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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5813-5824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821103

RESUMO

Introduction: This paper presents a novel technique for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) with various surface features using high-density atmospheric plasma deposition. Furthermore, to investigate the use of hydrophobic, super-hydrophobic, and hydrophilic graphene in biological applications, we synthesized hydrophobic, super-hydrophobic, and hydrophilic graphene oxides by additional heat treatment and argon plasma treatment, respectively. In contrast to conventional fabrication procedures, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) formed under low pressure and high-temperature environment using a new synthesis method-developed and described in this study-offers a convenient deposition method on any kind surface with controlled wettability. Methods: High density at atmospheric plasma is used for the synthesis of rGO and GO and its biocompatibility based on various wetting properties was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and the viability of cells in response to rGO and GO with various surface features was investigated. Structural integrity was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FESEM and FE-TEM. Wettability was measured via contact angle method and confirmed with XPS analysis. Results: We found that GO coating with a hydrophilic feature is more biocompatible than other surfaces as observed in case of fibroblast cells. We have shown that wettability-controlled by GO deposition-influences biocompatibilities and antibacterial effect of biomaterial surfaces. Discussion: Measuring the contact angle, it is found that contact angle for hydrophobic is increased to 150.590 and reduced to 11.580 by heat and argon plasma treatment, respectively, from 75.880 that was initially in the case of hydrophobic surface. XPS analysis confirmed various oxygen-containing functional groups transforming as deposited hydrophobic surface into superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface. Thus, we have proposed a new, direct, cost-effective, and highly productive method for the synthesis of rGO and GO-with various surface properties-for biological applications. Similarly, for the dental implant application, the Streptococcus mutans was used as an antibacterial effect and found that S. mutans grows slowly on hydrophilic surface. Thus, antibacterial effect was prominent on GO with hydrophilic surface.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Grafite/síntese química , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Grafite/química , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Molhabilidade
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 783-791, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525112

RESUMO

Background: Microorganisms in the mouth are protected from negative environmental conditions by forming biofilms; however, the use of anti-plaque agents in children is not preferred due to toxic side effects. Green tea has been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-dental caries properties. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of green tea extract to prevent the formation of biofilm on the teeth of children using space maintainers. Methods: Bacteria were isolated from samples obtained from children aged between 8 and 10 years. The micro-titer plate method and Congo red agar were used to assay biofilm formation. Green tea leaves were obtained from Rize, Turkey. Methanol, hexane and distilled water were used for preparing the extracts. The effects of green tea extract and chlorhexidine on biofilm formation were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Presence of S. mutans 3,3, S. anginosus 2.1.b, S. dysgalactie 6.1.4.1, and E. faecium 10.2. was measured in the biofilm samples. The extracts showed a bacteriostatic effect on the test bacteria, and among the green tea extracts, the methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest efficacy against biofilm formation by S. mutans 3.3. Conclusion: Green tea extract showed good efficacy in controlling bacterial growth, and is recommended as a better-tasting alternative for daily oral hygiene due to a lack of known side effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Turquia
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 321-333, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116432

RESUMO

In this study the in vitro investigation of the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Viburnum opulus L. bark sample on Streptococcus mutans planctonic cells and biofilm has been intended. A Scanning electron microscopy analysis has been performed in order to investigate the inhibitory effect of the extract on Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Furthermore, the Exopolysaccharide and dextran production of this bacteria have been identified in the presence of the extract. It has been found out that the bark extract with the concentration of 2,5 mg/mL is able to inhibit more than 50% of the cells in the different times development phases. According to this, the exopolymeric matrix on the biofilm surface disperses and the Exopolysaccharide and dextran production get lowered in the presence of bark extract compared to the control group. It is considered that this extract can be used as an alternative approach for the new chemotherapeutic strategies against tooth decay.


En este estudio se investigó el efecto inhibitorio in vitro del extracto de etanólico de una muestra de corteza de Viburnum opulus L. en biopelículas de células planctónicas de Streptococcus mutans. Se realizó un análisis de microscopía electrónica de barrido para investigar el efecto inhibitorio del extracto sobre las biopelículas de Streptococcus mutans. Además, se identificó la producción de exopolisacárido y dextrano de esta bacteria en presencia del extracto. Se descubrió que el extracto de corteza con una concentración de 2,5 mg/ml inhibió más del 50% de las células en las diferentes fases de desarrollo. Consecuentemente, la matriz exopolimérica en la superficie de la biopelícula se dispersa y la producción de exopolisacárido y dextrano se reduce en presencia de extracto de corteza en comparación con el grupo de control. Se sugiere que este extracto puede ser usado como un enfoque alternativo para las nuevas estrategias quimioterapéuticas contra la carie dental.


