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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 183(1): 147-155, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801773

RESUMO

The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P < 0.05) daily weight gain and ATTD of phosphorous, zinc, and copper in 12-month-old ostriches. Furthermore, the feed conversion ratio was lower, and ATTD of magnesium was higher in the medium- and high-CTM groups than that in the control group (P < 0.05). At the end of the trial, ostriches receiving high-CTM treatment exhibited the lower (P < 0.05) serum triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and higher copper levels compared to those of the control treatment. Supplementation of higher amounts of CTM (medium and high CTM) also increased the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). No differences were detected for other blood parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, iron, magnesium, and glutathione peroxidase values. In conclusion, supplementation of CTM at the level of 1 g/bird/day to the drinking water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Struthioniformes , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210606

RESUMO

A simple and accurate ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the first time as a confirmatory method for the simultaneous determination of stilbenes - hexestrol and diethylstibestrol in serum. Extraction was based on a simple acid denaturation of protein followed by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert butyl ether. Extracts were directly injected into the UHPLC-MS/MS without further purification. Excellent recoveries in the range 82-99% and 91-128% were obtained for hexestrol and diethylstibestrol, respectively. Both within-day repeatability and between-day reproducibility were generally satisfactory with RSD <20%. The linearity of the internal standard based matrix-matched calibration curve measured as the coefficient of regression (r2) was generally >0.99 for both hexestrol and diethylstibestrol. Both matrix effect and uncertainties associated with sample preparation and instrumental analysis were significantly reduced with the use of a deuterated compound (hexestrol-d4) as internal standard. The LOD and LOQ were 0.09 and 0.08 ng/ml, and 0.28 and 0.25 ng/ml, respectively, for hexestrol and diethylstibestrol. The method was found to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of hexestrol and diethylstibestrol in serum.


Assuntos
Dietilestilbestrol/sangue , Hexestrol/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 281(1775): 20132741, 2014 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285202

RESUMO

The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 >> +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Ferro/química , Oxigênio/química , Animais , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Ferro/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Struthioniformes/sangue
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 22(3): 437-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24142180

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana) and ostriches (Struthio camelus) commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults) were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT) at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20) of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46) with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 for T. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Reiformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(3): 437-439, Jul-Sep/2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688710

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana) and ostriches (Struthio camelus) commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults) were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT) at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20) of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46) with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 for T. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.


Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a presença de anticorpos contra o Toxoplasma gondii em emas (Rhea americana) e avestruzes (Struthio camelus) criados comercialmente no Brasil. Amostras de sangue de 20 emas e 46 avestruzes (jovens e adultos) foram testadas sorologicamente pela técnica conhecida como teste de aglutinação modificada (MAT) em titulações iniciais de 1:16 para avestruzes e 1:25 para emas. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram encontrados em 50% (10/20) das emas com títulos variando de 1:25 a 1:6.400. A incidência de anticorpos contra T. gondii em avestruzes foi de 17,4% (8/46) com os títulos oscilando entre 1:16 e 1:256. Aves jovens foram aquelas que apresentaram títulos superiores a 1:200 para T. gondii. Portanto, emas e avestruzes podem ser parasitados por T. gondii, apresentando elevados níveis de anticorpos contra o parasita.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Reiformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Brasil
6.
Anim Sci J ; 84(4): 350-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23590510

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of five different transport periods on physiometabolic responses and gas exchange in ostriches. It included 138 ostriches that were assigned to five experimental groups. G1 included 78 birds that were set aside as a reference group (RG). Each one of the four remaining experimental groups included 20 ostriches, which were transported in the following manner: G1 on one occasion for a period of 1 h; G2 on one occasion for 2 h; and G3 on one occasion for 3 h; G4a was made up of the ostriches from G1 but they were shipped on a second occasion, for 2 h (making a total of 3 h); finally, G4b was that same group, but after a third transport period, on this occasion during 3 h (for a total of 6 h). Groups G2 and G3 presented the most marked blood alterations (P < 0.05), including an increase in pH, hypocapnia (27.8 ± 0.80 mmHg), hypernatremia (171.75 ± 1.84 mmol/L), hypocalcemia (0.95 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and hyperglycemia (224.05 ± 3.94 mg/dL). Also, group G3 presented the lowest hematocrit values (26.5 ± 0.47 HTC%). Therefore, transporting ostriches with no prior experience for 3 h caused the most pronounced physiometabolic changes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Transportes , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Gasometria , Eletrólitos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
7.
J Avian Med Surg ; 25(2): 97-101, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21877446

