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1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) electrospun fiber mats containing different amounts of polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a doxycycline delivery system and to test antibacterial activity against an oral pathogen. METHODOLOGY: PMMA powders or PEO (mol wt 200 Kd) (10,20,30% w/w/) were dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to obtain a final polymer concentration of 15% in DMF (w/v). 2% Doxycycline monohydrate was added to the solutions and submitted to vortex mixing. The solution was transferred to a plastic syringe and fit into a nanofiber electrospinning unit. The parameters applied were: voltage at 17.2 kV; distance of 20 cm between the needle tip and the collector plate; target speed at 2 m/min; and transverse speed at 1cm/min. Syringe pump speed was 0.15 mm/min. The drug release analysis was performed by removing aliquots of the drug-containing solution (in PBS) at specific periods. Doxycycline release was quantified using RP-HPLC. Fiber mats from all groups had their antibacterial action tested against S. mutans based on inhibition halos formed around the specimens. The experiments were performed in triplicate. Gravimetric analysis at specific periods was performed to determine any polymer loss. Morphological characterization of the electrospun fibers was completed under an optical microscope followed by SEM analysis. RESULTS: The addition of PEO to the PMMA fibers did not affect the appearance and diameter of fibers. However, increasing the %PEO caused higher doxycycline release in the first 24 h. Fibers containing 30% PEO showed statistically significant higher release when compared with the other groups. Doxycycline released from the fibers containing 20% or 30% of PEO showed effective against S. mutans. CONCLUSION: The incorporation of PEO at 20% and 30% into PMMA fiber mat resulted in effective drug release systems, with detected antibacterial activity against S. mutans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Doxiciclina/farmacocinética , Nanofibras/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Polimetil Metacrilato/farmacocinética , Análise de Variância , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Doxiciclina/química , Imersão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180262, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508789

RESUMO

The incorporation of antimicrobials in the composites as an attempt to reduce bacterial adhesion without jeopardizing mechanical properties is a challenge for Dentistry. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the bacterial adhesion and physical properties of a composite containing the methacrylate triclosan- derivative monomer (TM). METHODOLOGY TM was synthesized and added to an experimental composite. Samples were divided into two groups: Control and TM (13.4 wt%). Antibacterial Activity: Three specimens of each material were prepared and placed on bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans for 1, 5 and 10 days. After these periods the counting of the colonies (log10) was performed. Assays was performed in triplicate. Physical Properties: Three-body Abrasion (TBA): Ten specimens of each material were prepared and stored at 37°C/24 h. The surface roughness (Ra) and hardness (KHN) were analyzed. Next, the specimens were submitted to abrasive wear (30,000 cycles) and re-evaluated for Ra and KHN; Sorption/solubility (SS): cylindrical specimens (n=10) were prepared and weighted. The specimens were immersed in deionized water for 7 days at 37°C and then their weight was verified again. SS were calculated using accepted formulas; Diametral tensile strength (DTS): specimens (n=10) underwent test performed in an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were submitted to appropriate statistical tests according to data distribution and assay (p<0.05). RESULTS Bacterial Adhesion: TM showed a significant reduction on biofilm accumulation in the evaluated periods: 1 day (1.537±0.146); 5 days (2.183±0.138) and 10 days (4.469±0.155) when compared with Control: 1 day (4.954±0.249); 5 days (5.498±0.257) and 10 days (6.306±0.287). Physical Properties: For TBA, SS and DTS no significant difference was found between groups Control and TM. The incorporation of methacrylate triclosan-based monomer in the experimental composite reduce bacterial adhesion of S. mutans and did not affect important polymer properties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Metacrilatos/química , Triclosan/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Testes de Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solubilidade , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária , Triclosan/farmacologia
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e075, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432926

