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2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533709

RESUMO

Introduction . Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a ß-hemolytic streptococcus that causes severe invasive streptococcal infections, especially in the elderly and people with underlying diseases. SDSE strains are primarily characterized by Lancefield group G or C antigens.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We have previously reported the prevalence of Lancefield group A SDSE (GA-SDSE) strains in Japan and have analysed the draft genome sequences of these strains. As GA-SDSE is a rare type of SDSE, only one complete genome has been sequenced to date.Aim. The present study is focused on genetic characteristics of GA-SDSE strains. In order to examine molecular characteristics, we also tested growth inhibition of other streptococci by GA-SDSE.Methodology. We determined the complete genome sequences of three GA-SDSE strains by two new generation sequencing systems (short-read and long-read sequencing data). Using the sequences, we also conducted a comparative analysis of GA-SDSE and group C/G SDSE strains. In addition, we tested multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE, group G SDSE, and S. pyogenes.Results. We found a group-specific conserved region in GA-SDSE strains that is composed of genes encoding predicted anti-bacteriocin and streptococcal lantibiotic (Sal) proteins. Multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE-specific region were able to distinguish between GA-SDSE, other SDSE, and S. pyogenes strains. The growth of GA-SDSE was suppressed in the presence of group G SDSE, indicating a possible explanation for the low frequency of isolation of GA-SDSE.Conclusion. The comparative genome analysis shows that the genome of GA-SDSE has a distinct arrangement, enabling the differentiation between S. pyogenes, GA-SDSE, and other SDSE strains using our PCR methods.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Variação Genética , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Japão , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462043

RESUMO

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of infections in the paediatric population, ranging from pharyngitis to rare but severe invasive diseases, such as bacterial arthritis and osteomyelitis. Dental neglect is a type of child neglect in which caregivers fail to provide adequate care and treatment for dental diseases. This results in poor oral hygiene and can lead to complications including sepsis. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy, suffering from child neglect, presenting with GAS pharyngitis and subsequent bacterial arthritis in the right ankle, osteomyelitis in the right talus and abscess in the right calcaneus. He was first treated with penicillin, which was changed to clindamycin because of a suspected drug-induced rash. He was discharged after 6 weeks of intravenous therapy when symptoms had resolved and inflammatory markers were within the normal range. The case highlights that dental neglect may present a risk for subsequent invasive infections.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Faringite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Faringite/diagnóstico
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 540-543, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of fungi in infections in immunocompromised patients is a growing problem in both diagnosis and treatment. Candida species are the most common cause of fungal, endogenous endophthalmitis and infections of the cornea. CASE STUDY: A patient was admitted to hospital due to acute inflammation of the tissue of the left orbit, 1.5 years after the corneal penetrating transplantation of the left eye with intracapsular extraction of lens and simultaneous anterior vitrectomy. The microbiological system identified: Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida glabrata in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The factors conducive to fungal infections are: patient's old age, immune disorders and diabetes, as well as the presence of a necrotic tissue or a foreign body. All these parameters were met in this case. Only antibiotic therapy and long-term antifungal therapy, together with surgical debridement of the site of the ongoing infection produces clinical effects in such severe cases.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Desbridamento , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Panoftalmite/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/fisiopatologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Panoftalmite/microbiologia , Polônia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332468

RESUMO

Streptococcus pyogenes or group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes diseases ranging from uncomplicated pharyngitis to life-threatening infections. It has complex epidemiology driven by the diversity, the temporal and geographical fluctuations of the circulating strains. Despite the global burden of GAS diseases, there is currently no available vaccination strategy against GAS infections. This study, based on a longitudinal population survey, aimed to understand the dynamic of GAS emm types and to give leads to better recognition of underlying mechanisms for the emergence of successful clones. From 2009 to 2017, we conducted a systematic culture-based diagnosis of GAS infections in a French Brittany population with a prospective recovery of clinical data. The epidemiological analysis was performed using emm typing combined with the structural and functional cluster-typing system for all the recovered strains. Risk factors for the invasiveness, identified by univariate analysis, were computed in a multiple logistic regression analysis, and the only independent risk factor remaining in the model was the age (OR for the entire range [CI95%] = 6.35 [3.63, 11.10]; p<0.0001). Among the 61 different emm types identified, the most prevalent were emm28 (16%), emm89 (15%), emm1 (14%), and emm4 (8%), which accounted for more than 50% of circulating strains. During the study period, five genotypes identified as emm44, 66, 75, 83, 87 emerged successively and belonged to clusters D4, E2, E3, and E6 that were different from those gathering "Prevalent" emm types (clusters A-C3 to 5, E1 and E4). We previously reported significant genetic modifications for emm44, 66, 83 and 75 types resulting possibly from a short adaptive evolution. Herein we additionally observed that the emergence of a new genotype could occur in a susceptible population having specific risk factors or probably lacking a naturally-acquired cluster-specific immune cross-protection. Among emergent emm types, emm75 and emm87 tend to become prevalent with a stable annual incidence and the risk of a clonal expansion have to be considered.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370943