Assuntos
Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum opulus/farmacologia , Viburnum/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/análise , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dextranos/análise , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , Incrustação Biológica
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3207-3215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440119

RESUMO

Objectives: The first objective of this study was to prepare sodium fluoride (NaF) solution with various concentrations of polyethylene glycol-coated silver nanoparticles (PEG-AgNPs). The second objective was to study the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the tooth-staining effect of the solution. Methods: PEG-AgNPs were prepared via the one-step chemical reduction of silver acetate with thiolated polyethylene glycol. The PEG-AgNPs were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the PEG-AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were determined. The staining effect on dentin and enamel for the 2.5% NaF solutions with PEG-AgNPs at 12,800, 6400, 1600, and 400 ppm was investigated using digital spectrophotometry. The IC50 of the fluoridated silver nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans were measured. Results: The PEG-AgNPs have an average diameter of 2.56±0.43 nm and showed excellent stability at high ionic strength (2.5% NaF) for 18 months. The IC50 of PEG-AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans was found to be 21.16±1.08 ppm silver, which was half of IC50 against HGF-1 cells (42.36±1.12 ppm), providing a working range to kill bacteria with no harm to human cells. The formulations with different concentrations of PEG-AgNPs showed no significant staining of teeth. Combining PEG-AgNPs with NaF significantly expanded the therapeutic window against Streptococcus mutans by reducing its IC50. Conclusion: A biocompatible solution of NaF with PEG-AgNPs was developed. Because it has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and no tooth-staining effect, it can be used as an anti-caries agent.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos/síntese química , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/uso terapêutico , Coloração e Rotulagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108645, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353648

RESUMO

In this study, we focus on the antimicrobial properties of tempeh, a soybean fermented food, against oral bacteria. Tempeh showed antimicrobial activity against dental caries pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL. An antimicrobial substance contained in tempeh was present in the 100 kDa or greater fraction generated by ultrafiltration, but it was found not to be proteinaceous by native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE and protein degradation tests. Next, when the fraction was purified with an ODS column, the 80% and 100% methanol eluates showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. The 100% methanol eluate was further subjected to a 2nd column purification, and isolation of the target was confirmed by HPLC. When the isolated material was analyzed by ESI-MS, the m/z was 279.234. Further analysis by Raman spectroscopy revealed a peak similar to linoleic acid. This substance also possessed antimicrobial properties equivalent to linoleic acid.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374766

RESUMO

Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and antibacterial blue light (aBL) are emerging treatment methods auxiliary to mechanical debridement for periodontitis. APDT provided with near-infrared (NIR) light in conjunction with an indocyanine green (ICG) photosensitizer has shown efficacy in several dental in-office-treatment protocols. In this study, we tested Streptococcus mutans biofilm sensitivity to either aPDT, aBL or their combination dual-light aPDT (simultaneous aPDT and aBL) exposure. Biofilm was cultured by pipetting diluted Streptococcus mutans suspension with growth medium on the bottom of well plates. Either aPDT (810 nm) or aBL (405 nm) or a dual-light aPDT (simultaneous 810 nm aPDT and 405 nm aBL) was applied with an ICG photosensitizer in cases of aPDT or dual-light, while keeping the total given radiant exposure constant at 100 J/cm2. Single-dose light exposures were given after one-day or four-day biofilm incubations. Also, a model of daily treatment was provided by repeating the same light dose daily on four-day and fourteen-day biofilm incubations. Finally, the antibacterial action of the dual-light aPDT with different energy ratios of 810 nm and 405 nm of light were examined on the single-day and four-day biofilm protocols. At the end of each experiment the bacterial viability was assessed by colony-forming unit method. Separate samples were prepared for confocal 3D biofilm imaging. On a one-day biofilm, the dual-light aPDT was significantly more efficient than aBL or aPDT, although all modalities were bactericidal. On a four-day biofilm, a single exposure of aPDT or dual-light aPDT was more efficient than aBL, resulting in a four logarithmic scale reduction in bacterial counts. Surprisingly, when the same amount of aPDT was repeated daily on a four-day or a fourteen-day biofilm, bacterial viability improved significantly. A similar improvement in bacterial viability was observed after repetitive aBL application. This viability improvement was eliminated when dual-light aPDT was applied. By changing the 405 nm to 810 nm radiant exposure ratio in dual-light aPDT, the increase in aBL improved the antibacterial action when the biofilm was older. In conclusion, when aPDT is administered repeatedly to S. mutans biofilm, a single wavelength-based aBL or aPDT leads to a significant biofilm adaptation and increased S. mutans viability. The combined use of aBL light in synchrony with aPDT arrests the adaptation and provides significantly improved and sustained antibacterial efficacy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos da radiação , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos da radiação , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação
7.
Biofouling ; 36(3): 256-265, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326756

