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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 356: 109333, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399305

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a globally spread disease, affecting humans and many animal species, including birds. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in ostriches from South and North America, Africa and Asia. Except for one study from Spain, there is a lack of information about T. gondii seroprevalence in ostriches from Europe. For this reason, the aim of the study was to detect antibodies to T. gondii in farm-reared ostriches from the Czech Republic. Serum samples of 409 ostriches (Struthio camelus), collected at 9 farms were tested by Latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 149 (36%) birds with a statistical difference for individual farms (8%-71%, p = 0.0121), and regions (8%-65%, p = 0.002). Seropositivity did not statistically differ (p > 0.05) in size of farms (50% and 35% on small and large farms, respectively), sex of birds (38% and 35% in males and females, respectively), season and year of collection. Tissue samples (brain, heart, and pectoral muscle) of 105 birds were also tested by PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. The parasite T. gondii was detected in the brain and heart of one seronegative ostrich (1%) from a small farm. Based on our results, we can assume that ostriches may present high risk of toxoplasmosis for humans through consumption of raw or undercooked ostrich meat and even seronegative individuals could harbor T. gondii in their tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of T. gondii in ostriches in the Czech Republic, and the first PCR detection in Europe.


Assuntos
Struthioniformes , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , República Tcheca , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340123

RESUMO

Comminuting the ingested material in the stomach and fermentation in the large intestine of ostriches, allows an efficient utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs. The entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of 61 adult ostriches (both sexes; av. age of 15 mo), which had previously been fed a ration consisting of either haylage and pelleted compound feed (HP) or haylage, corn silage and pelleted compound feed (HCP), was the subject of the present investigations. The weight of the different compartments of the GIT was measured. The digesta was differentiated into inorganic and organic substances. Wet sieving was used to separate the collected stones (>19 mm), small stones (1 mm), and sand (<1 mm). Ostriches fed the HCP diet had a significantly higher empty gizzard weight (3,435 g) compared to those fed the HP diet (3,064 g). Additionally, the weight of the empty cecum (left and right parts) was increased (P < 0.05) for ostriches fed the HCP diet (107 and 122 g, respectively) in comparison to those fed the HP diet (93.4 and 108 g, respectively). The weight of pure digesta in the gizzard and left or right cecum for ostriches fed the HP diet was higher (1,640, 448, and 471 g, respectively) compared to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). The contents of crude ash and HCl-insoluble ash in the digesta of all the GIT compartments were higher for ostriches fed the HP diet in comparison to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). Independent of the type of the offered diet, the large stones occurred only in the proventriculus and gizzard (2.71 and 4.76%, respectively), while sand dominated in the distal colon (30.3%). The high proportion of stones in the gizzard form the "mechanical equipment" which enables the animals to grind basic feed such as corn silage or haylage, and these are almost completely excreted as sand. Continuous stone replacement for ostriches is necessary but the amount mostly depends on the type of feed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Estômago
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204052

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the packaging system type on the physical characteristics and microbial changes in ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. The applied packaging systems were vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) using two combinations of gases: MAP1 (40% O2/40% CO2/20% N2) and MAP2 (60% O2/30% CO2/10% N2). Eight meat samples were obtained in three replicates for all parameters, except for pH, for which six replicates were obtained from the M. ilifibularis (IF) muscle, and were stored in a refrigerator at 2 °C and analyzed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days for the effect of packaging methods on physical meat quality. The initial pH (5.99) decreased at the end of the storage time for MAP1 to 5.81, whereas VP was stable from day 0 to 12 and increased up to 6.08 on day 16. Regarding meat color, the L* value increased during storage for MAP1 and MAP2 from 36.99 to 40.75 and 41.60, respectively, whereas it declined for VP to 34.22. The same tendencies were reported for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Drip loss was the lowest in MAP1 and highest in VP. The lowest total viable bacteria counts were identified in VP, as compared to MAP1 and MAP2.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Struthioniformes , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Refrigeração , Tempo , Vácuo
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204472

