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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 33, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthodontic brackets provide a favorable environment for Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, increasing the risk of white spots and dental caries. Manganese oxide (MnO2) nanozyme-doped diatom microbubbler (DM) is a recently developed material for biofilm removal. DM can generate oxygen by catalase-mimicking activity in Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution and move with ejecting oxygen microbubbles to produce a mechanical self-cleansing effect. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of DM as a novel bracket cleaner. METHODS: DM was prepared according to the protocol and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We treated S. mutans biofilms grown over bracket with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX group), 3% H2O2 (H2O2 group), and co-treatment with 3 mg/mL of DM and 3% H2O2 (DM group). The biofilm removal effect was analyzed using crystal violet assay, and the results were observed using SEM. The viability of S. mutans in remaining biofilms was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Finally, we examined the effect of all materials on mature multispecies biofilms formed on debonded brackets. RESULTS: Crystal violet assay results revealed that the CHX group removed more biofilms than the control group, and the DM group removed biofilms more effectively than the CHX group (p < 0.0001). SEM and CLSM images showed that CHX killed S. mutans but failed to remove most biofilms on brackets. However, DM effectively removed biofilms and mature multispecies biofilms on debonded brackets (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Co-treatment with DM and H2O2 is effective in removing biofilms on orthodontic brackets compared to conventional antibacterial agents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Diatomáceas , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos de Manganês/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Violeta Genciana/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
2.
Lasers Med Sci ; 38(1): 50, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689037

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of green tea (Gt), EGCG, and nanoformulations containing chitosan (Nchi) and chitosan+green tea (Nchi+Gt) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. In addition, the antibacterial effect of nanoformulations was evaluated directly on dentin after the selective removal of carious lesion. At first, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against S. mutans and L. casei isolates were investigated. In parallel, dentin specimens were exposed to S. mutans to induce carious lesions. Soft dentin was selectively removed by Er:YAG laser (n=33) or bur (n=33). Remaining dentin was biomodified with Nchi (n=11) or Gt+Nchi (n=11). Control group (n=11) did not receive any treatment. Dentin scraps were collected at three time points. Microbiological analyses were conducted and evaluated by agar plate counts. Gt at 1:32 dilution inhibited S. mutans growth while 1:16 was efficient against L. casei. EGCG at 1:4 dilution completely inhibited S. mutans and L. casei growth. Independently of the association with Gt, Nchi completely inhibited S. mutans at 1:4 dilution. For L. casei, different concentrations of Nchi (1:32) and Nchi+Gt (1:8) were required to inhibit cell growth. After selective carious removal, viability of S. mutans decreased (p<0.001), without difference between bur and Er:YAG laser (p>0.05). Treatment with Nchi and Nchi+Gt did not influence the microbial load of S. mutans on dentin (p>0.05). Although variations in concentrations were noticed, all compounds showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans and L. casei. Both bur and Er:YAG laser have effectively removed soft dentin and reduced S. mutans counts. Nanoformulations did not promote any additional antibacterial effect in the remaining dentin.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Cárie Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Humanos , Dentina , Quitosana/farmacologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
3.
J Oral Sci ; 65(1): 48-52, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the bactericidal and biofilm removal effect of super reducing water (SRW) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhered to orthodontic brackets, in vitro. METHODS: Three types of brackets were bonded to aluminum disks. After the formation of S. mutans biofilms on the surfaces, the brackets were divided into three groups (n = 44 each) based on their exposure to SRW: group 1, no treatment; group 2, treated for 5 min; and group 3, treated for 10 min. Total viable counts, adenosine triphosphate measurements, crystal violet assay, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of SRW. RESULTS: The bacterial counts in groups 2 and 3 were significantly lower than those in group 1 (P < 0.001); however, no significant differences were observed between groups 2 and 3. Marked decreases in the number of bacterial colonies and extent of biofilm formation were observed in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1. No significant differences in the number of bacterial colonies and amount of biofilm were observed among the three types of brackets in each group. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the bactericidal and biofilm removal effect of SRW treatment on S. mutans adhered to orthodontic brackets.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Streptococcus mutans , Água , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
4.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(1): 318-328, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519632