RESUMO

Resinous infiltrants are indicated in the treatment of incipient carious lesions, and further development of these materials may contribute to greater control of these lesions. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and antibacterial properties of experimental infiltrants containing iodonium salt and chitosan. Nine experimental infiltrants were formulated by varying the concentration of the diphenyliodonium salt (DPI) at 0, 0.5 and 1 mol%; and chitosan at 0, 0.12 and 0.25 g%. The infiltrants contained the monomeric base of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and bisphenol-A dimethacrylate ethoxylate in a 75 and 25% proportion by weight, respectively; 0.5 mol% camphorquinone and 1 mol% ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate. The degree of conversion was evaluated using Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy, and the flexural strength and elastic modulus using the three-point bending test. Sorption and solubility in water, and antibacterial analysis (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration) were also analyzed. Data was analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), with the exception of the antibacterial test, which was evaluated by visual inspection. In general, the infiltrant group containing 0.5% DPI and 0.12% chitosan showed high values of degree of conversion, higher values of elastic modulus and flexural strength, and lower sorption values in relation to the other groups. Antibacterial activity was observed in all the groups with DPI, regardless of the concentration of chitosan. The addition of DPI and chitosan to experimental infiltrants represents a valid option for producing infiltrants with desirable physical and antibacterial characteristics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Quitosana/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Metacrilatos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Sais/química , Análise de Variância , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Módulo de Elasticidade , Resistência à Flexão , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sais/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 456-462, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288325

RESUMO

Objective: To study the influence of environmental factors on the two-species biofilm formed by the combinations of Streptococcus oligofermentans (So) with Streptococcus mutans (Sm) and Streptococcus sanguinis (Ss) with Sm so as to evaluate the role of So in maintaining the microecological balance of the oral cavity. Methods: Single-and two-species biofilms were grown on saliva-coated surfaces (glass tube and 96-well plate). Colony-counting method and safranin staining method were used to measure the biofilms formed under various oxygen conditions (aerobic and anaerobic), sucrose conditions (0%, 1% and 5% sucrose concentrations) and pH conditions (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0). Results: Comparing the numbers of Sm in two co-cultures under various conditions, Sm counts in So+Sm group [(7.70±2.46)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(9.00±1.13)×10(8) CFU/ml] in aerobic environment (P<0.05). Sm counts in So+Sm group [(2.80±0.52)×10(8) CFU/ml] were also significantly lower than those in the Ss+Sm group [(4.00±1.25)×10(8) CFU/ml] in anaerobic environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(8.90±0.82)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly higher than those in Ss+Sm group [(7.50±1.73)×10(8) CFU/ml] in 0% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(5.70±2.94)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(10.30±3.21) ×10(8) CFU/ml] in 1% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(6.10±1.71)×10(8) CFU/ml] were also significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(7.40±1.20)×10(8) CFU/ml] in 5% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(3.50±1.50)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(10.70±2.80)×10(8) CFU/ml] in pH7.0 environment (P<0.05). Comparing the formation of biofilm after 24 h cultivation, the Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group both in aerobic and anaerobic environments (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly higher than those in Ss+Sm group in 0% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group in 1% and 5% sucrose and pH 7.0 environments (P<0.05). Both So and Ss had no inhibitory effect on Sm in pH5.5 and pH8.0 environments. Conclusions: In the in vitro two-species co-culture systems, So showed stronger inhibitory effects than Ss on Sm and its inhibitory ability might influenced by various environmental factors.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Meio Ambiente , Interações Microbianas , Boca , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus sanguis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia
5.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. METHODOLOGY: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). RESULTS: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 µg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 µg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 µg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 µg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtales/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microrradiografia/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7297-7303, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244198

RESUMO

3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG) produced from agarose in red macroalgae was recently suggested as an anticariogenic sugar to replace widely used xylitol. However, the multi-step process for obtaining monomeric sugar AHG from agarose may be expensive. Generally, it is easier to obtain oligosaccharides than monosaccharides from polysaccharides. Therefore, a one-step process to obtain agarobiose (AB) from agarose was recently developed, and here, we suggest AB as a new anticariogenic agent, owing to its anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans. Among AHG-containing oligosaccharides, AB, neoagarobiose (NAB), agarooligosaccharides (AOSs), and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs), AB showed higher inhibitory activity than AOSs against the growth and lactic acid production of S. mutans; no such inhibitory activity was observed for NAB and NAOSs. This inhibitory effect of AB was comparable to the previously reported inhibitory activity of AHG against S. mutans. These results suggest that AB, which can be more economically and simply produced than AHG, may serve as an anticariogenic sugar.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rodófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Dissacarídeos/química , Dissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(7): 251-260, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166029