RESUMO

The ostrich oil of Struthio camelus (Ratite) found uses in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory in eczema and contact dermatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of a γ-lactone (5-hexyl-3H-furan-2-one) isolated from ostrich oil and its formulated nano-emulsion in formalin-induced paw edema was investigated in this study. Ostrich oil was saponified using a standard procedure; the aqueous residue was fractionated, purified, and characterized as γ-lactone (5-hexyl-3H-furan-2-one) through the interpretation of IR, NMR, and MS analyses. The γ-lactone was formulated as nano-emulsion using methylcellulose (MC) for oral solubilized form. The γ-lactone methylcellulose nanoparticles (γ-lactone-MC-NPs) were characterized for their size, shape, and encapsulation efficiency with a uniform size of 300 nm and 59.9% drug content. The γ-lactone was applied topically, while the formulated nanoparticles (NPs) were administered orally to rats. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac gel) was used as a reference drug for topical use and ibuprofen suspension for oral administration. Edema was measured using the plethysmograph method. Both γ-lactone and γ-lactone-MC-NPs showed reduction of formalin-induced paw edema in rats and proved to be better than the reference drugs; diclofenac gel and ibuprofen emulsion. Histological examination of the skin tissue revealed increased skin thickness with subepidermal edema and mixed inflammatory cellular infiltration, which were significantly reduced by the γ-lactone compared to the positive control (p-value = 0.00013). Diuretic and toxicity studies of oral γ-lactone-MC-NPs were performed. No diuretic activity was observed. However, lethargy, drowsiness, and refusal to feeding observed may limit its oral administration.


Assuntos
Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Emulsões/farmacologia , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Masculino , Paleógnatas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076170

RESUMO

Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Paquistão
6.
Nature ; 592(7853): 248-252, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790469

RESUMO

The archaeological record of Africa provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of the complex symbolic and technological behaviours that characterize Homo sapiens1-7. The coastal setting of many archaeological sites of the Late Pleistocene epoch, and the abundant shellfish remains recovered from them, has led to a dominant narrative in which modern human origins in southern Africa are intrinsically tied to the coast and marine resources8-12, and behavioural innovations in the interior lag behind. However, stratified Late Pleistocene sites with good preservation and robust chronologies are rare in the interior of southern Africa, and the coastal hypothesis therefore remains untested. Here we show that early human innovations that are similar to those dated to around 105 thousand years ago (ka) in coastal southern Africa existed at around the same time among humans who lived over 600 km inland. We report evidence for the intentional collection of non-utilitarian objects (calcite crystals) and ostrich eggshell from excavations of a stratified rockshelter deposit in the southern Kalahari Basin, which we date by optically stimulated luminescence to around 105 ka. Uranium-thorium dating of relict tufa deposits indicates sporadic periods of substantial volumes of fresh, flowing water; the oldest of these episodes is dated to between 110 and 100 ka and is coeval with the archaeological deposit. Our results suggest that behavioural innovations among humans in the interior of southern Africa did not lag behind those of populations near the coast, and that these innovations may have developed within a wet savannah environment. Models that tie the emergence of behavioural innovations to the exploitation of coastal resources by our species may therefore require revision.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Casca de Ovo , Pradaria , Invenções/história , Chuva , Struthioniformes , África Austral , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cavernas , História Antiga , Humanos , Magnésio , Tório , Urânio
7.
Animal ; 15(3): 100165, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500216