RESUMO

Cariogenic biofilms produce strong acidic microenvironments, which is the primary cause of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans is a dominant species in cariogenic biofilms. Herein, we report a pH-responsive, charge-switching smart copolymer to selectively target and eradicate bacteria in cariogenic biofilms. To that end, the copolymer is designed to be activated in an acidic environment. The smart copolymer, Poly-1A, consists of ternary compositions of monomers with a cationic ethyl ammonium group, a carboxylic group, and a hydrophobic group in the side chains. The net charge of Poly-1A was charge neutral at neutral pH, but it switched to be cationic because the acidic carboxylate side chains were protonated and became neutral; however, the ammonium groups remained positive. Poly-1A with a net positive charge bound to the anionic surface of oral bacteria by electrostatic interactions and disrupted the bacterial membranes, causing bacterial death. Poly-1A reduced the cell viability of planktonic and biofilm S. mutans at pH 4.5, while it was not bactericidal at pH 7.4. Poly-1A did not reduce the cell viability of human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament stem cells for a 1 h incubation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cárie Dentária , Polímeros Responsivos a Estímulos , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes , Polímeros/farmacologia , Polímeros/química
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238076, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1393427

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a chlorinated diphenyl ether and a possible active agent against microorganisms. Due to its probability of reducing dental plaque accumulation, TCS can be added as a substance for oral hygiene. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and antimicrobial capacity of TCS against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans. Methods: This work evaluates the percentage of bacteria inhibition of P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and S. mutans (ATCC 25175). TCS concentrations between 2 and 128 µg.mL-1 were tested. Results: An inhibitory potential of TCS was found against S. mutans. No percentage of inhibition was detected against P. aeruginosa (technical and biological triplicate). Conclusion: TCS, an antimicrobial agent used in dentifrices, can reduce S. mutans levels therefore these dentifrices should be indicated for patients with a high risk of caries. However, further study is needed, including antimicrobial analyses against other microbial conditions


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Streptococcus mutans , Triclosan/antagonistas & inibidores , Cárie Dentária , Produtos para Higiene Dental e Bucal , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Doenças da Boca
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 146: 105607, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify and compare Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) in saliva and biofilm of caries-free children to those with cavitated and non-cavitated lesions. DESIGN: One hundred and thirty-five 3-4 years old children were grouped (n = 45 in each group) according to their caries status: Clinical examination was done by a calibrated examiner. Biofilm and saliva were collected to quantify the microorganisms using qRT-PCR. The decayed-missing-filled surfaces (dmfs) was calculated by adding the number of decayed (ICDAS-II score 3-6), filled (ICDAS-II score 7 and 8) and missing (ICDAS-II score 9) surfaces due to caries. The correlation between the bacterial amounts and the number of carious surfaces was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The levels and proportions of the microorganisms were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test at an α-level of 0.05. RESULTS: The quantity of S. mutans and L. fermentum was significantly higher in saliva and biofilm of children with cavitated lesions, followed by those with non-cavitated lesions and the lowest in caries-free children. Also, salivary and biofilm S. mutans, along with biofilm L. fermentum levels, significantly correlated with the number of non-cavitated surfaces; while salivary and biofilm S. mutans and L. fermentum levels significantly correlated with the number of cavitated surfaces. Additionally, dmfs scores significantly correlated with the salivary and biofilm S. mutans and L. fermentum levels. CONCLUSIONS: S. mutans and L. fermentum in saliva and biofilm samples are associated with caries lesion severity.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Biofilmes , Saliva/microbiologia
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 221: 112952, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334517

RESUMO

Biofilms are three-dimensional structures formed as a result of microorganism's adhesion on a biotic or abiotic surface. Once a biofilm is established, it is onerous to eradicate it or kill the pathogens therein. Thus, targeting the microbial adhesion process, the initial stage of biofilm formation, is a reasonable approach to avoid challenges associated with subsequently formed biofilms. While many properties of interacting material that play significant roles in initial bacterial adhesion have been widely studied, the effect of surface stiffness on bacterial adhesion was relatively underexplored. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of surface stiffness on the adhesion of microbial species found in the oral cavity by employing representative oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis, and the fungus, Candida albicans. We compared the adhesion behavior of these species alone or in combination toward various surface stiffness (0.06 - 3.01 MPa) by assessing the adhered and planktonic cell numbers at an early (4 h) adhesion stage under various carbon sources and the presence of conditioning film. Our data revealed that in general, a higher amount of microbial cells adhered to softer PDMS surfaces than stiffer ones, which indicates that surface stiffness plays a role in the adhesion of tested species (either single or co-cultured). This pattern was more obvious under sucrose conditions than glucose + fructose conditions. Interestingly, in monospecies, saliva coating did not alter the effect of surface stiffness on S. mutans adhesion while it diminished S. oralis and C. albicans adhesion. However, in the multispecies model, saliva coating rendered the percentage of all adhered microbes to varied PDMS not distinct. The data provide new insights into the role of surface stiffness on microbial mechanosensing and their initial adhesion behavior which may set a scientific foundation for future anti-adhesion strategies.


