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1.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054248

RESUMO

Accurate diet formulations are required to fulfil the nutrient requirements of birds in order to achieve optimal production. Knowing how the skin, nodule and feather production characteristics vary with diets of different nutrient densities will help in least-cost modelling. Feather growth and nodule development are factors that were previously neglected in ostrich diet formulation, both of which are essential for the development of a predictive production model. In this trial, 120 birds were placed in 15 pens. Varying energy regimes (high, medium and low) and accompanying protein and amino acid profile levels (level 1-5) were assigned ad libitum to each pen. A randomly selected bird from each pen was slaughtered at 1, 35, 63, 103, 159, 168 and 244 days of age. During the slaughter, each bird was weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered and eviscerated. Feathers from four regions of the skin were plucked and weighed. The shaft diameter of the wing feathers was measured. The nodule size of the tanned skin was measured for each slaughter age. The data were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed against the total feather weight and the total featherless empty body protein weight to set up allometric growth equations. A prediction equation to determine nodule size of the live bird was proposed. Feed cost optimisation is paramount, and results from this study will aid in setting up least-cost optimisation (simulation) formulation models.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116736

RESUMO

African ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the largest and fastest extent bipedal animal. The ostrich mainly relies on the 3rd toe to support the entire body under high-speed motion. The short and severe impact concentrated on the limited area would produce tremendous momentary internal stress and strain, which may contribute to the phalanges disloaction, soft tissue damage and the like. The vibration and excessive negative acceleration caused by the ground reaction force also affect the stability of the touching process. Therefore, ostrich toe pads are required to have excellent cushion characteristics. However, current studies often explains the cushion properties by analyzing the macro-microscopic structure of the pad organism, and there is a paucity of research on its biomechanical behaviour. Consequently, from the perspective of multi-layer structure and biomaterial assembly, this study aims to explain the biomechanical characteristics of the ostrich toe pads by FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. Based on results, we deem that the ostrich toe pad could absorb energy and reduce vibration effectively. Firstly, the multi-layer structure of the pads make the stress and strain decay from outside to inside. Secondly, the minimal response frequency of the pad is 164.22 Hz, making it effectively avoid resonance phenomenon. Finally, the composite material model has the best performance in decreasing the negative acceleration peak value, the impact force peak value and the maximal equivalent stress value at velocities of 0.669 m/s and 1.339 m/s. These results help to further understand the buffer mechanism of the ostrich toe pad, and also have important inter-species reference value for the pathogenesis of human foot soft tissue injury.


Assuntos
Camelus/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Camelus/metabolismo , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Vibração
3.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 193: 98-106, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653829

RESUMO

Successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. The objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (SP) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (August to September) for mineral profiling. The effect of collection day and male on sperm concentration, semen volume and seminal plasma volume, was explored as well as the relationships amongst these specific sperm traits and SP minerals. Variation amongst SP mineral concentrations, accounted for by the fixed effects of sperm concentration, semen volume, seminal plasma volume, collection day and male, ranged from 18% to 77%. Male had the largest effect on variation in SP minerals, namely: phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), barium (Ba), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Sperm concentration instigated fluctuations of P, magnesium (Mg), B, zinc (Zn), Fe, aluminium (Al), Se, manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb). Semen volume had an effect on Na, K, B, Pb and Ba while seminal plasma volume only influenced variation in Na. There were fluctuations among collection days of specific micro minerals, Ni and Mo, with initial Ni concentrations being relatively greater and Mo at lesser concentrations. Semen volume, seminal plasma volume and sperm concentration varied amongst males. Sperm concentrations during the initial collection days, 1 and 3, were less than that for days 7 to 28. Significant variation of SP minerals and sperm characteristics among ejaculates and males suggest an association of these specific elements with sperm function and are, therefore, considered to be of potential importance to success of assisted reproduction technology for the ostrich. The relationship amongst sperm concentration and collection day confirms the need to conduct an initial period of collection to stabilise a greater sperm concentration to optimise sperm numbers for artificial insemination purposes.