RESUMO

A previously independent 56-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with septic shock in the setting of periorbital swelling and diffuse infiltrates on chest imaging. Blood cultures were positive for growth of group A Streptococcus (GAS). Broad spectrum antimicrobials were initiated with the inclusion of the antitoxin agent clindamycin. Necrosis of periorbital tissue was noted and surgical consultation was obtained. Débridement of both eyelids with skin grafting was performed. GAS was isolated from wound cultures and also observed on periorbital tissue microscopy. The final diagnosis was bilateral periorbital necrotising fasciitis (PONF) associated with invasive GAS infection. The patient had a prolonged intensive care unit course with input from multiple specialist teams. This case demonstrates the importance of early recognition and treatment of PONF, the profound systemic morbidity caused by these infections, and illustrates successful multidisciplinary teamwork.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante/complicações , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Pálpebras/microbiologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Fasciite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/terapia , Transplante de Pele , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 817, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) mucormycosis is a rare and often deadly form of mucormycosis. Delayed diagnosis can lead to an increased risk of death. Here, we report a case of GI mucormycosis following streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a virologically suppressed HIV-infected patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old Thai woman with a well-controlled HIV infection and Grave's disease was admitted to a private hospital with a high-grade fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and multiple episodes of mucous diarrhea for 3 days. On day 3 of that admission, the patient developed multiorgan failure and multiple hemorrhagic blebs were observed on all extremities. A diagnosis of streptococcal toxic shock was made before referral to Siriraj Hospital - Thailand's largest national tertiary referral center. On day 10 of her admission at our center, she developed feeding intolerance and bloody diarrhea due to bowel ischemia and perforation. Bowel resection was performed, and histopathologic analysis of the resected bowel revealed acute suppurative transmural necrosis and vascular invasion with numerous broad irregular branching non-septate hyphae, both of which are consistent with GI mucormycosis. Peritoneal fluid fungal culture grew a grayish cottony colony of large non-septate hyphae and spherical sporangia containing ovoidal sporangiospores. A complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region DNA sequence analysis revealed 100% homology with Rhizopus microsporus strains in GenBank (GenBank accession numbers KU729104 and AY803934). As a result, she was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. However and in spite of receiving appropriate treatment, our patient developed recurrent massive upper GI bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesion and succumbed to her disease on day 33 of her admission. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucormycosis can be delayed due to a lack of well-established predisposing factors and non-specific presenting symptoms. Further studies in risk factors for abdominal mucormycosis are needed.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Doença de Graves/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Mucormicose/complicações , Rhizopus/genética , Choque Séptico/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , DNA Fúngico/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Síndrome , Tailândia
9.
Public Health ; 186: 63-70, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In England, notifications of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections have increased since 2015. We describe time trends, risk factors, as well as clinical and infection characteristics amongst iGAS cases in North West England, focussing on people who inject drugs (PWIDs), prisoners and homeless populations (referred to as risk groups), and analyse factors for fatal infection. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data for all iGAS cases notified to Public Health England North West between January 2016 and May 2019 were used. Analysis consisted of time trend analysis, descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing to investigate differences in clinical and infection characteristics between risk and non-risk groups and binary logistic regression to identify factors associated with fatal infection. RESULTS: There were 1353 cases. Two hundred and two were amongst risk groups, who were predominantly PWIDs in Greater Manchester. Soft tissue risk factors were widespread. There were differences in strain-type between risk and non-risk groups. Female gender, cancer, emm1.0 and emm5.23 were associated with increased odds of death, whilst cellulitis was associated with reduced odds. The relationship between age and death was U-shaped. CONCLUSIONS: iGAS has increased in North West England since 2016, including amongst PWIDs. This may be due to emm-type replacement, barriers to good hygiene and increasing colonisation.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 507, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of GAS isolates from patients in Children's Hospital in Beijing. METHODS: From 2016 to 2017, pharyngeal swab samples were collected from the outpatients in Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, who were diagnosed with scarlet fever. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the distribution of conventional antibiotics and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. The distribution of the macrolide-resistance genes (ermB, ermA, mefA), emm (M protein-coding gene) typing, and superantigens (SAg) gene profiling were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: A total of 297 GAS isolates were collected. The susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin was 100%. The resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin was 98.3 and 96.6%, respectively. The dominant emm types were emm12 (65.32%), emm1 (27.61%), emm75 (2.69%), and emm89 (1.35%). Of the 297 isolates, 290 (97.64%) carried the ermB gene, and 5 (1.68%) carried the mefA gene, while none carried the ermA gene. The most common superantigen genes identified from GAS isolates were smeZ (96.97%), speC (92.59%), speG (91.58%), ssa (85.52%), speI (54.55%), speH (52.19%), and speA (34.34%). Isolates with the genotype emm1 possessed speA, speC, speG, speJ, speM, ssa, and smeZ, while emm12 possessed speC, speG, speH, speI, speM, ssa, and smeZ superantigens. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalent strain of GAS isolates in Beijing has a high resistance rate to macrolides; however, penicillin can still be the preferred antibiotic for treatment. Erythromycin resistance was predominantly mediated by ermB. The common emm types were emm12 and emm1. There was a correlation between emm and the superantigen gene. Thus, long-term monitoring and investigation of the emm types and superantigen genes of GAS prevalence are imperative.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Escarlatina/tratamento farmacológico , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Superantígenos/genética