Assuntos
Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus oralis , Candida albicans , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 171-186, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418688

RESUMO

Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. The human oral cavity is colonized by >700 microbial species known as the indigenous microbiota. This indigenous flora normally maintains an ecological balance through antagonistic as well as mutualistic interspecies interactions. However, environmental perturbation may disrupt this balance, leading to overgrowth of pathogenic species which could in turn initiate diseases such as dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontitis (gum disease). Understanding the mechanisms of diversity maintenance may help developing novel approaches to manage these "polymicrobial diseases". In this chapter, we will focus on a well-characterized form of biochemical warfare: bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus mutans, a primary dental caries pathogen, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by several oral commensal streptococci. We will describe detailed methodologies on the competition assay, isolation, purification, and characterization of bacteriocins.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Streptococcus mutans
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 201-216, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418690

RESUMO

Selective markers employed in classical mutagenesis methods using natural genetic transformation can affect gene expression, risk phenotypic effects, and accumulate as unwanted genes during successive mutagenesis cycles. In this chapter, we present a protocol for markerless genome editing in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae achieved with an efficient method for natural transformation. High yields of transformants are obtained by combining the unimodal state of competence developed after treatment of S. mutans with sigX-inducing peptide pheromone (XIP) in a chemically defined medium (CDM) or of S. pneumoniae with the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) together with use of a donor amplicon carrying extensive flanking homology. This combination ensures efficient and precise integration of a new allele by the recombination machinery present in competent cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Edição de Genes , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 228: 1-12, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543296

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a multiparticulate system based on sodium alginate/gellan gum polymers for morin controlled release using standardized spray-dryer parameters. A 24 experimental factorial design was used to standardize spray-dryer parameters. After standardization, three systems with three different proportions of the natural polymers (50:50, 25:75, 75:25; sodium alginate: gellan gum) with and without morin (control) were developed. The systems were characterized according to its morphology and physicochemical properties. Next, the systems were evaluated regarding antibiofilm and antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. The factorial design indicated the use of the following parameters: i) air flow rate: 1.0 m3 /min; ii) outlet temperature: 120 °C; iii) natural polymers combination in different proportions; iiii) polymer concentration: 2 %. Scanning electron microscopy showed microparticles with spherical shape and rough surface. The samples released 99.86 % ± 9.36; 85.45 % ± 8.31; 86.87 % ± 3.83 of morin after 480 min. The systems containing morin significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm biomass, microbial viability and acidogenicity when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, the spray-dryer parameters were standardized to the highest possible yield values and proved to be efficient for morin encapsulation and controlled release. Furthermore, these systems controlled important virulence factors of S. mutans biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Polímeros , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Alginatos/química , Streptococcus mutans
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 145: 105582, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Nystatin on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans duo-species biofilms using an in vitro cariogenic biofilm model. DESIGN: Biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs under high sugar challenge (1 % sucrose and 1 % glucose), with inoculation of 105CFU/ml S. mutans and 103CFU/ml C. albicans. Between 20 and 68 h, biofilms were treated with 28,000 IU Nystatin solution, 5 min/application, 4 times/day, to mimic the clinical application. Biofilm's three-dimensional structure was assessed using multi-photon confocal microscopy. The expression of C. albicans and S. mutans virulence genes was assessed via real-time PCR. Duplicate discs were used in 3 independent repeats. t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare outcomes between treatment and control group. RESULTS: Nystatin treatment eliminated C. albicans in biofilms at 44 h. Nystatin-treated group had a significant reduction of biofilm dry-weight and reduced S. mutans abundance by 0.5 log CFU/ml at 44 and 68 h (p < 0.05). Worth noting that biomass distribution across the vertical layout was altered by Nystatin treatment, resulting in less volume on the substrate layers in Nystatin-treated biofilms compared to the control. Reduction of microcolonies size and volume was also observed in Nystatin-treated biofilms (p < 0.05). Nystatin-treated biofilms formed unique halo-shaped microcolonies with reduced core EPS coverage. Furthermore, Nystatin-treated biofilms had significant down-regulations of S. mutans gtfD and atpD genes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nystatin application altered the formation and characteristics of C. albicans and S. mutans duo-species biofilms. Therefore, developing clinical regimens for preventing or treating dental caries from an antifungal perspective is warranted.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Candida albicans , Nistatina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Biofilmes
12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 502, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457046