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tea extracts on oral biofilm colonization depending on steeping temperature. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were cultured and treated with green or black tea extracts prepared under different steeping conditions. Biofilm formation, glucosyltransferase (GTF) levels, bacterial growth, and acidogenicity were evaluated. Biofilms were also assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. All extracts with hot steeping showed higher inhibitory effects on biofilm formation and cell viability and lower GTF levels compared with those with cold steeping (p < 0.05). Hot steeping significantly reduced bacterial growth (p < 0.05) and maintained the pH. Catechins were only identified from hot steeping extracts. Within the limits of this study, extracts with cold steeping showed lower inhibitory effects on oral biofilms. The different effects between steeping extracts may be attributed to the difference in catechins released from tea extracts under the different steep conditions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus sobrinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Temperatura , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catequina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus sobrinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Biofouling ; 36(3): 245-255, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326753

RESUMO

Dental plaque is a biofilm composed of a complex oral microbial community. The accumulation of plaque in the pit and fissures of dental elements often leads to the development of tooth decay (dental caries). Here, potent anti-biofilm materials were developed by incorporating zinc methacrylates or di-n-butyl-dimethacrylate-tin into the light-curable sealant and their physical, mechanical, and biological properties were evaluated. The data revealed that 5% di-n-butyl-dimethacrylate-tin (SnM 5%) incorporated sealant showed strong anti-biofilm efficacy against various single-species (Streptococcus mutans or Streptococcus oralis or Candida albicans) and S. mutans-C. albicans cross-kingdom dual-species biofilms without either impairing the mechanical properties of the sealant or causing cytotoxicities against mouse fibroblasts. The findings indicate that the incorporation of SnM 5% in the experimental pit and fissure self-adhesive sealant may have the potential to be part of current chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent the formation of cariogenic oral biofilms that cause dental caries.


Assuntos
Adesivos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/farmacologia , Zinco/química , Adesivos/química , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus oralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Biofouling ; 36(2): 146-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182151

RESUMO

Following antimicrobial administrations in oral environments, bacteria become exposed to a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC), which can induce in vitro single-species biofilms. This study explored the effects of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at a sub-MIC on in vitro multi-species biofilms comprising Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii. CHG at a sub-MIC was found to induce in vitro biofilm growth, although the bacterial growth was not significantly different from that in the control. The gene transcription related to S. mutans multi-species biofilm formation with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control, but this was not found in S. mutans single-species biofilms. The bio-volume of extracellular polysaccharides with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control. This suggests that CHG at a sub-MIC may promote the development of multi-species biofilms by affecting the gene transcription related to S. mutans biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Actinomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinomyces/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus oralis/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(6): 424-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196736