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012431, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sore throat is a common condition caused by viruses or bacteria, and is a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary care. The most common bacterial species is group A streptococcus ('strep throat'). Between 50% to 70% of pharyngitis cases are treated with antibiotics, despite the majority of cases being viral in origin. One strategy to reduce antibiotics is to use rapid tests for group A streptococcus to guide antibiotic prescriptions. Rapid tests can be used alone or in combination with a clinical scoring system. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of strategies based on rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat in primary care settings. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and LILACS, as well as the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP on 5 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing rapid tests with management based on clinical grounds to guide the prescription of antibiotics for people with a sore throat in ambulatory care settings. We included trials that randomised individuals, as well as cluster-RCTs in which individual practitioners (or practices) or emergency departments were randomised. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data on the primary outcomes (number of participants provided with an antibiotic prescription; number of participants with an antibiotic dispensed) and secondary outcomes (duration of sore throat symptoms; duration of other symptoms; quality of life measures; number of participants with a complication attributed to the index infection; number of participants in need of re-consultation by the end of follow-up; number of participants in need of hospital admission by the end of follow-up; number of satisfied participants; number of participants with an adverse event attributed to the rapid test). We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials and used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. We performed meta-analyses and sensitivity analyses when feasible. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials (2891 children and adult participants in total; 2545 participants after adjusting for clustering). Management in the intervention group was as follows: in three trials rapid tests were used in combination with a clinical scoring system; in one trial, some physicians were asked to use rapid tests alone, while others were asked to use rapid tests in combination with a clinical scoring system; in one trial, rapid tests were used alone. Based on data from five trials (2545 participants), a large reduction in prescribed antibiotics was found in the rapid test group (481/1197) versus management based on clinical grounds (865/1348), for a summary risk difference (RD) of -25%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -31% to -18%; I2 = 62%; moderate-certainty evidence. Estimates of effect on antibiotic prescription rates were stable in various sensitivity analyses. Based on data from two trials (900 people) originating from the same overarching study, the evidence suggests that rapid tests may not reduce dispensed antibiotic treatments: rapid test group (156/445) versus management based on clinical grounds (197/455); summary RD -7%, 95% CI -17% to 2%; I2 = 53%; low-certainty evidence. Four trials (2075 participants) reported data on the number of participants with a complication attributed to the index infection; the summary odds ratio (OR) was 0.85, 95% CI 0.03 to 26.65; P = 0.93; I2 = 62%; very low-certainty evidence, which means that people in the rapid testing group were less likely to develop complications of the index infection, but the evidence is very uncertain. Two trials (1161 participants) reported on the number of participants in need of re-consultation by the end of follow-up; the summary OR was 1.12, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.21; P = 0.74; I2 = 59%; low-certainty evidence, which means that participants in the rapid testing group were more likely to be in need of re-consultation by the end of the study follow-up, but the evidence is uncertain. Lack of data impeded assessment of other secondary outcomes (including safety outcomes) and of sources of heterogeneity.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Rapid testing to guide antibiotic treatment for sore throat in primary care probably reduces antibiotic prescription rates by 25% (absolute risk difference), but may have little or no impact on antibiotic dispensing. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of rapid test-guided antibiotic prescribing, notably to evaluate patient-centred outcomes and variability across subgroups (e.g. adults versus children).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faringite/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 305-314, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scarlet fever epidemics caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) have been ongoing in China since 2011. However, limited data are available on the dynamic molecular characterizations of the epidemic strains. METHOD: Epidemiological data of scarlet fever in Shanghai were obtained from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. Throat swabs of patients with scarlet fever and asymptomatic school-age children were cultured. Illumina sequencing was performed on 39emm1 isolates. RESULTS: The annual incidence of scarlet fever was 7.5-19.4/100,000 persons in Shanghai during 2011-2015, with an average GAS carriage rate being 7.6% in school-age children. The proportion ofemm1 GAS strains increased from 3.8% in 2011 to 48.6% in 2014; they harbored a superantigen profile similar to emm12 isolates, except for the speA gene. Two predominant clones, SH001-emm12, and SH002-emm1, circulated in 66.9% of scarlet fever cases and 44.8% of carriers. Genomic analysis showed emm1 isolates throughout China constituted distinct clades, enriched by the presence of mobile genetic elements carrying the multidrug-resistant determinants ermB and tetM and virulence genes speA, speC, and spd1. CONCLUSION: A significant increase in the proportion ofemm1 strains occurred in the GAS population, causing scarlet fever in China. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to monitor the dynamic changes of GAS clones.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Escarlatina/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Escarlatina/diagnóstico , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/classificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo
13.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(86): 153-159, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198528