RESUMO

Dental caries is the major biofilm-mediated oral disease in the world. The main treatment to restore caries lesions consists of the use of adhesive resin composites due to their good properties. However, the progressive degradation of the adhesive in the medium term makes possible the proliferation of cariogenic bacteria allowing secondary caries to emerge. In this study, a dental adhesive incorporating a drug delivery system based on L-arginine-containing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was used to release this essential amino acid as a source of basicity to neutralize the harmful acidic conditions that mediate the development of dental secondary caries. The in vitro and bacterial culture experiments proved that L-arginine was released in a sustained way from MSNs and diffused out from the dental adhesive, effectively contributing to the reduction of the bacterial strains Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Furthermore, the mechanical and bonding properties of the dental adhesive did not change significantly after the incorporation of L-arginine-containing MSNs. These results are yielding glimmers of promise for the cost-effective prevention of secondary caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Dióxido de Silício , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Arginina , Streptococcus mutans , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia
13.
Am J Dent ; 35(6): 315-318, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the feasibility of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in the killing of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) for short term treatment. METHODS: For the study, S. mutans were treated with the combinations of N-TiO2, visible light, and without/with 0.5% H2O2 inclusion. Visible light was irradiated for 3 minutes one time. RESULTS: Methylene blue solution was degraded (bleached) 5-30% by one of N-TiO2 (or TiO2) + visible laser (405 or 660 nm) +0.5% H2O2 conditions owing to almost linearly producing free radicals through photocatalysis. Antibacterial outcomes treated with N-TiO2 were slightly better than those by TiO2 regardless of test condition. Also, killing of S. mutans treated with 405 nm laser was slightly better than those by 660 nm laser. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: S. mutans can be eliminated using N-TiO2 with clinically acceptable light (wavelength, intensity) and low concentration H2O2 condition under short term treatment.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Streptococcus mutans , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Luz , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1078572, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519128

RESUMO

Protein lysine malonylation (Kmal) is a novel post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates various biological pathways such as energy metabolism and translation. Malonylation in prokaryotes, however, is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a global Kmal analysis of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutans by combining antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Altogether, 392 malonyllysine sites in 159 proteins were identified. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that Kmal occurs in proteins involved in various metabolic pathways including translation machinery, energy metabolism, RNA degradation, and biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that Kmal substrates were globally altered in the biofilm growth state compared to the planktonic growth state. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the lysine malonylome of our study with previously determined lysine acetylome in S. mutans revealed that a small proportion of Kmal sites overlapped with acetylated sites, whereby suggesting that these two acylations have distinct functional implications. These results expand our knowledge of Kmal in prokaryotes, providing a resource for researching metabolic regulation of bacterial virulence and physiological functions by PTM.


Assuntos
Lisina , Malonatos , Lisina/metabolismo , Malonatos/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/metabolismo , Acetilação
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1063143, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519132

RESUMO

Objectives: White spot lesions (WSLs) are prevalent and often lead to aesthetic problems and progressive caries. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel resin infiltrant containing smart monomer dodecylmethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEM) to inhibit WSLs, and (2) investigate the effects of DMAEM incorporation on cytotoxicity, mechanical properties, biofilm-inhibition and protection of enamel hardness for the first time. Methods: DMAEM was synthesized using 1-bromododecane, 2-methylamino ethanol and methylmethacrylate. DMAEM with mass fractions of 0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% were incorporated into a resin infiltant containing BisGMA and TEGDMA. Cytotoxicity, mechanical properties and antibacterial effects were tested. After resin infiltration, bovine enamel was demineralized with saliva biofilm acids, and enamel hardness was measured. Result: DMAEM infiltration did not increase the cytotoxicity or compromise the physical properties when DMAEM mass fraction was below 5% (p > 0.05). Biofilm metabolic activity was reduced by 90%, and biofilm lactic acid production was reduced by 92%, via DMAEM (p < 0.05). Mutans streptococci biofilm CFU was reduced by 3 logs (p < 0.05). When demineralized in acid and then under biofilms, the infiltrant + 5% DMAEM group produced an enamel hardness (mean ± sd; n = 6) of 2.90 ± 0.06 GPa, much higher than 0.85 ± 0.12 GPa of the infiltrant + 0% DMAEM group (p < 0.05). Significance: A novel resin infiltrant with excellent mechanical properties, biocompability, strong antibacterial activity and anti-demineralization effect was developed using DMAEM for the first time. The DMAEM resin infiltrant is promising for inhibiting WSLs, arresting early caries, and protecting enamel hardness.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Metacrilatos , Bovinos , Animais , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes , Dureza , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1065235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530419