Assuntos
Minerais/análise , Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen/química , Recuperação Espermática , Struthioniformes , Animais , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Minerais/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Recuperação Espermática/veterinária , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
4.
Br Poult Sci ; 57(2): 193-200, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26963037

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the mineral and lipid profiles in ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers. The highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found in turkey livers, at 3751.50, 2153.05 and 363.98 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively, whereas ostrich livers were the richest in calcium (82.77 mg/kg FW). Ostrich liver was the richest source of iron, calcium, zinc and silicon, at 947.8, 82.77, 47.50, 36.69 mg/kg FW, respectively. Ostrich livers proved to be the richest source of long-chain fatty acids (5.18% C20:4n+6, 0.48% EPA and 1.08% DHA).


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fígado/química , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Perus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Humanos
5.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 45(6): 428-436, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497821

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) play a paramount role in the regulation of normal and pathologic angiogenesis in the ovary of mammals. Very little is known on the expression of these two growth factors in the avian ovary. The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the localization of VEGF and FGF-2 in the ovary of the ostrich using immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the vascularization of the rapidly growing huge ostrich oocyte. At the oocyte periphery, distinct VEGF-positive granules are visible. In our opinion, the expression of VEGF in the growing oocytes, which does not occur in mammals such as bovines, does not significantly contribute to angiogenesis in the theca interna and externa, where all the original and developing vessels are located, but may contribute to the mitoses and survival of granulosa cells during folliculogenesis. A different immunostaining can be demonstrated for FGF-2: from late pre-vitellogenic follicles, FGF-2 immunopositivity can be observed at the inner perivitelline layer area. In the stroma, the smooth muscle cells of small arteries and the endothelial cells of venules and veins are positively stained for FGF-2. Another interesting finding of this study is the occurrence of a significant number of VEGF- and FGF-2 positive heterophilic granulocytes within the ovarian stroma, which migrate from the periphery of the ovary towards the growing follicles. We assume that the growth factors of the heterophilic granulocytes contribute significantly to the angiogenesis seen in both theca layers.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/irrigação sanguínea , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Células Tecais/citologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123777

RESUMO

Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Paleógnatas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dieta , Dromaiidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Paleógnatas/classificação , Reiformes/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr ; 71(Pt 4): 809-18, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849392

RESUMO

Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals. One remarkable example is the formation of eggshells in birds. Struthiocalcins present in the ostrich (Struthio camellus) eggshell matrix act as biosensors of calcite growth during eggshell formation. Here, the crystal structure of struthiocalcin-1 (SCA-1) is reported in two different crystal forms. The structure is a compact single domain with an α/ß fold characteristic of the C-type lectin family. In contrast to the related avian ovocleidin OC17, the electrostatic potential on the molecular surface is dominated by an acidic patch. Scanning electron microscopy combined with Raman spectroscopy indicates that these intramineral proteins (SCA-1 and SCA-2) induce calcium carbonate precipitation, leading to the formation of a stable form of calcite in the mature eggshell. Finally, the implications of these two intramineral proteins SCA-1 and SCA-2 in the nucleation of calcite during the formation of eggshells in ratite birds are discussed.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo/química , Proteínas/química , Struthioniformes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
8.
Histol Histopathol ; 30(11): 1367-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25665795

RESUMO

Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ácidos Bóricos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ácidos Bóricos/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Líquidos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Struthioniformes/genética , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25446146

RESUMO

Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório , Metano/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
10.
Acta Histochem ; 117(1): 69-75, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528171

