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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25623, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Microbiota has been suggested to play a role in patients with intestinal and cutaneous diseases. However, the profiling of perianal eczema microbiota has not been described. We have explored the general profile and possible differences between acute and chronic perianal eczema. A total of 101 acute perianal eczema (APE) and 156 chronic perianal eczema (CPE) patients were enrolled in this study and the perianal microbiota was profiled via Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region.The microbial α-diversity and structure are similar in APE and CPE patients; however, the perianal microbiota of the APE patients had a higher content of Staphylococcus (22.2%, P < .01) than that of CPE patients. Top10 genera accounting for more than 60% (68.81% for APE and 65.47% for CPE) of the whole microbiota, including Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium, show an upregulation trend in the case of APE without reaching statistically significant differences. This study compared the microbiota profiles of acute and chronic perianal eczema. Our results suggest that the microbiota of acute perianal eczema patients is enriched in Staphylococcus compared with that in the chronic group. Our findings provide data for further studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus/microbiologia , Eczema/microbiologia , Microbiota , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Doença Crônica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734952

RESUMO

Introduction. Oral tissues are generally homeostatic despite exposure to many potential inflammatory agents including the resident microbiota. This requires the balancing of inflammation by regulatory mechanisms and/or anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria. Thus, the levels of anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in resident populations may be critical in maintaining this homeostatic balance.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The incidence of immunosuppressive streptococci in the oral cavity is not well established. Determining the proportion of these organisms and the mechanisms involved may help to understand host-microbe homeostasis and inform development of probiotics or prebiotics in the maintenance of oral health.Aim. To determine the incidence and potential modes of action of immunosuppressive capacity in resident oral streptococci.Methodology. Supragingival plaque was collected from five healthy participants and supragingival and subgingival plaque from five with gingivitis. Twenty streptococci from each sample were co-cultured with epithelial cells±flagellin or LL-37. CXCL8 secretion was detected by ELISA, induction of cytotoxicity in human epithelial cells by lactate dehydrogenase release and NFκB-activation using a reporter cell line. Bacterial identification was achieved through partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and next-generation sequencing.Results. CXCL8 secretion was inhibited by 94/300 isolates. Immunosuppressive isolates were detected in supragingival plaque from healthy (4/5) and gingivitis (4/5) samples, and in 2/5 subgingival (gingivitis) plaque samples. Most were Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Seventeen representative immunosuppressive isolates all inhibited NFκB activation. The immunosuppressive mechanism was strain specific, often mediated by ultra-violet light-labile factors, whilst bacterial viability was essential in certain species.Conclusion. Many streptococci isolated from plaque suppressed epithelial cell CXCL8 secretion, via inhibition of NFκB. This phenomenon may play an important role in oral host-microbe homeostasis.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Microbiota/imunologia , Boca/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Streptococcus/imunologia , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616518

RESUMO

Introduction. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen. Recurrent bacteremia with SDSE has been described previously.Aim. The aims of the study were to establish the genetic relatedness of SDSE isolates with emm-type stG643 that had caused recurrent bacteraemia in three patients and to search for signs of horizontal gene transfer of the emm gene in a collection of SDSE stG643 genomes.Hypothesis. Recurring SDSE bacteremia is caused by the same clone in one patient.Methodology. Whole genome sequencing of 22 clinical SDSE stG643 isolates was performed, including three paired blood culture isolates and sixteen isolates from various sites. All assemblies were aligned to a reference assembly and SNPs were extracted. A total of 53 SDSE genomes were downloaded from GenBank. Two phylogenetic trees, including all 75 SDSE isolates, were created. One tree was based on the emm gene only and one tree was based on all variable positions in the genomes.Results. The genomes from the three pairs of SDSE isolates showed high sequence similarity (1-17 SNPs difference between the pairs), whereas the median SNP difference between the 22 isolates in our collection was 1694 (range 1-11257). The paired isolates were retrieved with 7-53 months between episodes. The 22 SDSE isolates from our collection formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree based on the emm gene, while they were more scattered in the tree based on all variable positions.Conclusions. Our results show that the paired isolates were of the same clonal origin, which in turn supports carriage between bacteraemia episodes. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that horizontal gene transfer of the emm-gene between some of the SDSE isolates has occurred.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533709