RESUMO

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent and costly biofilm-associated infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is well recognized as the major causative factor of dental caries due to its acidogenicity, aciduricity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) synthesis ability. The EPSs have been considered as a virulent factor of cariogenic biofilm, which enhance biofilms resistance to antimicrobial agents and virulence compared with planktonic bacterial cells. The traditional anti-caries therapies, such as chlorhexidine and antibiotics are characterized by side-effects and drug resistance. With the development of computer technology, several novel approaches are being used to synthesize or discover antimicrobial agents. In this mini review, we summarized the novel antimicrobial agents targeting the S. mutans biofilms discovery through computer technology. Drug repurposing of small molecules expands the original medical indications and lowers drug development costs and risks. The computer-aided drug design (CADD) has been used for identifying compounds with optimal interactions with the target via silico screening and computational methods. The synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) based on the rational design, computational design or high-throughput screening have shown increased selectivity for both single- and multi-species biofilms. These methods provide potential therapeutic agents to promote targeted control of the oral microbial biofilms in the near future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans , Cariostáticos , Biofilmes , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Computadores , Tecnologia
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 958722, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569197

RESUMO

The prevalence of dental caries in the Mexican adult population aged 20 to 85 years is around 93.3%, and 50% in Mexican children and adolescents. Worldwide, it is the most common non-communicable disease. One of the main etiological factors for dental caries is the oral microbiome and changes in its structure and function, with an expansion of pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans. The exposed dental pulp tissue triggers an innate immune response to counteract this bacterial invasion. The relation between oral dysbiosis and innate immune responses remains unclear. We aimed to understand the relationship between innate immune response and the oral microbiota by quantifying the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and proinflammatory markers (cytokines and a chemokine) in dental pulp tissue, either exposed or not to carious dentin, and to correlate this information with the oral microbiome found in healthy teeth and those with moderate caries. RNA was purified from pulp tissue, subjected to RT-qPCR and analysed with the ΔΔCt method. Supragingival dental plaque of non-carious teeth and dentin of carious teeth were subjected to 16S targeted sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis, permutational multivariate ANOVA, and linear discriminant analysis were used to assess differences between non-carious and carious teeth. Correlations were assessed with Spearman´s test and corrected for multiple comparisons using the FDR method. The relative abundance (RA) of Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, Prevotella, and Mitsuokella was increased in carious teeth; while the RA of Haemophilus and Porphyromonas decreased. Olsenella and Parascardovia were only detected in carious teeth. Significant overexpression of interleukin 1 beta (IL1 ß), IL6, and CXCL8 was detected in pulp tissue exposed to carious dentin. IL1ß correlated positively with TLR2 and Actinomyces; yet negatively with Porphyromonas. These findings suggest that immune response of pulp tissue chronically exposed to cariogenic microbiome is triggered by proinflammatory cytokines IL1ß and IL6 and the chemokine CXCL8.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Polpa Dentária , Microbiota , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Citocinas/imunologia , Cárie Dentária/imunologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Dentina/metabolismo , Dentina/microbiologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Streptococcus mutans/genética
18.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 240, 2022 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries (ECC)-dental caries (cavities) occurring in primary teeth up to age 6 years-is a prevalent childhood oral disease with a microbial etiology. Streptococcus mutans was previously considered a primary cause, but recent research promotes the ecologic hypothesis, in which a dysbiosis in the oral microbial community leads to caries. In this incident, density sampled case-control study of 189 children followed from 2 months to 5 years, we use the salivary bacteriome to (1) prospectively test the ecological hypothesis of ECC in salivary bacteriome communities and (2) identify co-occurring salivary bacterial communities predicting future ECC. RESULTS: Supervised classification of future ECC case status using salivary samples from age 12 months using bacteriome-wide data (AUC-ROC 0.78 95% CI (0.71-0.85)) predicts future ECC status before S. mutans can be detected. Dirichlet multinomial community state typing and co-occurrence network analysis identified similar robust and replicable groups of co-occurring taxa. Mean relative abundance of a Haemophilus parainfluenzae/Neisseria/Fusobacterium periodonticum group was lower in future ECC cases (0.14) than controls (0.23, P value < 0.001) in pre-incident visits, positively correlated with saliva pH (Pearson rho = 0.33, P value < 0.001) and reduced in individuals who had acquired S. mutans by the next study visit (0.13) versus those who did not (0.20, P value < 0.01). In a subset of whole genome shotgun sequenced samples (n = 30), case plaque had higher abundances of antibiotic production and resistance gene orthologs, including a major facilitator superfamily multidrug resistance transporter (MFS DHA2 family PBH value = 1.9 × 10-28), lantibiotic transport system permease protein (PBH value = 6.0 × 10-6) and bacitracin synthase I (PBH value = 5.6 × 10-6). The oxidative phosphorylation KEGG pathway was enriched in case plaque (PBH value = 1.2 × 10-8), while the ABC transporter pathway was depleted (PBH value = 3.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Early-life bacterial interactions predisposed children to ECC, supporting a time-dependent interpretation of the ecological hypothesis. Bacterial communities which assemble before 12 months of age can promote or inhibit an ecological succession to S. mutans dominance and cariogenesis. Intragenera competitions and intergenera cooperation between oral taxa may shape the emergence of these communities, providing points for preventive interventions. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 643, 2022 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567353