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic bacterium that localizes in the oral cavity. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) is a major component of licorice extract. GRA and several derivatives, including disodium succinoyl glycyrrhetinate (GR-SU), are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in humans. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of GRA and its derivatives against the S. mutans UA159 strain were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of GRA and GR-SU showed antibacterial activity against the S. mutans strain, whereas other tested derivatives did not. Because GR-SU is more soluble than GRA, GR-SU was used for further experiments. The antibacterial activity of GR-SU against 100 S. mutans strains was evaluated and it was found that all strains are susceptible to GR-SU, with MIC values below 256 µg/mL. A cell viability assay showed that GR-SU has a bacteriostatic effect on S. mutans cells. As to growth kinetics, sub-MICs of GR-SU inhibited growth. The effect of GR-SU on S. mutans virulence was then investigated. GR-SU at sub-MICs suppresses biofilm formation. Additionally, GR-SU greatly suppresses the pH drop caused by the addition of glucose and glucose-induced expression of the genes responsible for acid production (ldh and pykF) and tolerance (aguD and atpD). Additionally, expression of enolase, which is responsible for the carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, was not increased in the presence of GR-SU, indicating that GR-SU suppresses incorporation of sugars into S. mutans. In conclusion, GR-SU has antibacterial activity against S. mutans and also decreases S. mutans virulence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Glycyrrhiza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirretínico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
8.
Microb Pathog ; 133: 103546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112769

RESUMO

With this study, we investigated the effect of synthetic antimicrobial peptides Pep19-2.5 and Pep194LF alone or in combination with antibiotics on S. mutans growth and biofilm formation/disruption. We also examined the cytotoxic effect of each peptide on monocytes. S. mutans was cultured in the presence of different concentrations of each peptide. We showed that Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF were able to significantly (p ≤ 0.01) inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The synthetic peptides also decreased biofilm formation by S. mutans. Furthermore, both peptides reduced the viability of S. mutans in already formed biofilms. The combination of each peptide with antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin, P/S) produced additive interactions which inhibited S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF were nontoxic, as they did not decrease monocyte viability and did not increase the lactate dehydrogenase activity of the exposed cells. In conclusion, synthetic peptides Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF did inhibit S. mutans growth and its capacity to form biofilm. Both peptides were found to be nontoxic to monocytes. These data provide new insight into the efficacy of synthetic peptides Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF against S. mutans. These peptides may thus be useful in controlling the adverse effects of this cariogenic bacterium in human.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/síntese química , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Peptídeos/síntese química , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(6): 213-222, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106894