RESUMO

Introduction . Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a ß-hemolytic streptococcus that causes severe invasive streptococcal infections, especially in the elderly and people with underlying diseases. SDSE strains are primarily characterized by Lancefield group G or C antigens.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We have previously reported the prevalence of Lancefield group A SDSE (GA-SDSE) strains in Japan and have analysed the draft genome sequences of these strains. As GA-SDSE is a rare type of SDSE, only one complete genome has been sequenced to date.Aim. The present study is focused on genetic characteristics of GA-SDSE strains. In order to examine molecular characteristics, we also tested growth inhibition of other streptococci by GA-SDSE.Methodology. We determined the complete genome sequences of three GA-SDSE strains by two new generation sequencing systems (short-read and long-read sequencing data). Using the sequences, we also conducted a comparative analysis of GA-SDSE and group C/G SDSE strains. In addition, we tested multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE, group G SDSE, and S. pyogenes.Results. We found a group-specific conserved region in GA-SDSE strains that is composed of genes encoding predicted anti-bacteriocin and streptococcal lantibiotic (Sal) proteins. Multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE-specific region were able to distinguish between GA-SDSE, other SDSE, and S. pyogenes strains. The growth of GA-SDSE was suppressed in the presence of group G SDSE, indicating a possible explanation for the low frequency of isolation of GA-SDSE.Conclusion. The comparative genome analysis shows that the genome of GA-SDSE has a distinct arrangement, enabling the differentiation between S. pyogenes, GA-SDSE, and other SDSE strains using our PCR methods.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Variação Genética , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Japão , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526521

RESUMO

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an infection of the vertebrae that can lead to spinal degeneration, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus Here, we report an unusual case of pyogenic osteomyelitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus parasanguinis in a 61-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient presented with a 2-week history of worsening lower back pain and fever and a recent episode of cystitis following re-engagement of sexual activity. Imaging revealed a deterioration of vertebrae discs and spinal canal stenosis at the L3-L4 levels with a formation of abscess in the right psoas muscle. Needle aspiration of the abscess identified G. vaginalis and S. parasanguinis and the patient was successfully treated with a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and metronidazole. This case describes an unusual coinfection of two pathogens that normally reside in the urogenital tract and oral cavity, respectively, and highlights the risk posed when these organisms breach the body's normal barriers.


Assuntos
Discite/microbiologia , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Lombares , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Abscesso do Psoas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Cultura , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa , Abscesso do Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso do Psoas/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009222, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465168

