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1.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104554, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psidium sp., Mangifera sp. and Mentha sp. and its mixture (PEM) are known to have antimicrobial and anti-adherence effects. DESIGN: Here, we have investigated these individual plant extracts and its synergistic mixture (PEM) for its anti-cariogenic effect to reduce populations of single and mixed-species of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic or/and biofilm and their others reduced virulence. Bacterial populations in the biofilm after 24 h, hydrophobic cell surface activity to n-hexadecane and pH changes at 5 min' intervals until 90 min of incubation were recorded. Total phenolic content and bioactive compounds in the crude aqueous plant extracts were analysed. Regulatory gene expressions of S. mutans adhesins genes (gtfB, gtfC, gbpB and spaP) upon treatment with PEM were investigated in planktonic and biofilm conditions. RESULTS: All plant extracts strongly reduced S. mutans in the biofilm compared to S. sanguinis in single and mixed-species. PEM reduced S. mutans by 84% with S. sanguinis 87% in the mixed population. Psidium sp. and PEM highly reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity of the two bacteria thus reducing adherence and biofilm formation. PEM and Mangifera sp. lowered initial pH change in the mixed populations of S. sanguinis and S. mutans. PEM downregulated the S. mutans gtfB gene expression in the single species planktonic and mixed-species biofilms. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of PEM in reducing S. mutans within the biofilm, cell-surface hydrophobicity, acid production and adhesin gene (gtfB) expression in mixed-species with S. sanguinis indicates its potential as an antibacterial agent against dental caries. This is attributed to the phenolic content in the PEM.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Mangifera/química , Mentha/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium/química , Ácidos/análise , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1806-1811, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of oral bacterial biofilms is one of the primary etiological factors for oral diseases. Aronia melanocarpa extracts display general health benefits, including antimicrobial activities. This study evaluates the inhibitory effect of Aronia juice on oral streptococcal biofilm formation. RESULTS: Exposure to 1/10-diluted Aronia juice for 1 min significantly decreased in vitro streptococcal biofilm formation (P < 0.001). No remarkable difference was noted in streptococcal growth by Aronia under the same conditions. Interestingly, 1 week of oral rinse with diluted Aronia juice led to significantly fewer salivary streptococcal colony-forming units (CFUs) relative to oral rinsing with tap water (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Aronia exerted an extracellular RNA-degrading effect, and RNase inhibitor alleviated Aronia-dependent streptococcal biofilm inhibition. CONCLUSION: Aronia might inhibit initial biofilm formation by decomposing extracellular RNA, which plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation. Our data suggest that oral rinsing with Aronia juice will aid in treating oral biofilm-dependent diseases easily and efficiently. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus/fisiologia
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 20: 1930-1935, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although left atrial myxoma is the most common benign primary cardiac tumor, infected atrial myxoma is rare. This report presents a case of infected left atrial myxoma with embolization to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, which was identified following an initial presentation with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). CASE REPORT A 34-year-old man with a history of smoking tobacco and intravenous cocaine use presented to the emergency room with symptoms of a feeling of pressure on the chest and symptoms in the left arm. An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed ST elevation in leads II, III, aVF, and V3-V5, consistent with an anterior-inferior STEMI. He underwent percutaneous intervention (PCI) with two drug-eluting stents to the mid-distal LAD coronary artery. The patient also had fever, chills, a history of weight loss, and signs of peripheral emboli. Blood cultures identified Gram-positive Streptococcus parasanguinis, a member of the Streptococcus viridans group. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) identified a large, mobile, pedunculated left atrial mass protruding into the mitral valve in diastole and mitral valve vegetations. Surgical excision and the histology confirmed a diagnosis of benign left atrial myxoma containing Gram-positive cocci. The patient required mitral valve replacement and a postoperative two-week course of gentamicin and a six-week course of ceftriaxone CONCLUSIONS A rare case is reported of infected left atrial myxoma presenting as STEMI secondary to coronary artery embolization, which was treated with PCI, antibiotics, and mitral valve replacement.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Mixoma/microbiologia , Mixoma/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/microbiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária , Trombose Coronária/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1378-1387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607727