RESUMO

Hinokitiol, a component of the essential oil isolated from Cupressaceae, possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities and has been used in oral care products. In this study, the antibacterial activities of hinokitiol toward various oral, nasal and nasopharyngeal pathogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes were examined. Growth of all these bacterial strains was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol, minimal inhibitory concentrations of hinokitiol against S. mutans, S. sobrinus, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, antibiotic-susceptible S. pneumoniae, and S. pyogenes being 0.3, 1.0, 1.0, 30, 0.5, 50, 50, 30, 0.3-1.0, 0.5, and 0.3 µg/mL, respectively. Additionally, with the exception of P. gingivalis, hinokitiol exerted bactericidal effects against all bacterial strains 1 hr after exposure. Hinokitiol did not display any significant cytotoxicity toward the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22, pharyngeal epithelial cell line Detroit 562, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, or human gingival fibroblasts, with the exception of treatment with 500 µg/mL hinokitiol, which decreased numbers of viable Ca9-22 cells and gingival fibroblasts by 13% and 12%, respectively. These results suggest that hinokitiol exhibits antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria and has low cytotoxicity towards human epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Boca/microbiologia , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevotella intermedia/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus sobrinus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropolona/farmacologia
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3279-3287, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Giant knotweeds originating from East Asia, such as Reynoutria japonica, and Reynoutria sachalinensis, and their hybrid such as Reynoutria x bohemica, are invasive plants in Europe and North America. However, R. japonica is also a traditional East Asian drug (Polygoni cuspidati rhizoma) used in Korean folk medicine to improve oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of acetone extracts of Reynoutria species against dominant caries pathogen such as Streptococcus mutans and alternative pathogens, as well as characterize the phytochemical composition of extracts and examine their cytotoxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ultrasonic extraction was used to obtain polyphenol-rich extracts. The extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. To test bacterial viability, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against S. mutans, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, and S. pyogenes were determined. The cytotoxicity of the extracts to human fibroblasts derived from gingiva was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. RESULTS The R. japonica extract had the highest bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against pathogens causing caries, mainly dominant caries pathogen S. mutans (mean MIC 1000 µg/mL and MBC 2000 µg/mL), which was most likely associated with a higher content of stilbene aglycons and anthraquinone aglycons in the extract. Moreover, the R. japonica extract demonstrated the lowest cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts and exhibited cytotoxic activity only at the concentration causing the death of all S. mutans. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that the R. japonica acetone extract can be considered as a natural, antimicrobial agent for caries control.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonum/química , Adulto , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Extremo Oriente , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Cultura Primária de Células , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(5): 718-726, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089029

RESUMO

Aims: This work was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of three different commercial herbal (Aloe vera L. and Fragaria vesca L. extracts) toothpastes [LR Aloe vera (HTP1), ESI Aloe fresh (HTP2) and ROCS Teens (HTP3)] against two microorganisms that cause tooth infections. Materials and Methods: An agar disk diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial activity of three herbal gel toothpastes in the amount of 100 µL against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. In the second part of the work, the volatile organic compounds of three different commercial herbal toothpastes (HTP1-3) were determined by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (SPME/GC-MS-FID). Results: The sensitivity of the tested herbal toothpastes toward each microorganism was expressed as the mean of the clear zone within the range of 6-16 mm diameters. HTP1 and HTP2 were found to be more effective against both bacteria compared with HTP3. Oxygenated monoterpenes (99.34%, 91.44%, and 83.48%) were the most abundant groups in the SPME of HTP1-3, respectively. Menthol (25.41%, 35.82%, and 31.15%) and anethole (52.01%, 23.62%, and 38.79%) were the major compounds identified in the SPME analysis of HTP1-3, respectively. Carvone was found only in HTP3 (0.49%) in a small quantity. Conclusion: The commercial herbal toothpastes could have advantages in decreasing bacterial accumulation on teeth with protection of the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Aloe , Fragaria , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Anisóis/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Mentol/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Biofouling ; 35(3): 340-349, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066298

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on S. mutans using diacetylcurcumin (DAC) and verified DAC toxicity. In vitro, S. mutans biofilms were exposed to curcumin (CUR) and DAC and were light-irradiated. Biofilms were collected, plated and incubated for colony counts. DAC and CUR toxicity assays were conducted with Human Gingival Fibroblast cells (HGF). In vivo, G. mellonella larvae were injected with S. mutans and treated with DAC, CUR and aPDT. The hemolymph was plated and incubated for colony counts. Significant reductions were observed when DAC and CUR alone were used and when aPDT was applied. HGF assays demonstrated no differences in cell viability for most groups. DAC and CUR reduced the S. mutans load in G. mellonella larvae both alone and with aPDT. Systematic toxicity assays on G. mellonella demonstrated no effect of DAC and CUR or aPDT on the survival curve.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia
13.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(4): 45, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929087