RESUMO

Although date waste products have been used as an alternative feed source in the diets of poultry for a long time, there is no quantitative information available regarding date waste used in ostrich diets. Therefore, two experiments were performed to evaluate the feeding value of whole date waste (WDW) as a feed ingredient in ostrich diets. In the first experiment, apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen balance (AMEn) of WDW was determined using 12 young ostriches (6 months old). The treatments included a reference diet and a test diet consisting of 60% of the reference diet and 40% of WDW. The AMEn of the WDW determined by total collection was 3216 kcal/kg. In the second study, four groups of eight growing ostriches (seven month old), with almost similar BW (60.4 ± 1.6 kg), were individually housed in outdoor paddocks of ≈24 m2 and were tested from 7 to 9 months of age. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2420 kcal of AMEn/kg) and isonitrogenous (16.4% CP) diets containing 0, 10, 20, and 30% WDW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and apparent total tract digestibility coefficients of DM, organic matter, energy, ether extract, ash, nitrogen-free extract, calcium, and phosphorus. In contrast, birds fed 0, 10, and 20% WDW diets had similar CP digestibility and this was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of birds on 30% WDW diet. The least crude fibre digestibility (P = 0.003) was also observed in birds fed 30% WDW diet. Blood RBC count, lymphocyte percentage, glucose concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity increased linearly (P < 0.01), whereas heterophil percentage and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio decreased linearly (P = 0.002), in response to dietary inclusion of WDW. It can be concluded that WDW can be incorporated into the diets of ostrich chicks at levels of up to 30% without compromising growth performance. These results also suggest that WDW could be used as a feed ingredient for growing ostriches to improve stress-related variables and antioxidant status.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Valor Nutritivo
8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(7): 2695-2706, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984939

RESUMO

Boron is a trace element which plays important roles in immune response. The relationship between boron and splenic lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, secretion of cytokines, and genes potentially related to immune response in ostrich chicks were investigated in the present study. Different concentrations of boron (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L) were applied to splenic lymphocytes of African ostrich, respectively. The effect of boron on lymphocyte proliferation was checked by the CCK-8 method. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of boron on apoptosis. The secretion levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were determined by ELISA. Splenic lymphocyte gene expression profiles of ostrich chicks treated with boron (0, 0.1, 100 mmol/L) were studied using RNA-seq technology. The results showed that cell proliferation increased with 0.01-10 mmol/L boron, when it was 25-100 mmol/L, the cell proliferation gradually decreased as the boron concentration increased. Apoptosis ratio in ostrich splenic lymphocytes was closely related to boron concentrations. 0.01- and 0.1-mmol/L boron inhibited apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes, whereas 1, 10, 50, and 100-mmol/L boron promoted apoptosis. As the concentration of boron increased, the secretion of IL-6 gradually decreased; IFN-α was initially increased and then decreased with boron concentrations increased, reaching the maximum level with 1 mmol/L boron. In terms of the RNA-Seq data, there was no differentially expressed gene between the 0- and 0.1-mmol/L boron-treated samples; 21 differentially expressed genes were found between the 0- and 100-mmol/L boron-treated samples; 43 differentially expressed genes were found between the 0.1- and 100-mmol/L boron-treated samples. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes by Gene Ontology verified multiple functions associated with immune response. Pathway analysis showed that systemic lupus erythematosus, alcoholism, viral carcinogenesis, and necroptosis pathway were the major enriched pathways, and BIRC2-3, FTH1, and IL-1ß genes showed differential expression in necroptosis pathway. These results demonstrated that low concentrations (0.01-0.1 mmol/L) of boron may promote the proliferation and the secretion of cytokines, inhibit cell apoptosis of ostrich splenic lymphocytes by enhancing the function of the cell membrane and the activity of intracellular catalytic enzymes, whereas high-concentration (25-100 mmol/L) boron had opposite effects on cells. The necroptosis pathway might play a pivotal role in regulating the immune response of boron-treated splenic lymphocytes in ostrich chicks.