RESUMO

Objective: The objective was to determine the antibacterial activity of Salvadora persica extract against bacteria isolated from dental plaque of patients. Materials and Methods: Out of 40 different clinical specimens collected from patients suffering from plaque-induced gingivitis, 12 Staphylococcus aureus and 8 Streptococcus sp. isolates were recovered. The isolates were screened for their biofilm-forming capacity using tissue culture plate (TCP), tube method (TM), and congo red agar (CRA) method. Antibacterial activity of methanolic S. persica extract as well as of commercial antimicrobials against tested isolates was performed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS) analysis were performed for S. persica crude extract and its volatile oil, respectively, to determine their constituents. Results: Out of 20 isolates, 80%, 85%, and 90% showed positive results using TM, CRA, and TCP, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activity of methanolic S. persica extract was observed at 200 mg/ml. HPLC-MS analysis shows many polyphenols in S. persica extract such as Chrysin-8-c-ß-D-glucopyranoside, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and stigmasterol. Chemical composition of the essential oil of S. persica was determined by GC-MS yield; a mixture of monoterpene and hydrocarbons. The major compounds were butylated hydroxytoluene followed by benzene (isothiocyanatomethyl). Conclusion: Methanolic extract of S. persica had significant antibacterial effect against S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. isolates, and it may be gave a good alternative method for controlling oral pathogen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salvadoraceae/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 266, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propolis is a natural bee product with a wide range of biological activities that are related to its chemical composition. The present study investigated the quantification of quercetin (Q) in Ardabil ethanol extract of propolis (AEEP), and then compared its anti-bacterial, anti- biofilm and cytotoxic effects on cancer and normal cell lines. METHOD: In the present study, the chemical composition of AEEP was determined through the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The AEEP and its main component, quercetin (Q), were evaluated in vitro against 57 oral streptococci by a broth micro-dilution method. The biofilm formation was assessed through the crystal violet staining and MTT assays. The impact of AEEP and Q anti-proliferative effect were evaluated on the fibroblast as normal and cancer cell lines (KB and A431). RESULTS: The Q concentration in the composition of AEEP was 6.9% of all its components. The findings indicated that the AEEP and Q were efficient against the cariogenic bacteria and were able to inhibit the S.mutans biofilm adherence at a sub-MIC concentration. Moreover, electron micrographs indicated the inhibition of biofilms compared to control biofilms. In addition, the AEEP and Q indicated a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on A431 and KB cell lines. On the contrary, they had no cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the synergistic impact of main components of AEEP was related to the inhibition of the cancer cell proliferation, cariogenic bacteria and oral biofilm formation. It may play a promising role in the complementary medicine and, it is suggested to be used as food additives.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Própole/química , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Abelhas , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/farmacologia , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(9): 108, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535222

RESUMO

Biological effects of titanium (Ti) alloys were analyzed on biofilms of Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis, as well as on osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Standard samples composed of aluminum and vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), and sample containing niobium (Ti-35Nb) and zirconium (Ti-13Nb-13Zr) were analyzed. Monomicrobial biofilms were formed on the Ti alloys. MG63 cells were grown with the alloys and the biocompatibility (MTT), total protein (TP) level, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization nodules (MN) formation were verified. Levels of interleukins (IL-1ß and IL-17), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and oxide nitric (NO) were checked, from RAW 264.7 cells supernatants. Data were statically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test, or T-test (P ≤ 0.05). Concerning the biofilm formation, Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy showed the best inhibitory effect on E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. And, it also acted similarly to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy on C. albicans and Streptococcus spp. Both alloys were biocompatible and similar to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Additionally, Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was more effective for cell differentiation, as observed in the assays of ALP and MN. Regarding the stimulation for release of IL-1ß and TNF-α, Ti-35Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys inhibited similarly the synthesis of these molecules. However, both alloys stimulated the production of IL-17. Additionally, all Ti alloys showed the same effect for NO generation. Thus, Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was the most effective for inhibition of biofilm formation, cell differentiation, and stimulation for release of immune mediators.