RESUMO

Dental caries is primarily caused by pathogenic bacteria infection, and Streptococcus mutans is considered a major cariogenic pathogen. Moreover, antimicrobial peptides have been considered an alternative to traditional antibiotics in treating caries. This study aimed to design a tooth-binding antimicrobial peptide and evaluate its antimicrobial efficacy against S. mutans. An antimicrobial peptide of polyphemusin I (PI) was modified by grafting a tooth-binding domain of diphosphoserine (Ser(p)-Ser(p)-) to create the peptide of Ser(p)-Ser(p)-polyphemusin I (DPS-PI). PI and DPS-PI were synthesized by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PI and DPS-PI against S. mutans were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the growth of S. mutans on PI and DPS-PI treated enamel surfaces. The growth of S. mutans was evaluated by optical density (OD) at 590 nm. Inhibition of dental plaque biofilm development in vivo were investigated. The cytocompatibility to bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was tested. The MIC of PI and DPS-PI were 40 and 80 µg/ml, respectively. SEM images showed that S. mutans were sparsely distributed on the DPS-PI treated enamel surface. OD findings indicated that DPS-PI maintained its inhibition effect on S. mutans growth after 24 h. The incisor surfaces of rabbits treated with DPS-PI developed significantly less dental plaque biofilm than that on PI treated surfaces. The DPS-PI had good biocompatibility with the cells. We successfully constructed a novel tooth-binding antimicrobial peptide against S. mutans in vitro and inhibited dental plaque biofilm development in vivo. DPS-PI may provide a feasible alternative to conventional antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Dental caries is primarily caused by pathogenic bacteria infection, and Streptococcus mutans is considered a major cariogenic pathogen. A tooth-binding antimicrobial peptide was designed by grafted diphosphoserine (-Ser(p)-Ser(p)-) to the structure of polyphemusin I. This novel tooth-binding antimicrobial peptide can inhibit dental plaque biofilm development and thus provide a feasible alternative to conventional antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Dente/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Ligação Proteica , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(3): 181-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964724

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the in vitro cariogenic potential of two infant formulas (IF, for ages 6-12 months) processed with sterile distilled water with or without 1 ppm fluoride. Study design: Nine specimens in each water type were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (SM) suspension. The specimens were then divided into one group of samples cultured immediately on Mitis salivarius (MS) agar plates (T0) and another group of specimens cultured on MS agar plates after incubation at 37°C for 4 hours in anaerobic conditions (T4). Six-fold dilutions of each sample were incubated for 48 hours, and colony-forming units (CFUs) of SM were numerated. The pH changes associated with bacterial fermentation of each of the suspensions were measured at T0 and at T4 following incubation. Results: The pH was lower at T4 than at T0 in both IF. The SM colonies increased significantly at T4 compared to T0 in both IF (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the CFUs of the mediums at T0 and T4 or relation between SM colonies of IF based on fluoridated and non-fluoridated distilled water. Conclusion: The cariogenic potential was not significantly different between two IF prepared with fluoridated or non-fluoridated distilled water.


Assuntos
Cariogênicos , Fluoretos , Fórmulas Infantis , Streptococcus mutans , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Rev. ADM ; 76(2): 77-80, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005030

RESUMO

La OMS y la FDI han publicado que entre el 60 y 90% de los escolares padecen caries. En nuestro país, el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Patologías Orales (SIVEPAB) 2012, reporta un 85% de caries a nivel nacional en población pediátrica. Los agentes anticariogénicos como el diamino y el fluoruro de plata son un tratamiento alentador, este agente puede actuar como bactericida o bacteriostático en función de su concentración y su capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento de estreptococos del grupo viridans, y por ende, de la caries. Problema: ¿Cuál es la efectividad bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (Saforide®) a diferente concentración sobre la microbiota cariogénica de escolares? Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (DFP) a diferentes concentraciones en el crecimiento bacteriano de Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans y S. salivarius en muestras de saliva y dentina en escolares. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental con una variable independiente, el efecto bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata y se tomó el halo de inhibición como la dependiente. Se utilizaron medidas descriptivas como prueba de comparación y análisis de varianza usando post-hoc Tukey≠ con una confianza del 95%, y análisis de datos exploratorios. Resultados: Se analizaron 100 muestras, de las cuales 48.3% correspondió a S. mutans, 41.4% a S. salivarius y 10.3% a S. mitis, se obtuvo una mayor zona de inhibición para las tres bacterias al 38% mostrando una diferencia estadísticamente significativa 12% (p < 0.05). También se observó un efecto bacteriostático al 12%, no así para el 38%, donde se encontró un efecto bactericida Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que al 38% de la concentración hay un claro efecto bactericida en el grupo de estreptococos viridans y el 12% no se recomienda para la detención de caries debido al efecto bacteriostático (AU)


