Urinárias , Biofilmes , Hemólise , Humanos , Streptococcus agalactiae
18.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(11): 1571-1577, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated biofilm production ability (BPA) of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from companion animals/humans and clarified the relationship between BPA populations and other microbiological features. METHODS: Companion animal-/human-origin isolates were collected with host information. We measured BPA using crystal violet staining, via virulence-associated gene profiling (hylB-pavA-pilB-spb1-srtC1-brpA), capsular genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotyping/genotyping. Significant difference in BPA of isolates from different hosts was assessed. We analyzed the association between BPA populations and the virulence genotypes, capsular genotypes, sequence types/clonal complexes, and AMR phenotypes/genotypes. Inhibitory effect of berberine on BPA was evaluated. RESULTS: Five, twenty-six, and twenty-six isolates belonged to strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, whereas seventeen showed no biofilm production. We defined strong, moderate, or weak biofilm producers as the producer group (n = 57) to conduct a comparative analysis between the producer and non-producer populations. There was a significant correlation between the producer population and vaginal specimen. We found significant associations between the producer group and presence (57.9%) of pilB and between the non-producer population and presence (70.6%) of spb1. There was no association between the producer group and capsular genotypes, sequence types/clonal complexes, and AMR phenotypes/genotypes (except for a significant correlation between the producer group and AMR to minocycline). We confirmed inhibitory effect of berberine at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against the type strain on BPA. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest that S. agalactiae harboring pilB is more capable of producing biofilms, with berberine inhibitory effect at sub-MICs on BPA.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação , Streptococcus agalactiae , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 327, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious morbidity and mortality in the first week of life is commonly caused by early-onset neonatal Group B streptococcus (GBS) disease. This infection is spread from GBS positive mothers to neonates by vertical transmission during delivery and results in serious illness for newborns. Intrapartum prophylactic antibiotics have decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS disease by 80%. Patients labeled with a penicillin allergy (PcnA) alternatively receive either vancomycin or clindamycin but effectiveness is controversial. We evaluated the influence of a reported PcnA label versus no PcnA label on inpatient maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Our goal was to examine the relationship between a PcnA label, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and hospital costs. We collected retrospective data with institutional IRB approval from 2016 - 2018 for hospitalized patients who were GBS positive, pregnant at time of admission, ≥ 18 years of age, received antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS, were labeled as PcnA or non-PcnA, and completed a vaginal delivery. Patient characteristics and maternal/neonatal outcomes were examined. Statistical tests included calculations of means, medians, proportions, Mann-Whitney, two-sample t-tests, Chi-squared or Fisher's Exact tests, and generalized linear and logistic regression models. Significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Most PcnA patients were white, older, had a higher median body mass index and mean heart rate, and a greater proportion used tobacco than non-PcnA patients. In regression analyses, PcnA hospitalized patients received a shorter duration of antibiotic treatment than non-PcnA patients [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.45, 95% CI: 0.38-0.53]. PcnA patients were also more likely to have their baby's hospital LOS be > 48 h [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.69] even though the PcnA mothers' LOS was not different from non-PcnA mothers. Cost of care, mortality, intensive care, median parity, mean gravidity, and miscarriage were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized obstetric patients, a PcnA label was associated with a shorter maternal course of antibiotic treatment and a longer neonatal LOS. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the underlying reasons for these outcomes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Mães , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae
20.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4489-4499, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of life-threatening infections in new-borns and may cause invasive disease, stillbirth and preterm delivery during pregnancy. While no licensed vaccine exists, maternal immunization might protect against neonatal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype vaccine consisting of the fused N-terminal domains of the AlphaC and Rib surface proteins of GBS (GBS-NN). METHODS: GBS-NN was tested in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase I study, in healthy non-pregnant women. A dose-escalation phase, with two doses, four weeks apart, of 10, 50 or 250 µg, administered with or without aluminium hydroxide, was initially assessed (n = 60). This was followed by a dose-confirmation study, where one dose of 100 µg adjuvanted GBS-NN was compared with two doses of either 50 or 100 µg adjuvanted GBS-NN, again administered with four weeks interval between the doses (n = 180). Safety and immunogenicity were monitored for one year. RESULTS: GBS-NN was well tolerated with some, mostly mild, injection site reactions observed. Adjuvant significantly increased antibody concentrations and the response was boosted by a second dose. The IgG GMCs remained strongly elevated during the whole one-year duration of the study. Maximal responses occurred after two 50 µg doses, resulting in IgG GMC of 16.9 µg/ml at the primary immunological endpoint, twelve weeks after the first dose. For this regimen, 100% and 89% of the subjects achieved antibody levels above the arbitrary thresholds of 1 and 4 µg/ml, respectively. The added beneficial effect of a second dose was most pronounced for subjects with pre-existing IgG levels below the median of the entire cohort. CONCLUSION: The prototype GBS-NN vaccine was found to be well tolerated and highly immunogenic with an optimal regimen of two doses of 50 µg in the presence of adjuvant. Further development of a maternal vaccine based on the N-terminal domains of the alpha-like protein family of GBS is warranted (NCT02459262).


Assuntos
Streptococcus agalactiae , Vacinação , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Subunidades Proteicas , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos
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