Assuntos
Ligas/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Ligas/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 107: 104512, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluatein vitro the antibacterial activity, the antibiofilm effect and the cytotoxic potential of mouthwashes containing Brazilian red propolis with or without fluoride. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) against S. mutans, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius and L. casei were determined for RPE mouthwashes. A cariogenic biofilm with the aforementioned bacteria was formed over cellulose membrane disks (N = 30, 13 mm), which were submitted for 1 min to the following mouthwashes: plain mouthwash base; 0.05% NaF; 0.8% RPE; 0.8% RPE + 0.05% NaF and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX). The bacterial viability and the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) were measured. Cytotoxic potential of the mouthwashes was also evaluated. For bacterial viability and EPS production, Mann-Withney and one-way ANOVA tests were performed followed by Tukey, with results considered significant when p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: MIC and MBC values of RPE mouthwashes ranged from 7.44 to 29.76 mg/mL and from 7.44 to ≥59.52 mg/mL, respectively, presenting better action against S. salivarius. RPE mouthwashes showed 44% of viable cells after 1 min of contact with fibroblasts. RPE (7.74) had the greatest reduction of viable total microorganisms and did not differ from the RPE + NaF (7.95) (p = 0.292). CHX (7.54) was the most effective in reducing Streptococcus spp, but did not differ from RPE (p = 0.521) and RPE + NaF (p = 0.238). There was no difference between the treatments regarding EPS production. CONCLUSION: RPE and RPE + NaF mouthwash showed similar antibacterial activity, toxicity level and antibiofilm effect compared to CHX.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Brasil , Clorexidina , Fluoretos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(12): 2253-2258, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392445

RESUMO

The clinical characteristics and outcomes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) bacteremia cases have not been adequately evaluated. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive adult patients with SDSE or S. agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) bacteremia at a tertiary care hospital (Republic of Korea) from August 2012 to December 2016. We compared the incidence, seasonality, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of 52 SDSE bacteremia cases with 151 GBS bacteremia cases. The incidence of SDSE and GBS bacteremia in these patients was 1.28/100,000 and 4.22/100,000 person-days, respectively. Most SDSE bacteremia cases were of community-onset infection (SDSE 94.2% vs GBS 83.4%; p = 0.052). Lancefield group G was the most common bacteria type among SDSE isolates (43/47; 91.5%). Patients with SDSE bacteremia were older (median, 68.0 years vs 61.0 years; p = 0.03). In both groups, solid tumor was the most common underlying disease, and more than half of the patients were immunocompromised (51.9% vs 54.3%; p = 0.77). Chronic kidney disease was more common in the SDSE group (19.2% vs 5.3%; p < 0.01). Cellulitis was the most common clinical syndrome of SDSE bacteremia and was more common in the SDSE group (59.6% vs 29.1%; p < 0.01). SDSE bacteremia cases occurred more frequently in the warm season compared with GBS bacteremia cases (65.4% vs 37.1%; p < 0.01); in-hospital mortalities were not significantly different between the groups (3.8% vs 10.6%; p = 0.17). In conclusion, SDSE bacteremia is commonly associated with cellulitis, especially in older and immunocompromised patients during the warm season.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1526-1533, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418669

RESUMO

Introduction. Among beta-haemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is the prototype agent of bacterial pharyngitis and causes other human infections. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes GAS-like infections, while Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a common neonate pathogen that is rarely associated with pharyngitis.Aim. To determine the prevalence and persistence of beta-haemolytic streptococci throat carriage and type the bacterial population.Methods. Throat swabs were collected from 121 children and 127 young adult volunteers and cultured. Colonized volunteers were screened quarterly, for up to 1 year, while beta-haemolytic streptococci could be detected. Isolates were identified and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and epidemiological typing.Results. Carriage was detected in 34 (13.7 %) volunteers. Seventeen children carried GAS (14 %), while 17 young adults carried SDSE (8, 6.3 %), GBS (4, 3.1 %), GAS (3, 2.4 %) and the Streptococcus anginosus group (2, 1.6 %). Persistent carriage was detected for up to 6 months in two children and for up to 1 year in three young adults. Three new emm subtypes were found, emm87.16 and emm90.9 (GAS) and stC36.11 (SDSE). While the GAS population among children was unexpectedly clonal, substantial genetic diversity was found among the isolates recovered from young adults. Resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline was detected in GAS, GBS and SDSE recovered from young adults.Conclusions. Prevalence was slightly greater among children, but persistent carriage was greater among young adults, with SDSE being the species most associated with persistence. Few sources seemed to disseminate GAS among children, since only two clonal types were found. The volunteers hosted pathogenic streptococci persistently, including macrolide-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Faringite/epidemiologia , Faringite/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 456-462, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288325