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: analizar el empleo de los test de detección rápida de antígeno estreptocócico en Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AP), su impacto en la prescripción de antibióticos y la reducción de costes del tratamiento antibiótico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo transversal, en menores de 15 años atendidos en AP, en 24 centros de salud, desde abril de 2017 hasta febrero de 2018. Se elaboró un protocolo de utilización del test de detección rápida de antígeno estreptocócico (TDRS). Se incluyeron pacientes con escala Centor mayor o igual a 2 puntos. Se extrajeron del sistema de facturación de recetas datos del número de dosis diaria definida (DDD) e importe de antibióticos en dicha temporada, comparándose con el gasto en los 12 meses previos. RESULTADOS: se realizaron 819 TDRS. Resultaron positivos 250 (30,5%), negativos 557 (68%) y 12 no valorables (1,5%). Se prescribió antibiótico al 33% de los pacientes (todos los positivos, 18 negativos, 3 no valorables). En 539 pacientes (97%) con resultado negativo no se instauró antibiótico. El número de DDD total disminuyó en 21 960 (12%), de las cuales 19 023 (86,6%) corresponden a los antibióticos más utilizados (penicilinas, amoxicilina, amoxicilina-clavulánico y azitromicina). La reducción económica fue de 11 320 € (12,5%) y el gasto en TDRS fue de 991 €, lo que supone un ahorro de 10 329€. CONCLUSIONES: la introducción del TDRS en consultas de Pediatría de AP ha permitido que se eviten un elevado número de tratamientos antibióticos. Su utilización ha demostrado ser eficiente en la optimización del consumo de antibióticos, consiguiendo reducir su utilización, evitar efectos adversos y reducir el gasto farmacéutico innecesario