Assuntos
Boro , Struthioniformes , Animais , Apoptose , Boro/farmacologia , Linfócitos , Baço
9.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(2): 333-341, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133791

RESUMO

Brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries (Aa.). The ventral tectal mesencephalic artery (a.), invariably a medium-sized single vessel, was, on the right side, a collateral branch of the caudal branch of the carotid artery (53.4%), a direct branch of the carotid artery (43.3%) and a direct branch of the basilar artery (3.3%) and on the left side, a collateral branch of the caudal branch of the carotid artery (66.7%), a direct branch of the carotid artery (30%), and a direct branch of the basilar artery (3.3%). It vascularized only the ventral half of the optic lobe, with no involvement in cerebellar vascularization on the right (93.3%) and left (80%) sides, extending to the ventrorostral-most cerebellar lobules, which were vascularized on the right (6.7%) and left (20%) sides. The caudal ventral cerebellar arteries were a single vessel on the right (96.7%) and left (93.3%) sides. Its first branch was a common trunk: dorsal spinal-caudal cerebellar on the right (60%) and left (56.6%) sides. Its second branch was the caudal cerebellar artery on the right (76.7%) and left (86.7%) sides. Its third branch was the second component of the caudal cerebellar artery on the right (6.7%) and left (3.3%) sides. The midbrain was vascularized by dorsal and ventral tectal mesencephalic arteries. The cerebellum was vascularized by branches of the caudal ventral cerebellar artery and by the dorsal cerebellar artery.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia , Mesencéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Rombencéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais
10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(3): 851-866, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959086

RESUMO

Myoglobin (Mb), oxygen-binding heme-protein retrieved primarily in muscles, is a local oxygen reservoir providing to oxygen when oxygen delivery is insufficient during catabolism. Furthermore, Mb structure is studied as example of molecular evolution for its ability to respond to environmental pressures and adapt to it through few amino acid substitutions. Here, in order to explore the structure-function-dynamics relationships of Eurasian woodcock chicken and ostrich Mbs we have applied an integrated approach in which spectroscopic and biochemical data have been coupled to computational techniques as structural modelling and molecular dynamics simulations. The primary structure of E. woodcock Mb, reveals the presence of 3 (i.e. Q34H, E44D and V66A) and 10 (i.e. A19T, E27A, V28I, K50T, D53E, G57A, D60E, N81K, S84A and A120S) amino acid substitutions respect to chicken and ostrich Mbs, respectively. Although the high amino acid sequence identity, E. woodcock Mb displays a higher autoxidation rate than chicken and ostrich Mb, despite of a similar melting temperature (T m ∼ 358 K). Yet, the 3D structural models validated by using experimental data indicate that the three Mbs adopt an almost identical three-dimensional structure conserving the typical secondary and tertiary structural organization. Interestingly, dynamics data reveal that the E. woodcock Mb exhibits greater internal motions than either chicken or ostrich Mbs. Overall, our study demonstrates that in Mbs the functional properties are significantly driven by the protein dynamic peculiarities, which in turn depend on the amino acid composition of the region located in proximity of the pathways for the gas ligands. [Formula: see text] Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Mioglobina , Struthioniformes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mioglobina/genética , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(4): 1544-1555, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676937

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the effects of supplemental boron on osteogenesis of tibia and to investigate the possible relationship between additional boron and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in tibia of ostrich chicks. Therefore, forty-eight African ostrich chicks (15 days old) were supplemented with 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, and 640 mg/L of boron in drinking water for 75 days. The paraffin sections of tibia used to measure histomorphometric parameters by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Masson's staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to assess the level of BMP-2, osteocalcin (BGP), glucocorticoids (GCs), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in serum. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) technique was performed to detect the cell apoptosis. The results indicated that low dose of supplemental boron (40 mg/L-160 mg/L) in drinking water promotes bone development by increasing the mature ossein. The expression of BMP2 on 45 days was higher than 90 days. Serum level of BMP-2, BGP, and GCs changed significantly in groups with low dosage of boron, and OPG/RANKL ratio was upregulated from 0 to 160 mg/L. Cell apoptosis was least in 40 mg/L and 160 mg/L groups. Taken together, low dose of boron supplemented in drinking water could promote osteogenesis and growth and development of tibia by regulating the expression and secretion of BMP-2 and providing a dynamically balanced environment for tibia growth, development, and reconstruction by regulating the concentrations of BGP, GCs, and OPG/RANKL ratio in serum.