RESUMO

Cyclooxygenase is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins. In birds two isoforms are present: cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Despite evidence implicating that cyclooxygenases and PGs are critical factors in female reproduction in birds, little is known about COX expression in the avian ovary. In birds, cyclooxygenases have been studied in very few species only. In this study we report on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovary of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) using immunohistochemistry and non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Our results demonstrate that COX-1 is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of oocytes of previtellogenic follicles, whereas COX-2 shows the strongest immunostaining in the granulosa cells of previtellogenic follicles. The signals of both isoenzymes fade significantly with increasing diameter and finally nearly vanish in the vitellogenic follicles with a size >1.8 cm. This expression pattern in the ostrich (S. camelus) is, therefore, completely different from the localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the hen (Gallus gallus), a finding which also suggests different functions of the cyclooxygenases in the ostrich species. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization confirmed that COX-1 is synthesized in the ooplasm and COX-2 in the granulosa layers of early previtellogenic follicles. According to the results of this study it appears unlikely that COX-1 or COX-2 play a major role in ovulation and oviposition in the ostrich.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células da Granulosa/enzimologia , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Ovulação/fisiologia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(46): 11024-9, 2014 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363572

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3ω3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Boro/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Carne/análise , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo
12.
Br Poult Sci ; 55(5): 610-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25266635

RESUMO

The effects of different dietary energy concentrations on ostrich production variables were examined in two separate trials. The first trial tracked changes in production variables from the pre-starter phase through the starter phase and grower phase. The second trial was based on the finisher phase per se. In both trials, the influence of dietary energy on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and growth variables was investigated. Additionally, basic abattoir weights were recorded, and measurements of the feathers and skin were performed. In both trials, three diets with different concentrations of dietary energy were given during each phase where the low-, medium- and high-energy concentrations for each phase were as follows: 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 MJ ME/kg feed pre-starter; 12.5, 13.5 and 14.5 MJ ME/kg feed starter; 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 MJ ME/kg feed grower and 9.5, 10.5 and 11.5 MJ ME/kg feed finisher. Feed and water were available ad libitum in both trials. Overall, it was found that the best performance for growth, FCR, skin size and grade, live weight, carcass weight and thigh weight were obtained on the medium-energy diet during the pre-starter, starter and grower phases. During the finisher phase, improved growth rate and tanned skin size was found in birds given the diet with the highest energy concentration (11.5 MJ ME/kg feed). Carcass weight, growth rate and certain feather variables were also significantly influenced by gender.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Gene ; 552(1): 1-7, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25127671

RESUMO

Avian ß-defensins (AvBDs) are a family of small antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the innate immunity of birds. Herein, we report on two new ostrich AvBD genes, AvBD2 and AvBD7, which were isolated from the bone marrow of ostriches (Struthio camelus). The coding regions of ostrich AvBD2 and AvBD7 comprised 195 bp and 201bp, which encoded 64 and 66 amino acids, respectively. Homology analysis showed that ostrich AvBD2 had the highest similarity (up to 86%) with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) AvBD2, while ostrich AvBD7 shared the highest similarity (up to 81%) with chicken AvBD7. Analysis of the codon-usage bias showed that the two ostrich AvBDs had different codon-usage patterns from other AvBDs. The two synthetic AvBD peptides exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and these activities decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AvBD2 and AvBD7 were widely expressed at different levels in 17 different tissues. This is the first report of the nucleotide sequences of ostrich AvBDs. Further investigations of these two AvBDs may help us to gain new insights into the immune defense system of the ostrich and to make subsequent therapeutic use of ostrich defensins.