RESUMO

Objective: To study the influence of environmental factors on the two-species biofilm formed by the combinations of Streptococcus oligofermentans (So) with Streptococcus mutans (Sm) and Streptococcus sanguinis (Ss) with Sm so as to evaluate the role of So in maintaining the microecological balance of the oral cavity. Methods: Single-and two-species biofilms were grown on saliva-coated surfaces (glass tube and 96-well plate). Colony-counting method and safranin staining method were used to measure the biofilms formed under various oxygen conditions (aerobic and anaerobic), sucrose conditions (0%, 1% and 5% sucrose concentrations) and pH conditions (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0). Results: Comparing the numbers of Sm in two co-cultures under various conditions, Sm counts in So+Sm group [(7.70±2.46)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(9.00±1.13)×10(8) CFU/ml] in aerobic environment (P<0.05). Sm counts in So+Sm group [(2.80±0.52)×10(8) CFU/ml] were also significantly lower than those in the Ss+Sm group [(4.00±1.25)×10(8) CFU/ml] in anaerobic environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(8.90±0.82)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly higher than those in Ss+Sm group [(7.50±1.73)×10(8) CFU/ml] in 0% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(5.70±2.94)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(10.30±3.21) ×10(8) CFU/ml] in 1% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(6.10±1.71)×10(8) CFU/ml] were also significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(7.40±1.20)×10(8) CFU/ml] in 5% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group [(3.50±1.50)×10(8) CFU/ml] were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group [(10.70±2.80)×10(8) CFU/ml] in pH7.0 environment (P<0.05). Comparing the formation of biofilm after 24 h cultivation, the Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group both in aerobic and anaerobic environments (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly higher than those in Ss+Sm group in 0% sucrose environment (P<0.05). The Sm counts in So+Sm group were significantly lower than those in Ss+Sm group in 1% and 5% sucrose and pH 7.0 environments (P<0.05). Both So and Ss had no inhibitory effect on Sm in pH5.5 and pH8.0 environments. Conclusions: In the in vitro two-species co-culture systems, So showed stronger inhibitory effects than Ss on Sm and its inhibitory ability might influenced by various environmental factors.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Meio Ambiente , Interações Microbianas , Boca , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus sanguis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340425

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature followed by a meta-analysis about the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the microorganisms responsible for dental caries. The research question and the keywords were constructed according to the PICO strategy. The article search was done in Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Pubmed databases. Randomized clinical trials and in vitro studies were selected in the review. The study was conducted according the PRISMA guideline for systematic review. A total of 34 articles were included in the qualitative analysis and four articles were divided into two subgroups to perform the meta-analysis. Few studies have achieved an effective microbial reduction in microorganisms associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. The results highlight that there is no consensus about the study protocols for PDT against cariogenic microorganisms, although the results showed the PDT could be a good alternative for the treatment of dental caries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Corantes de Rosanilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 72(9): 682-692, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171848

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has prioritized the development of new antibiotics. N-substituted pantothenamides, analogs of the natural compound pantetheine, were reported to target bacterial coenzyme A biosynthesis, but these compounds have never reached the clinic due to their instability in biological fluids. Plasma-stable pantothenamide analogs could overcome these issues. We first synthesized a number of bioisosteres of the prototypic pantothenamide N7-Pan. A compound with an inverted amide bond (CXP18.6-012) was found to provide plasma-stability with minimal loss of activity compared to the parent compound N7-Pan. Next, we synthesized inverted pantothenamides with a large variety of side chains. Among these we identified a number of novel stable inverted pantothenamides with selective activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci and streptococci, at low micromolar concentrations. These data provide future direction for the development of pantothenamides with clinical potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular
13.
mBio ; 10(3)2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239383