Assuntos
Struthioniformes , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Boro/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Osteogênese , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Ligante RANK , Tíbia
12.
Sleep ; 44(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249508

RESUMO

It has been reported that adult ostriches displayed the longest episodes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (up to 5 min) and more REM sleep (24% of the nighttime) than any other bird species. If the mammalian ontogenetic trend exists in the ostrich, then the amounts of REM and the duration of sleep episodes in young ostriches may be greater than those reported in adults. We investigated sleep in 1.5-3.5 month old ostrich chicks. Recordings were conducted during nighttime (20:00-08:00), the main sleep period in ostriches, which are diurnal. The polygrams were scored in 4-s epochs for waking, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep, as in other bird studies. REM sleep in ostrich chicks occurred during both cortical EEG activation and during slow waves, as was described in adult ostriches. The chicks spent 69.3% ± 1.5% of the night in NREM sleep. REM sleep occupied 14.1% ± 1.8% of the night or 16.8% ± 2.0% of nighttime sleep. Episodes of REM sleep lasted on average 10 ± 1 s and ranged between 4 and 40 s. Therefore, the total amount and duration of REM sleep episodes in ostrich chicks were substantially smaller than reported in adult ostriches while the amounts of NREM sleep did not greatly differ. The developmental profile of REM sleep ontogenesis in the ostrich may be remarkably different from what has been reported in all studied mammals and birds.


Assuntos
Sono de Ondas Lentas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Sono , Sono REM
13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(8): 1759-1775, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314780

RESUMO

Birds and crocodiles show radically different patterns of brain development, and it is of interest to compare these to determine the pattern of brain growth expected in dinosaurs. Here we provide atlases of 3D brain (endocast) reconstructions for Alligator mississippiensis (alligator) and Struthio camelus (ostrich) through ontogeny, prepared as digital restorations from CT scans of stained head and dry skull specimens. Our morphometric analysis confirms that ostrich brains do not change significantly in shape during postnatal growth, whereas alligator brains unfold from a cramped bird-like shape in the hatchling to an elongate, straight structure in the adult. We confirm that birds exhibit paedomorphic dinosaur endocranial traits such as retaining an enlarged and compact brain shape in the adult, whereas crocodiles show peramorphic traits where the brain elongates with growth as the skull elongates. These atlases of ontogenetic stages of modern bird and crocodilian endocrania provide a basis for comparison of non-avian dinosaur endocasts and consideration of the divergence of the "avian" and "crocodilian" modes of brain development and heterochronic change on phylogenies.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Filogenia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Anat ; 238(4): 845-873, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345301

RESUMO

The avian lung is highly specialized and is both functionally and morphologically distinct from that of their closest extant relatives, the crocodilians. It is highly partitioned, with a unidirectionally ventilated and immobilized gas-exchanging lung, and functionally decoupled, compliant, poorly vascularized ventilatory air-sacs. To understand the evolutionary history of the archosaurian respiratory system, it is essential to determine which anatomical characteristics are shared between birds and crocodilians and the role these shared traits play in their respective respiratory biology. To begin to address this larger question, we examined the anatomy of the lung and bronchial tree of 10 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and 11 ostriches (Struthio camelus) across an ontogenetic series using traditional and micro-computed tomography (µCT), three-dimensional (3D) digital models, and morphometry. Intraspecific variation and left to right asymmetry were present in certain aspects of the bronchial tree of both taxa but was particularly evident in the cardiac (medial) region of the lungs of alligators and the caudal aspect of the bronchial tree in both species. The cross-sectional area of the primary bronchus at the level of the major secondary airways and cross-sectional area of ostia scaled either isometrically or negatively allometrically in alligators and isometrically or positively allometrically in ostriches with respect to body mass. Of 15 lung metrics, five were significantly different between the alligator and ostrich, suggesting that these aspects of the lung are more interspecifically plastic in archosaurs. One metric, the distances between the carina and each of the major secondary airways, had minimal intraspecific or ontogenetic variation in both alligators and ostriches, and thus may be a conserved trait in both taxa. In contrast to previous descriptions, the 3D digital models and CT scan data demonstrate that the pulmonary diverticula pneumatize the axial skeleton of the ostrich directly from the gas-exchanging pulmonary tissues instead of the air sacs. Global and specific comparisons between the bronchial topography of the alligator and ostrich reveal multiple possible homologies, suggesting that certain structural aspects of the bronchial tree are likely conserved across Archosauria, and may have been present in the ancestral archosaurian lung.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Brônquios/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Animais
15.
Food Chem ; 339: 127856, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866698