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is a major cause of tooth decay due to its promotion of biofilm formation and acid production. Several plant extracts have been reported to have multiple biological activities such as anti-inflammation and antibacterial effects. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of three plant extracts, phellodendron bark (PB), yucca, and black ginger, and found that PB had a stronger effect than the other extracts. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PB against 100 S. mutans strains was investigated. The MIC range of PB was 9.8-312.5 µg/mL. PB suppressed the growth kinetics of S. mutans in a dose-dependent manner, even at sub-MICs of PB. Then, we investigated the effect of PB on S. mutans virulence. The PB suppressed biofilm formation at high concentrations, although PB did not affect the expression of glucosyltransferase genes. Additionally, PB suppressed the decrease in pH from adding an excess of glucose. The expression of genes responsible for acid production was increased by the addition of excess glucose without PB, whereas their expression levels were not increased in the presence of 1× and 2× MIC of PB. Although PB showed a bacteriostatic effect on planktonic S. mutans cells, it was found that more than 2× MIC of PB showed a partial bactericidal effect on biofilm cells. In conclusion, PB not only showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans but also decreased the cariogenic activity in S. mutans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Phellodendron/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Yucca/metabolismo
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 85, 2020 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic particulate hydroxyapatite (HAP; Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) is used as ingredient in oral care products but its effects on cariogenic biofilms are not clear yet. The primary mode of action of HAP may be acting as a calcium phosphate reservoir when deposited in oral biofilms and release Ca2+ and (hydrogen) phosphate ions upon bacterial acid challenge. The aim of this in vitro study was to test this hypothesis by investigating release of Ca2+ ions and potential buffering effects from HAP upon bacterial acid challenge in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: Planktonic cultures of S. mutans were grown in BHI broth with 1% sucrose or with additional 5% HAP or 5% silica for up to 48 h. Separately, biofilms of S. mutans were grown in BHI for 72 h in total. After 24 h of this biofilm culture, either BHI alone or BHI with additional 0.5% HAP or 0.5% silica was added. After 48 h, BHI with 1% sucrose was added to allow bacterial acid formation. Ca2+ release was determined colorimetrically and pH measurements were performed using a pH electrode. For statistical analysis, non-parametrical procedures were applied (n ≥ 10; Mann-Whitney U test; α = 0.05). RESULTS: Relevant release of Ca2+ was only evident in planktonic cultures or biofilms with HAP but not in both other groups (p ≤ 0.001). In suspended biofilms with HAP, median pH was 4.77 after 72 h and about 0.5 pH units higher as compared to both other groups (4.28 or 4.32, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested conditions, synthetic HAP releases Ca2+ ions upon bacterial acid challenge and may also show some buffering capacity but further studies are needed to investigate whether the concentrations tested here can also be reached clinically in dental biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Sacarose
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 113: 104690, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155466

RESUMO

Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans are harmful oral pathogens and prone to resist chemical antimicrobial agents. Active ingredients from plants are of increasing interest as an alternative. This study aims to compare antimicrobial effects of 4-allylpyrocatechol (APC) extracted from Piper betle on these oral pathogens. Minimum concentration of APC against the tested pathogens was determined using a broth microdilution assay. Killing kinetic study of APC was carried out within 24 h. Morphology of the pathogenic cells was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Anti-biofilm was investigated using crystal violet assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that the mechanism of inhibition of APC was bactericidal and fungicidal effects. APC at minimum concentration of 400 µg/mL could completely kill Streptococcus and Candida spp., however, the killing rate on S. intermedius and C. albicans was significantly faster than on S. mutans. APC inhibited biofilm formation of C. albicans more efficiently than that of the bacterial cells. Cell morphology from SEM indicated that APC caused bacterial cell membrane destruction and inhibited fungal budding or tubing formation. CLSM images confirmed the killing potential of APC and suggested that bacterial dead cells could be easier washed out than the fungal dead cells. It is concluded that APC potentially inhibits growth and biofilms of oral Streptococcus and Candida spp. in different mechanism of action and killing rate. APC can be considered as a promising agent for preventing and treating dental disorders caused by S. intermedius, S. mutans, and C. albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecóis/farmacologia , Piper betle/química , Streptococcus intermedius/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tooth brushing with Salvadora persica (miswak) sticks on Streptococcus mutans count and the mean plaque score relative to brushing with fluoridated tooth paste (FTP). METHODS: Our sample included 94 healthy, high caries-risk, 8 to 9-year-old students recruited from a government school, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between February and April 2016. Subjects were randomly grouped into test (provided with miswak sticks) and control groups (provided with FTP and soft brushes). Both groups were introduced to a preparatory period (PPP) of 3 weeks. Plaque score and saliva sampling were conducted prior to the PPP and in follow-up visits by a single, calibrated and blinded dentist. RESULTS: Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the mean plaque score across the study (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, subjects in the test group with abundant S. sanguinis increased from zero to six after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvadora Persica (miswak) and brushing with FTP significantly reduced plaque scores among school children. In addition, Salvadora persica was found to change the proportions of salivary bacteria in favor of species with less risk of inducing caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID #: NCT04137393.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Fitoterapia/instrumentação , Salvadoraceae , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Criança , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases worldwide. Dental caries is mainly associated with Streptococcus mutans and the Lactobacillus species. A specific relationship was found between nicotine and S. mutans growth as the presence of nicotine increased S. mutans biofilm formation. Nicotine is able to increase the number of S. mutans and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis. Among the widely used herbs and spices is cinnamon which demonstrated a strong antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria including S. mutans and showed the ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. Cinnamon essential oil, obtained from the leaves of C. zeylanicum, has been demonstrated to be effective against S. mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, which are partially responsible for dental plaque formation and caries development. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of nicotine exposure on the inhibitory effects of cinnamon water extract on S. mutans biofilm formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 24-h culture of S. mutans UA159 in microtiter plates was treated with varying nicotine concentrations (0-32 mg/ml) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose (TSBS) with or without a standardized concentration (2.5 mg/ml) of cinnamon water extract. A spectrophotometer was used to determine total growth absorbance and planktonic growth. The microtiter plate wells were washed, fixed and stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 2.5 mg/ml cinnamon water extract inhibits nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation from 34 to 98% at different concentrations of nicotine (0-32 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation is decreased from 34 to 98% in the presence of 2.5 mg/ml cinnamon water extract. This provides further evidence about the biofilm inhibitory properties of cinnamon water extract and reconfirms the harmful effects of nicotine.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nicotina/efeitos adversos
15.
J Vis Exp ; (155)2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065130