RESUMO

Bacterial binding to platelets is a key step in the development of infective endocarditis (IE). Sialic acid, a common terminal carbohydrate on host glycans, is the major receptor for streptococci on platelets. So far, all defined interactions between streptococci and sialic acid on platelets are mediated by serine-rich repeat proteins (SRRPs). However, we identified Streptococcus oralis subsp. oralis IE-isolates that bind sialic acid but lack SRRPs. In addition to binding sialic acid, some SRRP- isolates also bind the cryptic receptor ß-1,4-linked galactose through a yet unknown mechanism. Using comparative genomics, we identified a novel sialic acid-binding adhesin, here named AsaA (associated with sialic acid adhesion A), present in IE-isolates lacking SRRPs. We demonstrated that S. oralis subsp. oralis AsaA is required for binding to platelets in a sialic acid-dependent manner. AsaA comprises a non-repeat region (NRR), consisting of a FIVAR/CBM and two Siglec-like and Unique domains, followed by 31 DUF1542 domains. When recombinantly expressed, Siglec-like and Unique domains competitively inhibited binding of S. oralis subsp. oralis and directly interacted with sialic acid on platelets. We further demonstrated that AsaA impacts the pathogenesis of S. oralis subsp. oralis in a rabbit model of IE. Additionally, we found AsaA orthologues in other IE-causing species and demonstrated that the NRR of AsaA from Gemella haemolysans blocked binding of S. oralis subsp. oralis, suggesting that AsaA contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple IE-causing species. Finally, our findings provide evidence that sialic acid is a key factor for bacterial-platelets interactions in a broader range of species than previously appreciated, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Streptococcus/metabolismo , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endocardite Bacteriana/metabolismo , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Masculino , Coelhos , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, suppurative bacterial infection of the gastric wall, which may rapidly evolve into fatal septicemia. The etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood; however, multiple risk factors have been cited in current literature. Most cases have been diagnosed at autopsy, and occasionally at laparotomy, as the clinical presentation is often variable. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 67-year-old male presenting with intractable nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain following an uneventful upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Diagnostic workup including contrast tomography (CT) and endoscopic assessment was in keeping with PG. This was subsequently followed by development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical deterioration necessitating surgical resection of the stomach. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis of this potentially fatal infection that can follow endoscopic procedures and illustrates ACS and septic shock as serious complications. There is currently no consensus on the proper management of PG; however, in this case, a combination of surgery and antibiotics provided a favourable outcome. Limited number of cases of PG have been reported in literature, and to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PG with subsequent ACS as an acute complication.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Gastrite/complicações , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/etiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the airway microbiota is a highly dynamic ecology, the role of longitudinal changes in airway microbiota during early childhood in asthma development is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of longitudinal changes in early nasal microbiota with the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: In this prospective, population-based birth cohort study, we followed children from birth to age 7 years. The nasal microbiota was tested by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing at ages 2, 13, and 24 months. We applied an unsupervised machine learning approach to identify longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months (the primary exposure) and during age 2 to 24 months (the secondary exposure) and examined the association of these profiles with the risk of physician-diagnosed asthma at age 7 years. RESULTS: Of the analytic cohort of 704 children, 57 (8%) later developed asthma. We identified 4 distinct longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months. In the multivariable analysis, compared with the persistent Moraxella dominance profile during age 2 to 13 months, the persistent Moraxella sparsity profile was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.27). Similar associations were observed between the longitudinal changes in nasal microbiota during age 2 to 24 months and risk of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an altered longitudinal pattern in the nasal microbiota during early childhood had a high risk of developing asthma. Our data guide the development of primary prevention strategies (eg, early identification of children at high risk and modification of microbiota) for childhood asthma. These observations present a new avenue for risk modification for asthma (eg, microbiota modification).


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Microbiota , Nariz/microbiologia , Aerococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Moraxella/isolamento & purificação , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Risco , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(5): 727.e1-727.e11, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that the vaginal microbiome decreases in Lactobacillus predominance and becomes more diverse after menopause. It has also been shown that estrogen therapy restores Lactobacillus dominance in the vagina and that topical estrogen is associated with overactive bladder symptom improvement. We now know that the bladder contains a unique microbiome and that increased bladder microbiome diversity is associated with overactive bladder. However, there is no understanding of how quickly each pelvic floor microbiome responds to estrogen or if those changes are associated with symptom improvement. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if estrogen treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder decreases urobiome diversity. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from postmenopausal participants in 2 trials (NCT02524769 and NCT02835846) who chose vaginal estrogen as the primary overactive bladder treatment and used 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen (Premarin cream; Pfizer, New York City, NY) twice weekly for 12 weeks. Baseline and 12-week follow-up data included the Overactive Bladder questionnaire, and participants provided urine samples via catheter, vaginal swabs, perineal swabs, and voided urine samples. Microbes were detected by an enhanced culture protocol. Linear mixed models were used to estimate microbiome changes over time. Urinary antimicrobial peptide activity was assessed by a bacterial growth inhibition assay and correlated with relative abundance of members of the urobiome. RESULTS: In this study, 12 weeks of estrogen treatment resulted in decreased microbial diversity within the vagina (Shannon, P=.047; Richness, P=.043) but not in the other niches. A significant increase in Lactobacillus was detected in the bladder (P=.037) but not in the vagina (P=.33), perineum (P=.56), or voided urine (P=.28). The change in Lactobacillus levels in the bladder was associated with modest changes in urgency incontinence symptoms (P=.02). The relative abundance of the genus Corynebacterium correlated positively with urinary antimicrobial peptide activity after estrogen treatment. CONCLUSION: Estrogen therapy may change the microbiome of different pelvic floor niches. The vagina begins to decrease in diversity, and the bladder experiences a significant increase in Lactobacillus levels; the latter is correlated with a modest improvement in the symptom severity subscale of the Overactive Bladder questionnaire.