RESUMO

Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a close relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae It is increasingly associated with lower-respiratory-tract infections (LRTI) and a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). S. pseudopneumoniae is difficult to identify using traditional typing methods due to similarities with S. pneumoniae and other members of the mitis group (SMG). Using whole-genome sequencing of LRTI isolates and a comparative genomic approach, we found that a large number of pneumococcal virulence and colonization genes are present in the core S. pseudopneumoniae genome. We also reveal an impressive number of novel surface-exposed proteins encoded by the genome of this species. In addition, we propose a new and entirely specific molecular marker useful for the identification of S. pseudopneumoniae Phylogenetic analyses of S. pseudopneumoniae show that specific clades are associated with allelic variants of core proteins. Resistance to tetracycline and macrolides, the two most common types of resistance, were found to be encoded by Tn916-like integrating conjugative elements and Mega-2. Overall, we found a tight association of genotypic determinants of AMR and phenotypic AMR with a specific lineage of S. pseudopneumoniae Taken together, our results shed light on the distribution in S. pseudopneumoniae of genes known to be important during invasive disease and colonization and provide insight into features that could contribute to virulence, colonization, and adaptation.IMPORTANCE S. pseudopneumoniae is an overlooked pathogen emerging as the causative agent of lower-respiratory-tract infections and associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation of COPD. However, much remains unknown on its clinical importance and epidemiology, mainly due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish it from S. pneumoniae Here, we provide a new molecular marker entirely specific for S. pseudopneumoniae and offer a comprehensive view of the virulence and colonization genes found in this species. Finally, our results pave the way for further studies aiming at understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of S. pseudopneumoniae.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24806-24818, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240654

RESUMO

Migration and transformation of toxic metal (loid) s in tailing sites inevitably lead to ecological disturbances and serious threats to the surroundings. However, the horizontal and vertical distribution of bacterial diversity has not been determined in nonferrous metal (loid) tailing ponds, especially in Guangxi China, where the world's largest and potentially most toxic sources of metal (loid) s are located. Distribution of bacterial communities was stable at horizontal levels. At the surface (0-10 cm), the stability was most attributed to Bacillus and Enterococcus, while bacterial communities at the subsurface (50 cm) were mainly contributed by Nitrospira and Sulfuricella. Variable vertical distribution of bacterial communities has led to the occurrence of specific genera and specific predicted functions (such as transcription regulation factors). Sulfurifustis (a S-oxidizing and inorganic carbon fixing bacteria) genera were specific at the surface, whereas Streptococcus-related genera were found at the surface and subsurface, but were more abundant in the latter depth. Physical-chemical parameters, such as pH, TN, and metal (loid) (As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were the main drivers of bacterial community abundance, diversity, composition, and metabolic functions. These results increase our understanding of the physical-chemical effects on the spatial distribution of bacterial communities and provide useful insight for the bioremediation and site management of nonferrous metal (loid) tailings.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biodiversidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Consórcios Microbianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Tanques/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091650

RESUMO

Background: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECIG) has become very common. Consequently, critical analysis of the biological effects of ECIG aerosol deserves attention. Flavorless ECIG aerosol is known to comprise fewer harmful constituents than cigarette smoke. Therefore, we hypothesize that aerosol has less immediate effect on the viability of oral commensal streptococci than smoke. Methods: Survival and growth of four strains of commensal streptococci were measured after exposure to flavorless ECIG aerosol ± nicotine and smoke. Peristaltic pumps were used to transport aerosol or smoke into chambers containing recently seeded colony-forming units (CFUs) of the oral commensal streptococci on agar plates. Bacterial survival and growth, based on colony counts and sizes, were determined 24 h post-exposure. Additionally, aerosol or smoke were delivered into chambers containing pre-adhered streptococci to plastic coverslips and biofilm formation was determined 24 h post-exposure via scanning electron microscopy. Results: The results suggest that flavorless aerosol ± nicotine has a modest effect on bacterial growth both as colonies on agar and as biofilms. In contrast, smoke dramatically decreased bacterial survival and growth in all parameters measured. Conclusion: Unlike cigarette smoke, flavorless ECIG aerosol has only a small effect on the survival and growth of oral commensal streptococci.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco , Aerossóis , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(2): 96-99, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063246