RESUMO

Cross-kingdom biofilms consisting of both fungal and bacterial cells are involved in a variety of oral diseases, such as endodontic infections, periodontitis, mucosal infections and, most notably, early childhood caries. In all of these conditions, the pH in the biofilm matrix impacts microbe-host interactions and thus the disease progression. The present protocol describes a confocal microscopy-based method to monitor pH dynamics inside cross-kingdom biofilms comprising Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The pH-dependent dual-emission spectrum and the staining properties of the ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4 are exploited to determine drops in pH in extracellular areas of the biofilms. Use of pH ratiometry with the probe requires a meticulous choice of imaging parameters, a thorough calibration of the dye, and careful, threshold-based post-processing of the image data. When used correctly, the technique allows for the rapid assessment of extracellular pH in different areas of a biofilm and thus the monitoring of both horizontal and vertical pH gradients over time. While the use of confocal microscopy limits Z-profiling to thin biofilms of 75 µm or less, the use of pH ratiometry is ideally suited for the noninvasive study of an important virulence factor in cross-kingdom biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Espaço Extracelular/química , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Calibragem , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 65-76, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102867

RESUMO

Due to the biological activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, its incorporation in methacrylate polymeric (Eudragit E100) nanoparticles (NP), physical characterization, and antimicrobial essays were evaluated. The clove bears great potential for applications in dentistry. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and oil loaded NP using the nanoprecipitation method. Particle size and polydispersity index were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, and physical morphology by electron microscopy. Loading capacity and in vitro eugenol release were evaluated by gas mass chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of oil loaded-NP was calculated against Streptococcus mutans. Different chemical ingredients were characterized, and eugenol was the principal compound with 51.55%. Polymer content was directly related to NP homogenous size, which was around 150 nm with spherical morphology. A 73.2% loading capacity of eugenol was obtained. Oil loaded NP presented a fickian-type release mechanism of eugenol. Antimicrobial activity to 300 µg/mL was obtained after 24 h.


Debido a las actividades biológicas del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum, se evaluó su incorporación en nanopartículas (NP) de metacrilato polimérico (Eudragit E100), su caracterización y ensayos antimicrobianos. El clavo tiene un gran potencial para aplicaciones en odontología. El aceite se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y las NP cargado de aceite utilizando el método de nanoprecipitación. El tamaño de partícula y el índice de polidispersidad se determinaron mediante espectroscopia de correlación fotónica y su morfología por microscopía electrónica. La capacidad de carga y la liberación de eugenol in vitro se evaluaron mediante cromatografía de gases en masa, y la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Streptococcus mutans. Se caracterizaron diferentes ingredientes químicos, siendo el eugenol el principal compuesto con 51.55%. El contenido de polímero se relacionó directamente con el tamaño homogéneo de NP, que fue de alrededor de 150 nm con morfología esférica. Se obtuvo un 73,2% de capacidad de carga de eugenol. El aceite cargado en NP presentó un mecanismo de liberación de eugenol de tipo fickiano. La actividad antimicrobiana a 300 µg/mL se obtuvo después de 24 h.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Syzygium/química , Nanopartículas/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenol/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(4): 310-317, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955445