Assuntos
Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Urina/microbiologia , Actinomyces/isolamento & purificação , Administração Intravaginal , Idoso , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/urina , Biodiversidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of four woody forages (Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), fermented MOL, Folium mori (FM) and fermented FM) on biodiversity and bioactivity of aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by a traditional culture-dependent method. A total of 133 aerobic culturable isolates were recovered and identified from the gut of tilapia, belonging to 35 species of 12 genera in three bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria). Among them, 6 bacterial isolates of Bacillus baekryungensis, Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus methylotrophicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas taiwanensis were isolated from all the five experimental groups. The Bray-Curtis analysis showed that the bacterial communities among the five groups displayed obvious differences. In addition, this result of bioactivity showed that approximate 43% of the aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia displayed a distinct anti-bacterial activity against at least one of four fish pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Streptomyces rutgersensis displayed strong activity against all four indicator bacteria. These results contribute to our understanding of the intestinal bacterial diversity of tilapia when fed with woody forages and how certain antimicrobial bacteria flourished under such diets. This can aid in the further exploitation of new diets and probiotic sources in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 31(2): 399-402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584745

RESUMO

Streptococcus dysgalactiae (SD) is a common pathogen among elderly population. However, to our knowledge, there is no periprosthetic joint infection case reported that is infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) in the English literature. In this article, we report a 77-year-old male patient who had undergone total knee arthroplasty three years ago and had the diagnosis of cellulitis at his leg followed by swelling, pain and hyperemia localized at his knee. Three knee aspirations were performed and the SDSE was identified. There was no direct contact of patient to animals.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Desbridamento/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/fisiopatologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4098-4104, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539911

RESUMO

A new α-haemolytic streptococcal strain has been isolated from the dental plaque of a teenager with Down syndrome. Genetic and taxonomic analyses place this Streptococcus within the oralis group. It is a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming spherical alpha-haemolytic coccus arranged in chains, and it ferments a large number of monosaccharides and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. It differs biochemically from closely related species of Streptococcus due to its production of α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase and by the absence of arginine dihydrolase deiminase and IgA1-protease. It grows in a temperature range of 25 to 40 °C (optimal growth temperature at 37 °C) and in a pH range of 4.5 to 8 (optimal pH at 7.0). A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences placed it close to Streptococcus dentisani CECT 7747T. The ANIb and ANIm values were 93.19 and 93.61 %, respectively, both below the accepted threshold to designate it as a new species of bacteria. A phylogenetic tree based on its core genome placed it close to Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani strain CECT 7747T with a distance in the expanded core phylogeny of 0.1298. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value was 52.2 % with respect to the closest species, S. oralis subsp. dentisani CECT 7747T. Based on these data, a new species of bacteria within the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae and order Lactobacillales is described, for which the name of Streptococcus downii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain CECT 9732T=CCUG 73139T).


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Síndrome de Down , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , Streptococcus/classificação , Adolescente , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 428, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the trends in epidemiology and the risk factors related to the prognosis of infective endocarditis in a tertiary hospital over the past ten years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. A total of 407 consecutive patients who were admitted with infective endocarditis were included. The clinical characteristics and the risk factors related to the prognosis of infective endocarditis during this period were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with infective endocarditis were included, the average age was 48 ± 16 years old with an increasing trend and in-hospital mortality rate was 10.6% and one-year mortality rate was 11.3%. Among patients with underlying heart disease, congenital heart disease was the most common (25.8%), followed by rheumatic heart disease (17.0%) which showed a decreased trend during this period (P < 0.001). There were 222(54.5%) patients with positive blood cultures results and Streptococci (24.6%) was the main pathogens with an increasing trend. There were 403 patients (99%) with surgical indications, but only 235 patients (57.7%) received surgical treatment. Hemodialysis (P = 0.041, OR = 4.697, 95% CI 1.068-20.665), pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.001, OR = 5.308, 95% CI 2.034-13.852), Pitt score ≥ 4 (P < 0.001, OR = 28.594, 95% CI 5.561-148.173) and vegetation length>30 mm (P = 0.011, OR = 13.754, 95% CI 1.832-103.250) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in the overall incidence of infective endocarditis, but the clinical features of infective endocarditis had slightly changed during the past ten years. Streptococci infective endocarditis was still the predominant. Patients with hemodialysis, pulmonary hypertension, Pitt score ≥ 4 and vegetation length>30 mm had an worse in-hospital outcome.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Idoso , China , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 672-674, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431277