WHO and FDI have ruled that 60-90% of schoolchildren are affected by caries. In our country, the System of Epidemiological Surveillance of Oral Pathologies (SIVEPAB) (SIVEPAB) 2012. Report a rate of 85% of caries nationally in pediatric population. Anticariogenic diamino agents such as silver fluoride are an encouraging decrease in treatment for these high rates of tooth decay in our country, this agent can act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic based on their concentration and their ability to inhibit endogenous metalloproteinase (MMP-2, 8, 9). Problem: What will be the bactericidal effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride different concentration on cariogenic Streptococci saliva samples taken from school and dentin? Objective: Determine the bactericidal effectiveness Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to different concentration on bacterial growth of Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius in saliva samples and dentin in school. Material and methods: An experimental study was conducted as an independent variable the bactericidal effect of silver diamine fluoride was taken as dependent inhibition halo. Descriptive measures were used as a comparison test and analysis of variance using Post-hoc Tukey with 95% confidence, and exploratory data analysis. Results: One hundred samples, of which 48.3% corresponded to S. mutans, 41.4% to S. salivarius and 10.3% to S. mitis, were analyzed, we obtained a larger zone of inhibition for all three organisms at 38% showing a statistically significant difference from 12% (p < 0.05). It was also observed that the 12% sample bacteriostatic effect, not to the concentration of 38% was found a bactericidal effect. Conclusion: Our results suggest that 38% concentration has a bactericidal effect on Streptococcus viridans group and 12% showed not recommended for the arrest or detention of dentine caries bacteriostatic effect (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saliva/microbiologia , Análise de Variância , Resultado do Tratamento , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Meios de Cultura , Dentina/microbiologia , México
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 113: 108724, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877884

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, however, the active compound generating this activity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the bioactive compound in C. nutans responsible for its anti-inflammatory, in-vitro wound healing, and anti-biofilm activities. MAIN METHODS: A pure compound was isolated from the chloroform extract (CE) of C. nutans leaves by chromatographic techniques and bioassay-guided fractionation. This compound's structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses (FTIR/NMR/HRES-MS). Biological activities were evaluated using cytotoxicity, nitric oxide (NO), wound scratch, anti-microbial activity, and anti-biofilm assays; and the compound's bactericidal depth into the biofilm was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. KEY FINDINGS: CE and its pure isolated compound, purpurin-18 phytyl ester (P18PE), significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations of 100 µg/ml and 10-100 µg/ml, respectively. These concentrations significantly induced wound closure by human gingival fibroblasts. CE (100-1000µg/ml) and P18PE (1-500 µg/ml) did not inhibit Streptococcus (S.) mutans growth. However, these concentrations significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm formation below 50% at 250 µg/ml for CE, and 25 µg/ml for P18PE (p<0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: C. nutans contains a bioactive compound, P18PE, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, in-vitro wound healing, and anti-biofilm activities.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Acanthaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ésteres , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Gengiva/citologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Porfirinas/química , Porfirinas/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 29(4): 387-389, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925969

RESUMO

Application of ozone is recommended for sterilisation in dental procedures. This study explored the antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated-water on selected common oral commensals. Based on deviation of their growth curves pattern upon ozone treatment, the inhibitory effect of ozone was determined. SEM examination of the ozone-treated microbes recorded its possible morphological effect. Findings suggested a bacteriostatic action of ozone when microbes were treated at the early phase, while, it was bactericidal when treated during the active phase of the growth cycle. Hence, suggesting rinsing the oral cavity with ozonated-water at 0.1 ppm immediately after tooth brushing may suppress microbial growth and slow biofilm formation. While, rinsing on already developed biofilm may result in microbial cell lysis that halted microbial growth and reduce microbial population in the biofilm. Both justify the great potential of ozone (0.1 ppm) for use as antimicrobial agent for the control of biofilm development in the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 369-377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838591