OBJECTIVE: the aim of the study was to analyse the use of the rapid Streptococcus antigen detection test in primary care paediatrics, its impact on antibiotic prescription of and the associated decrease in antibiotic treatment costs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in children aged less than 15 years managed in 24 primary care centres between April 2017 and February 2018. We developed a protocol for the use of the rapid strep test (RST). We included patients with a Centor score equal to or greater than 2 points. We collected data on the number of daily defined doses (DDDs) and amount antibiotics prescribed in the study period from the prescription billing system and compared it with the costs corresponding to the previous 12-month period. RESULTS: 819 TDRS were performed. The results were positive in 250 (30.5%), negative in 557 (68%) and inconclusive in 12 (1.5%). Antibiotics were prescribed to 33% of the patients (all patients with a positive test, 18 with a negative test and 3 with an inconclusive test). Antibiotherapy was not prescribed to 539 of the patients with a negative result (97%). The total number of prescribed DDDs decreased by 21 960 (12%), of which 19 023 (86.6%) corresponded to the most frequently prescribed antibiotics (penicillins, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and azithromycin). We found a reduction of €11 320 in antibiotherapy costs (12.5%), while the total cost of rapid testing was € 991, corresponding to total savings of €10 329. CONCLUSIONS: the introduction of the RST in primary care paediatrics has achieved a reduction in the frequency of antibiotherapy. Its use has proven effective in optimising antibiotic use, reducing antibiotic prescription and therefore preventing associated adverse events and reducing unnecessary pharmacotherapy costs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surveillance of emm types and macrolide susceptibility of group A streptococcus (GAS) in various areas and time periods enhances the understanding of the epidemiology of GAS infections and may guide treatment strategies and the formulation of type-specific vaccines. Greece has emerged as a country with high macrolide use. However, studies suggest a gradual reduction in macrolide consumption after 2007. METHODS: During a 7-year period (2011-2017), 604 GAS isolates were recovered from consecutive children presenting with pharyngeal or nonpharyngeal infections in Central Greece; 517 viable isolates underwent molecular analysis, including emm typing. RESULTS: Isolates belonged to 20 different emm types (in decreasing order of prevalence: 1, 89, 4, 12, 28, 3, 75 and 6, accounting for 88.2% of total isolates). The emm types comprised 10 emm clusters (five most common clusters: E4, A-C3, E1, A-C4 and A-C5). The emm89 isolates were acapsular ('new clade'). Overall macrolide resistance rate was 15.4%, and cMLSB emerged as the predominant resistance phenotype (56.4%). The lowest annual resistance rates occurred in 2014 (13.1%), 2016 (5.5%) and 2017(8.0%) (P for trend = 0.002). Consumption of macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin B declined by 22.6% during 2011-2017. Macrolide resistance and emm28 and emm77 types were associated (both P<0.001). The most frequently identified genetic lineages of macrolide-resistant GAS included emm28/ST52, emm77/ST63, emm12/ST36, emm89/ST101 and emm4/ST39. We estimated that 98.8% of the isolates belonged to emm types incorporated into a novel 30-valent M protein vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: In Central Greece during 2011-2017, the acapsular emm89 isolates comprised the second most prevalent type. Susceptibility testing and molecular analyses revealed decreasing GAS macrolide resistance rates, which may be attributed to the reduction in the consumption of macrolides and/or the reduced circulation of macrolide-resistant clones in recent years. Such data may provide valuable baseline information in targeting therapeutic intervention and the formulation of type-specific GAS vaccines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética
15.
Postgrad Med ; 132(6): 526-531, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379557

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS) is a serious condition that can arise from streptococcal postpartum endometritis. It is associated with a substantial increase in mortality rate and can rarely result in multiorgan infarction. Early recognition plays a vital role in patients' outcome. Objective: To report a case of complicated STSS and review the literature for previous case reports of streptococcal postpartum endometritis to determine if STSS diagnostic criteria (published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) were fulfilled. Case presentation: This is a 41-year-old woman who presented 5 days after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery with endometritis complicated by invasive group A ß-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) infection and confirmed toxic shock syndrome. The patient was initially admitted to the critical care unit due to hemodynamic compromise requiring intravenous (IV) fluids, IV antibiotic therapy with penicillin and clindamycin, and IV immunoglobulin therapy. The patient subsequently developed multi-organ infarctions, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring noninvasive respiratory support, and severe reactive arthritis. Literature review revealed 15 case reports of GAS postpartum endometritis, five met criteria for confirmed STSS. One patient died from severe septic shock leading to cardiopulmonary arrest. Thirteen out of 15 cases of postpartum endometritis occurred after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Conclusion: STSS is a serious and possibly fatal medical condition that requires early diagnosis and treatment to prevent poor patient outcomes and death. Careful consideration to the patient's postpartum clinical presentation with the implementation of an intradisciplinary approach should be utilized.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Artrite Reativa , Endometrite , Rim , Infecção Puerperal , Infarto do Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/classificação , Artrite Reativa/etiologia , Artrite Reativa/terapia , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Endometrite/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Infecção Puerperal/microbiologia , Infecção Puerperal/fisiopatologia , Infecção Puerperal/terapia , /terapia , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1208-1209, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314699