RESUMO

This paper describes for the first time the isolation of Streptococcus lutetiensis in a cat with intestinal lymphoma. The Streptococcus bovis group has undergone significant taxonomic changes over the past two decades and, in 2002, Poyart et al. described two distinct novel species within the genus Streptococcus: Streptococcus lutetiensis and Streptococcus pasteurianus. The bovis group streptococci include commensal species and subspecies or opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. The cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Bologna for chronic diarrhoea associated with fresh blood. A diagnosis of intestinal lymphoma was advanced. S. lutetiensis was accidentally isolated from the faeces of the cat and identified through MALDI-TOF and 16s rRNA sequencing. The Kirby-Bauer test revealed that the isolate was resistant to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, marbofloxacin and tetracycline. The detection of S. lutetiensis in cat faeces might suggest that it could be a normal inhabitant of cat intestinal tract or that it could be involved in the manifestation of intestinal diseases. Since bacteria belonging to the S. bovis group are considered emerging pathogens, additional research is required to evaluate the role of S. lutetiensis in cats and its role in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: In this study the isolation of Streptococcus lutetiensis from a cat with intestinal lymphoma was described for the first time. An antimicrobial susceptibility test performed by means of the disc diffusion method revealed that the isolate was resistant to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, marbofloxacin and tetracycline. Nowadays the ecological or pathogenetic role of S. lutetiensis in the gut of animals remains unclear but, even if its role as commensal bacterium was confirmed, the presence of multi-resistant S. lutetiensis in cat gut could favour the transmission of antimicrobial resistance to other bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Neoplasias Intestinais/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/classificação , Animais , Gatos , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão/veterinária , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Linfoma , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 478, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) diseases disproportionately affect populations in middle/low-income countries. To assess if this disparity is reflected in colonization by these organisms, we compared their colonization frequency among children from different socioeconomic status (SES) communities in a city with high income inequality. METHODS: Between May-August 2014, we collected nasal and throat swabs to investigate S. aureus and BHS colonization among children who attended private and public pediatric clinics. Patients were classified as high SES, middle/low SES, and slum residents. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile, the SCCmec types and the presence of PVL genes among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We also examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and serogroups of BHS. RESULTS: Of 598 children, 221 (37%) were colonized with S. aureus, of which 49 (22%) were MRSA. MRSA colonization was higher in middle/low SES (n = 18; 14%) compared with high SES (n = 17; 6%) and slum (n = 14; 8%) residents (p = 0.01). All MRSA strains were susceptible to clindamycin, nitrofurantoin, and rifampin. The highest non-susceptibility frequency (42.9%) was observed to erythromycin. SCCmec type V was only found in isolates from high SES children; types I and II were found only in middle/low SES children. Ten (20%) MRSA isolates carried PVL genes. Twenty-four (4%) children were BHS carriers. All BHS (n = 8) found in high SES children and six (67%) isolates from slum patients belonged to group A. All group B streptococci were from middle/low SES children, corresponding to five (71%) of the seven BHS isolated in this group. BHS isolates were susceptible to all drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Children from different SES communities had distinct bacterial colonization profiles, including MRSA carriage. Public health officials/researchers should consider SES when assessing disease transmission and control measures.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Microb Pathog ; 131: 33-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940606