RESUMO

Due to the high failure rates of traditional dental restorations, there is an ongoing effort to develop modified and new restorative biomaterials in dentistry. Being the most commonly used restorative material, most of these efforts primarily aim to improve dental composite. Generally, the main objective of such modifications is to enhance the restorative physical and antimicrobial properties in order to limit micro-leakage and inhibit bacterial biofilm cultivation. Herein, we describe the process of designing a simple in vitro model to assess the physical and antimicrobial properties of novel restorative materials in addition to evaluating their effect on the fragile balance between enamel de- and remineralization.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Materiais Dentários/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Incisivo/microbiologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(3): 422-431, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837434

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects, nanohardness, and cytotoxicity of different glass-ionomer restorative materials in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The following glass-ionomer restorative materials were used in our study: Argion (VOCO, Germany), Zirconomer (Shofu Inc., Japan), EQUIA Forte (GC, Japan), Fuji II LC capsule (GC, Japan), and Fuji IX GP capsule (GC, Japan). For the cytotoxicity test, a cell culture without release liquids was used as the control group. Microdilution and a disk diffusion test were used to measure the antimicrobial activity. The MTT (3- [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. Nanohardness was measured using a nanoindenter device. Results: Our study determined that all restorative materials used in this study inhibited bacterial growth in cultures containing 1 × 102 cfu/ml of the bacterial concentrations (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans) and that all restorative materials inhibited fungal growth in the cultures containing <1 × 102 cfu/ml of the fungal strains (Candida albicans). IC50 values obtained for the cytotoxicity test were analyzed using the Chi-square test. After a 72-h incubation period, Zirconomer, EQUIA Forte, Fuji IX GP capsule, and Fuji II LG capsule showed statistically significant lower cell viability values. (P < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed on the values obtained from the nanohardness test; the differences between the groups were found to be significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All materials tested showed low antimicrobial activity, and the antifungal activity of these materials was found to be lower than their antimicrobial activity. Only Argion showed non-cytotoxic effect. Beginning with the group with the highest nanohardness values and ending with the lowest, the groups are ranked in the following order: Fuji II LC capsule, EQUIA Forte, Argion, Fuji IX GP capsule, and Zirconomer.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/toxicidade , Dureza , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e019, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892413

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) in the physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity of an experimental resin sealant. An experimental resin sealant was formulated with 60 wt.% of bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and 40 wt.% of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate with a photoinitiator/co-initiator system. PHMGH was added at 0.5 (G0.5%), 1 (G1%), and 2 (G2%) wt.% and one group remained without PHMGH, used as control (GCTRL). The resin sealants were analyzed for degree of conversion (DC), Knoop hardness (KHN), and softening in solvent (ΔKHN), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), contact angle (θ) with water or α-bromonaphthalene, surface free energy (SFE), and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans for biofilm formation and planktonic bacteria. There was no significant difference for DC (p > 0.05). The initial Knoop hardness ranged from 17.30 (±0.50) to 19.50 (± 0.45), with lower value for GCTRL (p < 0.05). All groups presented lower KHN after immersion in solvent (p < 0.05). The ΔKHN ranged from 47.22 (± 4.30) to 57.22 (± 5.42)%, without significant difference (p > 0.05). The UTS ranged from 54.72 (± 11.05) MPa to 60.46 (± 6.50) MPa, with lower value for G2% (p < 0.05). PHMGH groups presented no significant difference compared to GCTRL in θ (p > 0.05). G2% showed no difference in SFE compared to GCTRL (p > 0.05). The groups with PHMGH presented antibacterial activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria, with higher antibacterial activity for higher PHMGH incorporation (p < 0.05). PHMGH provided antibacterial activity for all resin sealant groups and the addition up to 1 wt.% showed reliable physico-chemical properties, maintaining the caries-protective effect of the resin sealant over time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Dentários/química , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Materiais Dentários/farmacologia , Guanidinas/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
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