RESUMO

Egg yolk phospholipids from seven different species were purified (purity > 96%) using SPE columns, and subsequently the phospholipid profiles were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple time-of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Triple TOF-MS). Eight phospholipid classes and 87 molecular species were characterized. Principal component analysis showed that the molecular species and concentration of phospholipids in pigeon and hen egg yolks had a significant difference with other eggs. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the phospholipid profiles of pigeon egg yolks were closest to hen egg yolks, followed by quail, duck, ostrich, emu and goose egg yolks. Different relative quantities of certain molecular species were different among egg yolk types; for instance, phosphatidylcholine (16:0/16:1) in goose egg yolks and phosphatidylethanolamine (16:0/18:3) in ostrich egg yolks. This study provides a basis for a better understanding of the phospholipid profiles of egg yolks, and better evaluation of the nutritional value of eggs.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Patos , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Codorniz , Struthioniformes
16.
J Avian Med Surg ; 34(4): 381-389, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355416

RESUMO

A 4-year-old female ostrich (Struthio camelus) developed knuckling on its left foot after a traumatic event. Conservative treatment, rest, and traditional splinting methods failed to resolve the gait abnormality or improve mobility. A dynamic multicomponent orthotic shoe was then custom designed and fabricated with an ultra-high-molecular weight, low-pressure polyethylene polymer (St 1000 DIN16972 TG2) to correct the foot malposition. The affected foot and leg were wrapped with soft padding and the orthosis was attached and secured by nylon belts (Nylon PA [polyamide] 6, a semicrystalline polyamide polymer) with self-locking modified wrench straps. The orthosis immediately prevented knuckling and improved ambulation. After 2 weeks, this shoe was replaced with a modified orthotic shoe of lighter weight to improve kinetics and ease of use by the bird. The modified orthosis dramatically improved ambulation and was left attached to the affected leg for 7 more weeks. Thereafter, the bird was able to ambulate comfortably without the aid of the shoe, even though permanent anatomical changes to the affected leg seemed to restrict its speed of locomotion. The ostrich had another unfortunate traumatic event 10 weeks later, the result of which was knuckling on the contralateral (right) foot. After routine medical and supportive care, the orthosis was then applied to the right foot for a period of 9 weeks. During this period the bird was able to ambulate well, despite having to support the bulk of its weight on the previously affected left limb. At the end of 9 weeks, the orthosis was removed, and the bird was able to ambulate without aid, although the bird's speed of locomotion was considerably reduced. After recovery of its leg problems, the ostrich was confined to a relatively small paddock for the rest of its life.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Órtoses do Pé/veterinária , Struthioniformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/terapia
17.
J Avian Med Surg ; 34(4): 396-401, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355418