Assuntos
Struthioniformes/genética , Distribuição Tecidual/genética , beta-Defensinas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Códon/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
14.
Br Poult Sci ; 55(4): 518-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945235

RESUMO

1. The aim of this study was to assess regression equations able to predict the digestible energy (DE) and gross energy digestibility (GEd) of feed ingredients and diets for ostriches. 2. Results of chemical-nutritional characteristics from 17 ingredients (two varieties of maize, two barleys, oat, triticale, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, beet pulp, maize silage, alfalfa hay, 4 alfalfa meals and lupin) and 12 experimental diets were used in a stepwise procedure. 3. Acid detergent lignin (ADL) was the first independent variable included in the model to predict the DE of all the samples (R(2) = 0.65 and Residual Standard Deviation (RSD) 1.02). When the concentration of ash, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and crude fibre were included in the model, the R(2) value of the regression equation increased (from 0.65 to 0.85) and RSD decreased (from 1.02 to 0.48). 4. The ADL concentration was also the first independent variable chosen by the stepwise regression analysis for the estimation of GEd from chemical-nutritional characteristics of feeds, explaining 57% of the total GEd variation. The concentrations of crude protein and ADF included at the second and third steps in the model increased the R(2) (up to 0.70 and 0.73, respectively) and decreased the RSD values (from 0.29 to 0.21 and 0.20, respectively). When other variables as crude fibre, ash and gross energy were included in the model, the coefficient of determination and the RSD strongly improved (0.85 and 0.12, respectively).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Energia , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
15.
Acta Histochem ; 116(1): 191-6, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23915476

RESUMO

The thymus in addition to being a central lymphoid organ is also an endocrine organ which produces various neuropeptides that influence the function of this gland. Somatostatin is a neuropeptide that was isolated initially in the hypothalamus and which inhibits the release of growth hormone. The distribution of somatostatin-producing cells and the sequence of somatostatin have been determined in many species. In the present study, we investigated the expression of somatostatin in the thymus of the African ostrich and its sequence by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that somatostatin mRNA was expressed in the thymus and somatostatin immunoreative cells were distributed in both the cortical and medullary regions of the thymus. Results of cDNA cloning revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of African ostrich somatostatin were 348 bases and 116 amino acids in length and that it is highly conserved to that of other reported species. These findings indicated that the somatostatin expressed in the thymus of ostrich might play an important role in the function of the gland. In addition, this research has provided novel molecular data allowing further study of somatostatin in the ostrich.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Timo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Sequência Conservada , Expressão Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Somatostatina/genética
16.
Tissue Cell ; 45(6): 363-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23928218

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to clarify the distribution and relative frequencies of somatostatin (SST)-producing cells in the stomach and the small intestine of the ostrich by using immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that somatostatin-immunoreactive (SST-IR) cells were distributed in mucosal layers of the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. However, no immunoreactivity was observed in the gizzard. SST-IR cells were found at the lower part of glandular lobule in the proventriculus, which were oval and round generally. SST-IR cells were present in the mucous membrane of entire small intestine of the ostrich. SST-IR cells had round and spherical shapes (closed-type cells), or spindle and pyriform shapes (open-type cells) in the small intestine. SST-positive cells were localized preferentially in the proventriculus of the 60-day-old ostrich. These results indicated that SST might be involved in functional and developmental regulation of gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Intestino Delgado/citologia , Masculino , Estômago/citologia
17.
Br Poult Sci ; 54(3): 391-7, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23796120

RESUMO

1. The objective of the study was to evaluate the comparative pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in adult ostriches after single and multiple intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations. In addition, tissue tolerance was evaluated. 2. Enrofloxacin was well absorbed, but showed a short permanence after both administration routes. After multiple dose administrations the maximum and minimum peak plasma concentrations were very similar for both routes, obtaining a steady state phase from the second dose that extended until the last evaluated administration. 3. There was no significant accumulation after multiple IM or SC doses; however, there were differences in a fluctuation index after multiple intramuscular administrations that could be related to muscle damage. 4. The different microbiological efficacy indicators (PK/PD indices) obtained, the pharmacokinetic behaviour and CK serum concentrations suggest that subcutaneous enrofloxacin administration of 15 mg/kg every 12 h produce and maintain an efficient concentration of antibiotic that is a safer and more effective therapeutic option than intramuscular administration.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Enrofloxacina , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino
18.
Poult Sci ; 92(7): 1921-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23776281