RESUMO

Streptococcus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. To investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene of Streptococcus in mastitic milk, a total of 735 mastitic raw milk samples from dairy cows in 11 provinces of China were collected and tested. Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus isolates was determined by disc diffusion against 8 classes 29 antimicrobial agents, and Streptococcus resistant genes and virulence genes were determined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 64 (8.71%) isolates of Streptococcus were isolated and identified using biochemical profiling, including 22 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, 13 isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 29 isolates of Streptococcus uberis. Out of 64 resistant Streptococcus isolates, all isolates (100%) were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The most frequency (n = 18, 28.12%) of the isolates were multi-resistant to 5-7 antimicrobials and the highest multi-resistant number was 29 (n = 1, 1.56%). Streptococcus isolates had the highest resistance rate to tetracycline (98.44%) and oxacillin (98.44%), followed by penicillin G (96.88%) and doxycycline (96.88%), and the lowest resistance was observed with respect to ciprofloxacin (1.56%). A total of 16 antimicrobials resistance genes with 25 combination patterns were detected in the isolates. The gene combination of Sul1/Sul2/Sul3 + gyrA/parC + cat1/cat2 was the most common pattern (12.5%). The correlation between resistant phenotypes and resistance genes in Streptococcs was 35.87%. A total of 7 virulence genes were detected and 59 (92.19%) isolates harbored at least one gene. Twenty-four classes of gene patterns were found in the isolates and the patterns of bca (9.38%) and cfb (9.38%) were the most prevalent form. In conclusion, the issue of drug resistance of Streptococcus is still a great concern in cattle health in China.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , China , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética
19.
Infection ; 47(5): 761-770, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Streptococcal species are the second most common cause of native joint septic arthritis (SA). However, there are few systematic data about streptococcal SA. METHODS: The medical records of adults with SA caused by streptococci, pneumococci, and enterococci at our tertiary care centre between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: 71 patients (34% female) with 83 affected joints were included. Median age was 62 years. A single joint was involved in 62 patients (87%). One or more comorbidities were present in 58 patients (82%). 16 patients (23%) had a concomitant soft-tissue infection overlying the affected joint. The hematogenous route was the dominating pathogenesis (42/71, 59%). 9 (13%) patients were diagnosed with endocarditis. The knee was the most commonly affected joint (27/83, 33%) followed by shoulder (13/83, 16%). ß-haemolytic streptococci were most commonly identified (37/71, 52%) followed by polymicrobial infections (12/71, 17%). Surgical interventions included arthroscopic irrigation and debridement in 31 (44%), arthrotomy in 23 (32%), and amputation in five patients (7%). Median duration of antimicrobial therapy was 42 days. Antibiotic treatment without any surgical intervention was performed in 5 (7%) patients. Outcome was good in 55 (89%) patients; mortality was 13% with four of nine deaths attributed to joint infection. Age and pathogen group independently predicted poor outcome in recursive partitioning analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcal SA was mostly due to ß-haemolytic streptococci in older and polymorbid patients. Old age, anginosus group streptococci, enterococci, and polymicrobial infections predicted poor outcome, while antibiotic treatment duration can likely be shortened.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/mortalidade , Desbridamento , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/microbiologia , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998699

RESUMO

In the search for novel agents against oral pathogens in their planktonic and biofilm form, we have focused our attention on 10-undecynoic acid as the representative of the acetylenic fatty acids. Using macro-broth susceptibility testing method we first established MIC value. Next, the MBC value was determined from a broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration test by sub-culturing it to BHI agar plates that did not contain the test agent. Anti-biofilm efficacy was tested in 96-well plates coated with saliva using BHI broth supplemented with 1% sucrose as a standard approach. Based on obtained results, MIC value for 10-undecynoic acid was established to be 2.5 mg/ml and the MBC value to be 5 mg/ml. The MBIC90 showed to be 2.5 mg/ml, however completed inhibition of biofilm formation was achieved at 5.0 mg/ml. MBBC concentration revealed to be the same as MBC value, causing approximately 30% reduction at the same time in biomass of pre-existing biofilm, whereas application of 7.0 mg/ml of 10-undecynoic acid crossed the 50% eradication mark. Strong anti-adherent effect was observed upon 10-undecynoic acid application at sub-MBC concentrations as well, complemented with suppression of acidogenicity and aciduricity. Thus, we concluded that 10-undecynoic acid might play an important role in the development of alternative or adjunctive antibacterial and anti-biofilm preventive and/or therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
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