RESUMO

A 25-year-old, male, sanctuary-owned, South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) was evaluated for orbital emphysema after evisceration of a nonvisual and chronically irritated eye. On initial ophthalmic examination, the ostrich's left eye displayed severe corneal fibrosis, broad anterior synechia, and a shallow anterior chamber, all suggestive of a previous corneal perforation. Conjunctival hyperemia and eyelid crusts were also present, reportedly associated with chronic rubbing. Evisceration of the left eye was performed by excising the eyelid margins, conjunctiva, nictitans, cornea, and intraocular contents. Four weeks postoperatively, a nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the surgical site was noted. Trocarization of the surgical site verified orbital emphysema and served to temporarily decompress the orbit. Orbital emphysema reoccurred within 48 hours but gradually regressed without intervention over the subsequent 9 months. A Jones test was performed in the healthy, right eye and demonstrated clear communication to the oropharynx. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an evisceration performed on an ostrich and the first reported case of orbital emphysema in any avian species. It is probable that the emphysema noted in this case was secondary to nasolacrimal duct-oropharynx communication.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Enfisema/veterinária , Ducto Nasolacrimal , Doenças Orbitárias/veterinária , Orofaringe , Struthioniformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enfisema/cirurgia , Enucleação Ocular/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Orbitárias/cirurgia
18.
Vet Ital ; 56(2): 87-102, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382232

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry occurred in Africa's poultry and 16 countries have reported human infections globally. Intensified human-animal interactions necessitate correct communication of health messages to reduce zoonotic infection. This work was done to determine differences between pictorial and literal health education communication. Cross-sectional survey using literal and pictorial questionnaires in LBMs and poultry farms was carried out among respondents based on matching criteria. Responses were scored and analysed with probability of independence using Chi square test and pairwise correlation. The degree of knowledge of clinical signs in birds, species affected, communication means and biosecurity were good, that of the post-mortem signs was poor with increasing potentials of human exposure to virus-rich visceral tissues from slaughtered sick birds. Marked differences exist for the various items listed within each knowledge field, the odds of having correct responses from pictorial were better than with literal respondents. Risky practices were still practised in the LBMs despite the good degree of knowledge of hygiene and biosecurity. Knowledge and implementation does not always correlate and pictorial representation out surpasses literal method in communicating potential zoonotic H5N1 influenza A infection to the undiscerning public.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Coturnix , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/psicologia , Influenza Humana/psicologia , Nigéria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/psicologia , Struthioniformes , Perus , Zoonoses/psicologia
19.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 359, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087720

RESUMO

The Serengeti ecosystem spans an extensive network of protected areas in Tanzania, eastern Africa, and a UNESCO Wold Heritage Site. It is home to some of the largest animal migrations on the planet. Here, we describe a dataset consisting of the sample counts of three age classes (infant, juvenile and adult) of 13 ungulate and one ostrich species. Sample counts were tallied visually from the ground, or, in some instances, aerial photographs, during a period extending from 1926 to 2018. Observed animals were assigned to age classes based on specific criteria for each species. For nine of the 14 species of this dataset, the number of sampling years is over 30. This resulted in a total of 533 different records of count across age classes. By computing age-class ratios, these data can be used to measure long-term recruitment success at different ages of the tallied species. In particular, the temporal extent of these data allows comparison of patterns to other long-term processes, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Artiodáctilos , Perissodáctilos , Struthioniformes , Animais , Ecossistema , Tanzânia
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054248

RESUMO

Accurate diet formulations are required to fulfil the nutrient requirements of birds in order to achieve optimal production. Knowing how the skin, nodule and feather production characteristics vary with diets of different nutrient densities will help in least-cost modelling. Feather growth and nodule development are factors that were previously neglected in ostrich diet formulation, both of which are essential for the development of a predictive production model. In this trial, 120 birds were placed in 15 pens. Varying energy regimes (high, medium and low) and accompanying protein and amino acid profile levels (level 1-5) were assigned ad libitum to each pen. A randomly selected bird from each pen was slaughtered at 1, 35, 63, 103, 159, 168 and 244 days of age. During the slaughter, each bird was weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered and eviscerated. Feathers from four regions of the skin were plucked and weighed. The shaft diameter of the wing feathers was measured. The nodule size of the tanned skin was measured for each slaughter age. The data were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed against the total feather weight and the total featherless empty body protein weight to set up allometric growth equations. A prediction equation to determine nodule size of the live bird was proposed. Feed cost optimisation is paramount, and results from this study will aid in setting up least-cost optimisation (simulation) formulation models.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
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