RESUMO

A 1,000-fold difference has been reported in dioxin sensitivity between avian species. This difference is because the 2 amino acids in the type 1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR1), at positions 325 and 381, correspond to Leu324 and Ser380 in chickens. The chicken had been reported to be the only avian species to possess a sensitive form of AhR1. This is the first study to reveal that the ostrich (Struthio camelus), a nonchicken species, also has a pair of amino acids (Ile-325 and Ser-381) that show high ligand affinity. However, the alignment of the AhR1 cDNA sequence showed that the AhR sequence in the ostrich was different than that of other avian species even though the critical amino acids were observed at positions 325 and 381. Ostrich AhR1 was also evaluated in a heterologous expression study. Ostrich AhR1 showed very high transcriptional activity of the cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) gene in African Green Monkey Cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (COS-7) treated with Sudan III. In primary cultures of ostrich kidney cells, CYP1A5 expression was induced by Sudan III at a lower (or almost identical) concentration to that observed in the chicken. The present study revealed a new AhR ligand sensitive avian species (i.e., the ostrich).


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Luciferases/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Anim Sci J ; 84(4): 350-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23590510

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of five different transport periods on physiometabolic responses and gas exchange in ostriches. It included 138 ostriches that were assigned to five experimental groups. G1 included 78 birds that were set aside as a reference group (RG). Each one of the four remaining experimental groups included 20 ostriches, which were transported in the following manner: G1 on one occasion for a period of 1 h; G2 on one occasion for 2 h; and G3 on one occasion for 3 h; G4a was made up of the ostriches from G1 but they were shipped on a second occasion, for 2 h (making a total of 3 h); finally, G4b was that same group, but after a third transport period, on this occasion during 3 h (for a total of 6 h). Groups G2 and G3 presented the most marked blood alterations (P < 0.05), including an increase in pH, hypocapnia (27.8 ± 0.80 mmHg), hypernatremia (171.75 ± 1.84 mmol/L), hypocalcemia (0.95 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and hyperglycemia (224.05 ± 3.94 mg/dL). Also, group G3 presented the lowest hematocrit values (26.5 ± 0.47 HTC%). Therefore, transporting ostriches with no prior experience for 3 h caused the most pronounced physiometabolic changes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Transportes , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Gasometria , Eletrólitos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
20.
Toxicon ; 63: 7-18, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23159396

RESUMO

We describe the subcellular localization of horse F(ab')(2) and IgG, and ostrich IgY labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) administered IV to mice. We used wide field high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy deblurred by 3-dimensional blind deconvolution of kidney, liver, lungs and brain sections. Sections were obtained from mice sacrificed 15 min, 1 or 5 h after receiving FITC-immunoproteins, counter-stained with DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and Evans blue. FITC-IgG and its fractions are rapidly taken up and extravasated by vascular endothelium. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appear to be quickly secreted by glomeruli endothelium and to be reabsorbed along all nephron segments. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appeared 15 min after IV injection within bronchial, alveolar and bile duct epithelium. Hepatocytes were loaded with fluorescence after 15 min of administration. Fluorescence was absent from brain slices, except for the endothelium of some vessels in brain ventricles which appeared intensely fluorescent. Fluorescence appeared in intracellular vesicles which conferred the tissues a glowing foamy aspect for up to 5 h after inoculation. Arterial elastic layers were intensely green after horse FITC-Ig inoculation. Ostrich FITC-IgY behaved completely differently to horse Ig's; only 1 h after injection it was possible to observe small brightly green scarce vesicles in vascular endothelium of arteries, interstitial kidney capillaries between nephron tubules and were also scarce in glomeruli endothelium; FITC-IgY appeared only in hepatic sinusoids in the liver. No IgY was seen in bronchial and alveolar endothelium, in bile ducts or in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Cavalos/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Struthioniformes/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Cavalos/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Transporte Proteico , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Reiformes , Especificidade da Espécie , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
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