RESUMO

Dental pulp and periapical diseases are common conditions in stomatology, caused by various pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides, as new antibiotics, offer promising applications in the irrigation and disinfection medicaments for root canals.One patient with chronic periapical periodontitis was selected to extract the clinical pathogenic bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) (ATCC 33,277), Streptococcus mutans (Sm) (ATCC 25,175), and Prevotella intermedius (Pi) (ATCC 25,611) were used as test strains. The effects of plantaricin (Pln) 149 on the biofilm formation and growth in infected root canals were evaluated by RT-PCR, laser confocal scanning microscopy, and bacterial diversity analysis. In addition, the cytotoxicity of Pln 149 (100 µg/mL) to human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was assessed using an MTT assay. Pln 149 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on Pg Sm and Pi (P < 0.05), with significant differences in the biofilm images of the laser confocal scanning microscope (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in hDPSCs viability or proliferation between the Pln 149 and control groups. Considering the excellent antimicrobial effects and low cytotoxicity, we suggest that Pln 149 might be a promising option for root canal irrigation solutions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bacteriocinas , Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555519

RESUMO

Dental caries is caused by biofilm-forming acidogenic bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, and is still one of the most prevalent human bacterial diseases. The potential use of cannabidiol (CBD) in anti-bacterial therapies has recently emerged. Here we have studied the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of CBD against S. mutans. We measured minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The bacterial growth and changes in pH values were measured in a kinetic study. The biofilm biomass was assessed by Crystal Violet staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) metabolic assay. Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy (SDCM) was used to assess biofilm structure, bacterial viability and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. CBD inhibited S. mutans planktonic growth and biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, with similar MIC and MBIC values (5 µg/mL). CBD prevented the bacteria-mediated reduction in pH values that correlated with bacterial growth inhibition. SDCM showed a decrease of 50-fold in live bacteria and EPS production. CBD significantly reduced the viability of preformed biofilms at 7.5 µg/mL with an 80 ± 3.1% reduction of metabolic activity. At concentrations above 20 µg/mL, there was almost no bacterial recovery in the CBD-treated preformed biofilms even 48 h after drug withdrawal. Notably, precoating of the culture plate surfaces with CBD prior to incubation with bacteria inhibited biofilm development. Additionally, CBD was found to induce membrane hyperpolarization in S. mutans. Thus, CBD affects multiple processes in S. mutans including its cariogenic properties. In conclusion, we show that CBD has a strong inhibitory effect against cariogenic bacteria, suggesting that it is a potential drug adjuvant for reducing oral pathogenic bacterial load as well as protecting against dental caries.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo
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