RESUMO

The early shortage of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) tests in the United States led many hospitals to first screen for common respiratory pathogens, and only if this screen was negative to proceed with COVID-19 testing. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection with group A Streptococcus. The initial testing strategy resulted in delays in both diagnosis and implementation of appropriate precautions. Underlined is the importance of testing for both SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory pathogens during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Chicago , Dor Crônica/imunologia , Dor Crônica/patologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243441

RESUMO

The present study aimed to specify diagnostics for peritonsillar abscesses (PTAs) and to clarify the role of minor salivary glands. This prospective cohort study included 112 patients with acute tonsillitis (AT) and PTA recruited at a tertiary hospital emergency department between February and October 2017. All patients completed a questionnaire concerning their current disease. Serum amylase (S-Amyl) and C-reactive protein (S-CRP) levels, tonsillar findings, and pus aspirate samples and throat cultures were analyzed. Eight of 58 PTA patients (13.8%) had no signs of tonsillar infection. The absence of tonsillar erythema and exudate was associated with low S-CRP (p<0.001) and older age (p<0.001). We also observed an inverse correlation between S-Amyl and S-CRP levels (AT, r = -0.519; PTA, r = -0.353). Therefore, we observed a group of PTA patients without signs of tonsillar infection who had significantly lower S-CRP levels than other PTA patients. These findings support that PTA may be caused by an etiology other than AT. Variations in the S-Amyl levels and a negative correlation between S-Amyl and S-CRP levels may indicate that minor salivary glands are involved in PTA development.


Assuntos
Abscesso Peritonsilar/epidemiologia , Glândulas Salivares Menores/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Tonsilite/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amilases/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Abscesso Peritonsilar/diagnóstico , Abscesso Peritonsilar/microbiologia , Abscesso Peritonsilar/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Glândulas Salivares Menores/patologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Tonsilite/sangue , Tonsilite/epidemiologia , Tonsilite/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 133: 109980, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis is very important to prevent complications such as acute rheumatic fever. Throat culture is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, however, rapid antigen tests (RAT) have been developed for faster diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the BD Veritor ™ System (USA) rapid antigen assay in detecting Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in throat swab samples. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 12,391 throat swabs, taken with a double swab, were evaluated. The BD Veritor ™ System was used for the detection of GAS antigen. Simultaneous throat cultures were performed. RESULTS: Throat culture yielded positive for 18.5% (2291) while 19.1% (2369) were positive with RAT. The sensitivity of BD Veritor ™ System was determined as 94.1% and specificity as 97.9%, while positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were determined as 91.0%, 98.7%, 97%, respectively. When all age groups were included, the rate of GAS positivity was 18.5% and this ratio increased to 27.3% in the five-15 age group. CONCLUSION: Our study, conducted with quite a large number of patients, yielded high sensitivity for the BD Veritor System. When the RAT is negative, the necessity of culture for pediatric patients should not be forgotten.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia
20.
Talanta ; 212: 120781, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113544

RESUMO

Existing techniques for the detection of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) have drawbacks in rapidness, accuracy or in high-cost. Considering the clinical importance of GAS, we have developed a culture-free detection method based on pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) activity with the aid of magnetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). GAS is the reason for pharyngitis and sampling starts from the throat with cotton swabs. After swab sampling, the target was collected with antibody modified magnetic AuNPs and transferred into 500 µL of PYR-broth without any antigen extraction or pure colony isolation. Then, the assay was finished by adding 25 µL of 4-(dimethylamino)-cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) reagent after 4-h incubation. A red color formation was evaluated as the presence of GAS comparing to blank, however, image analysis was employed for the interpretation of color changes clearly. For this purpose, a formula related to image data was proposed and analytical validation parameters were defined. Thus, the correlation was found to be linear with the R2 of 0.9685 between the log of bacteria concentration and the image data with the limit of detection of 3.3 × 102 CFU/mL of GAS. In addition, the assay worked efficiently in the abundance interference of Enterococcus faecalis. The results represent a new feature to nanoparticles eliminating the selective growth media for a bacteria and this study provided a detection with intact cells of bacteria without any antigen or DNA/RNA extraction. The proposed work has been the most similar to the gold standard but a faster method in this field.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Streptococcus pyogenes/enzimologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia
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