RESUMO

Probiotics can stabilize gut flora, regulate intestinal immunity and protect the host from enteric diseases; however, their roles in oral health have received little attention compared to their roles in gut health. Nowadays, the prevalence of sugar-sweetened foods and abuse of antibiotics contribute towards dysbiosis of oral microbiota and drug resistance development in oral pathogens, resulting in various intractable oral diseases. We screened the antibacterial activities of viable and heat-killed probiotic strains against the oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32, L. rhamnosus CT-53, L. paracasei ET-66 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9 displayed strong antipathogenic activities, whereas heat-killed AP-32, CT-53 and ET-66 displayed high levels of pathogen inhibition. The antibacterial activities of these probiotics were not associated with their H2 O2 production; L. acidophilus TYCA02 produced high levels of H2 O2 but merely exhibited moderate antibacterial activities. Oral tablets containing probiotics showed positive inhibitory effects against oral pathogens, particularly those containing viable probiotics. Our results indicate that probiotics prevent the growth of oral pathogens and improve oral health, providing insights into the antipathogenic efficacy of different probiotic species and their potential role in functional foods that improve oral health. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our study provides insights into the antipathogenic efficacy of different probiotic species and their potential roles in developing functional foods to improve oral health. We showed that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32, L. rhamnosus CT-53, L. paracasei ET-66 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9 have great potential for use in the development of functional foods to improve oral health. Since active probiotics may provide strong and long-term protection, the development of functional food products should favour the use of viable bacteria.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibiose , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus salivarius/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/fisiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Humanos , Microbiota , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 523(3): 561-566, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932035

RESUMO

In this study, we applied protamine, which is an antimicrobial peptide, to oral healthcare in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents. First, we explored the antimicrobial activity of protamine, with or without other antimicrobial agents, against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Co-treatment with protamine and 3-methyl-4-isopropylphenol (IPMP) decreased the viability of S. mutans synergistically within 10 min. Interestingly, sodium fluoride (NaF) did not exhibit synergistic activity with protamine. Next, S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) were co-treated with protamine and IPMP for 5 min to simulate tooth brushing. As a result, this co-treatment killed S. mutans faster than S. gordonii. Therefore, co-treatment with protamine and IPMP could be incorporated into oral healthcare products to prevent dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Protaminas/farmacologia , Streptococcus gordonii/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle
19.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 41-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries is a sugar-dependent disease with multifactorial modulating factors affecting deciduous dentition. It is defined as the presence of at least one decayed tooth, absence of a tooth due to caries or the existence of a temporary restoration in a tooth in a child between zero and 71 months of age. No BRP varnish was found in intellectual property banks, therefore it was registered and deposited with patent number BR1020160190142. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-response concentration of alcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), in the form of dental varnish, against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in children. METHODS: Twenty-four children, aged between 36 and 71 months, of both genders and without caries, were selected to participate in this pilot study and grouped randomly into four groups to receive different concentrations of BRP varnish (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). The varnish was applied to the surface of all second deciduous molars. The antimicrobial activity was observed in saliva, which was collected in two phases: before applying the BRP varnish and after use. RESULTS: There was microbiological reduction of S. mutans in the oral cavity of the children in all the tested concentrations. The highest percentage reduction of S. mutans was observed at the concentration of 2.5% (P = 0.0443). CONCLUSION: The BRP extract in the form of dental varnish has antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and constitutes a possible alternative in the prevention of dental caries.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Própole , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Patentes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Própole/administração & dosagem , Própole/farmacologia , Própole/uso terapêutico , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Arch Oral Biol ; 110: 104617, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794906

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are the main oral pathogens which contribute to dental caries that affects all ages of human being. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the potential of crude cell free supernatant (CCFS) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to inhibit of the growth of S. mutans UKMCC 1019. DESIGN: A total of 61 CCFS from LAB strains were screened for their inhibitory ability against S. mutans UKMCC 1019 by broth microdilution method. The selected LAB with highest antimicrobial activity was identified and its CCFS was characterized for pH stability, temperature tolerance, enzyme sensitivity, metabolism of carbohydrates, enzymatic activities and antimicrobial activity against S. mutans UKMCC 1019 and C. albicans UKMCC 3001 by well diffusion assay. The effect of CCFS on cell structure of S. mutans UKMCC 1019 was observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: The CCFS from isolate CC2 from Kimchi showed the highest inhibition against S. mutans UKMCC 1019, which was 76.46 % or 4406.08 mm2/mL and it was identified to be most closely related to Enterococcus faecium DSM 20477 based on 16 s rRNA sequencing. The CCFS of E. faecium DSM 20477 had high tolerance to acidic and alkaline environment as well as high temperature. It also shows high antifungal activities against C. albicans UKMCC 3001 with 2362.56 mm2/mL. Under TEM, the cell walls and the cytoplasm membrane of S. mutans UKMCC 1019 were disrupted by the antimicrobial substance, causing cell lysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, the CCFS from E. faecium DSM 20477 is a potential bacteriocin in future for the treatment of dental caries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cárie Dentária , Enterococcus faecium , Streptococcus mutans , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade
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