RESUMO

We report a patient with risk factors for both microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis, which were initially challenging to distinguish. Cultures of corneal scrapings yielded several organisms, including an uncultivable Gram-negative rod, eventually identified as Kingella negevensis. Kingella negevensis is so named because most strains have been isolated in the Negev, a desert region of southern Israel. The epidemiology of K. negevensis remains incompletely understood. We found no other reports in the literature of this organism causing microbial keratitis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Endoftalmite/complicações , Ceratite/complicações , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Administração Oftálmica , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Endoftalmite/diagnóstico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Kingella/genética , Kingella/isolamento & purificação , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/microbiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tobramicina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e19894, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443291

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pyopneumopericardium related to bungee jumping is a rare occurrence in the current antibiotic era. We present a case of esophagus-seeded Streptococcus sanguinis pyopneumopericardium in a young man with tuberculosis who had just completed bungee jumping. PATIENT CONCERN: A 27-year-old man was hospitalized with a 1-day history of fever, chest tightness, and intermittent sharp chest pain after bungee jumping for the first time. DIAGNOSES: Clinical examinations, thoracentesis, and pericardiocentesis revealed pyopneumopericardium, pyopneumomediastinum, and suppurative pleurisy secondary to bungee-jumping-related traumas. Pericardial fluid cultures were positive for S sanguinis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic test was positive in both sputum and pleural effusion. INTERVENTIONS: The patient improved with drainage and comprehensive antimicrobial therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient developed constrictive pericarditis and underwent pericardiectomy after 6 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. During the 6-month follow-up after surgery, he recovered uneventfully. LESSONS: This case adds to the long list of bungee-jumping complications. Early diagnosis to initiate appropriate therapy is critical for pyopneumopericardium patients to achieve good outcomes.


Assuntos
Pneumopericárdio/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumopericárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Recreação , Streptococcus sanguis
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413097

RESUMO

The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) and possibly Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) are associated with human and animal diseases. Sii predominate in spontaneously fermented milk products with unknown public health effects. Sii/SBSEC prevalence data from West Africa in correlation with milk transformation practices are limited. Northern Côte d'Ivoire served as study area due to its importance in milk production and consumption and to link a wider Sudano-Sahelian pastoral zone of cross-border trade. We aimed to describe the cow milk value chain and determine Sii/SBSEC prevalence with a cross-sectional study. Dairy production practices were described as non-compliant with basic hygiene standards. The system is influenced by secular sociocultural practices and environmental conditions affecting product properties. Phenotypic and molecular analyses identified SBSEC in 27/43 (62.8%) fermented and 26/67 (38.8%) unfermented milk samples. Stratified by collection stage, fermented milk at producer and vendor levels featured highest SBSEC prevalence of 71.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Sii with 62.8% and 38.8% as well as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus with 7.0% and 7.5% were the predominant SBSEC species identified among fermented and unfermented milk samples, respectively. The population structure of Sii/SBSEC isolates seems to reflect evolving novel dairy-adapted, non-adapted and potentially pathogenic lineages. Northern Côte d'Ivoire was confirmed as area with high Sii presence in dairy products. The observed production practices and the high diversity of Sii/SBSEC supports in-depth investigations on Sii ecology niche, product safety and related technology in the dairy value chain potentially affecting large population groups across sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Streptococcus bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Filogenia , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus bovis/genética , Streptococcus gallolyticus/genética , Streptococcus gallolyticus/isolamento & purificação
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