RESUMO

Because of the size, speed, and powerful kicking ability of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus), chemical immobilization and general anesthesia are commonly used in these animals to provide veterinary care. To determine the serum biochemical values in ostriches anesthetized with xylazine and ketamine and isoflurane, 7 healthy adult ostriches (weighing 100 to 130 kg) were fasted for 12 hours. Each bird received an intramuscular injection of xylazine (4 mg/kg), followed 20 minutes later by an intravenous injection of ketamine (8 mg/kg), and were then intubated and maintained under anesthesia with isoflurane gas. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bird immediately before, and 20 minutes after, administration of xylazine; 10 and 20 minutes after the administration of ketamine; 10, 30, and 50 minutes after the delivery of isoflurane; and 20 and 50 minutes after discontinuing isoflurane. Concentrations of potassium and glucose increased significantly after the administration of ketamine, and that increase was maintained until the end of the study period. During recovery, levels of creatinine and amylase increased significantly. We conclude that administration of xylazine and ketamine and isoflurane anesthesia may affect the concentration of some serum biochemical values. These results should be taken into account when blood samples are evaluated in chemically immobilized or anesthetized ostriches.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Struthioniformes/sangue , Xilazina/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Struthioniformes/fisiologia
8.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 39(1): 99-104, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19793228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Romanowsky stains are used routinely by veterinary clinical pathology laboratories for cytologic and blood film evaluations. Automated stainers are available for both aqueous and methanolic Romanowsky stains. Mast cell granules and canine distemper virus inclusions are known to stain differently by these 2 methods, but we have noticed differences in the staining characteristics of other granulated cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate and document the variable appearance of basophils and large granular lymphocytes in blood films stained using aqueous and methanolic Romanowsky methods. METHODS: Cytologic preparations from 1 canine mast cell tumor and blood films from 8 dogs, 1 cat, 1 rabbit, and 1 ostrich were stained using an automated aqueous stain (Aerospray 7120, with and without a predip fixative) and an automated methanolic stain (Hematek). Staining quality and intensity of the cytoplasmic granules in mast cells, basophils, and large granular lymphocytes was evaluated subjectively. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic granules of mast cells, basophils, and large granular lymphocytes stained poorly or not at all with the automated aqueous stain but stained prominently and were readily identified with the automated methanolic stain. Use of the predip fixative with the Aerospray method improved the visibility of basophil granules but not mast cell granules, and had a variable affect on the visibility of granules in large granular lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Clinical pathologists should be aware of the staining methodology used on the slides they evaluate to avoid incorrect interpretation of granulated cell populations.


Assuntos
Gatos/sangue , Cães/sangue , Coelhos/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Automação , Mastócitos/citologia , Mastocitoma , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária
9.
Poult Sci ; 88(11): 2298-306, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19834079

RESUMO

In the last decade ostrich farms spread throughout the world as an alternative source of investment. Although previous studies have reported hematology and biochemical values for ostriches from several regions of the world, little information is available regarding leukocyte morphology. This study reports the morphology and ultrastructure of ostrich leukocytes and hematology and biochemical values from birds raised in Brazil. Heterophils presented a lobulated nucleus, and fusiform, and acidophilic and peroxidase-negative granules. Ultrastructurally, 2 kinds of cytoplasmic granules were observed: one was large and fusiform and the other smaller with heterogeneous morphology and electrondensity; granules were peroxidase-negative. Eosinophils had a kidney-shaped eccentrically placed nucleus that was rarely lobulated and eosinophilic, round, and peroxidase-positive granules. At the ultrastructure level, 2 main kinds of granules with the same size and form but different electron density were seen; granules were peroxidase-positive. Lymphocytes and thrombocytes had the same characteristics of other avian species; monocytes presented morphological heterogeneity. Hematological and serum biochemical profiles had no sex influence and were established for ostriches raised in southeastern Brazil. These parameters will help the diagnosis of specific ostrich pathologies and serve as basic knowledge for studies in immunology and comparative avian pathology.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 87(1): 26-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19181354

RESUMO

The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (P<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (P<0.05) sex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Eletrólitos/sangue , Caracteres Sexuais , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 41(6): 845-9, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19011988

RESUMO

The effects of various types of anticoagulants on plasma biochemistry were studied in man and various animals, but limited information is existing for ostrich plasma biochemistry. Ten clinically healthy ostrich were blood sampled in different tubes containing each anticoagulant and plain tube for harvesting plasma and serum. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were measured. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid, total protein, and calcium were significantly lower in citrated plasma than that of serum. For dilution corrected citrated plasma significant differences were only seen for the concentration of uric acid. Most parameters did not show any differences, but significant increase were seen for glucose, total protein, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations when heparin was used as an anticoagulant.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Plasma/química , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Plasma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
N Z Vet J ; 56(5): 222-6, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18836502

RESUMO

AIM: To generate clinical biochemical data to aid diagnosis of suboptimal performance in ostriches farmed under pastoral systems in New Zealand. METHODS: Blood and liver samples were sought from three categories of bird, viz 3-12-week-old chicks, 7-12-month-old growers, and from breeding hens, managed under pastoral conditions on farms in several locations in New Zealand. Concentrations of the minerals Ca, PO4, Mg, Na, K, Cu and Zn, activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and concentrations of total protein (TP) and uric acid and vitamin E in plasma and Se in whole blood were determined from four flocks of chicks, two flocks of growing and one flock of breeding birds. Concentrations of Cu, Fe and vitamin B12 were determined from liver samples from chicks and growing birds. Bodyweight was recorded at the times of blood-sampling, where this was feasible. RESULTS: It proved impossible to obtain blood samples by venepuncture of the radial vein from chicks <3 months of age. Plasma concentrations of minerals, with the exception of K, which were higher, were within the normal range observed in the literature for ratite species. Activities in plasma of AST and CK were almost double, and those of LDH similar, to those in the literature for ostriches. There was considerable variation in activities of the enzymes between farms, but no association with growth performance. Concentrations of Cu in plasma were lower and in liver were higher than would be expected in farmed ruminants. Though hindgut fermenters, the birds maintained concentrations of vitamin B12 in plasma and liver at least comparable to those observed in ruminants. CONCLUSIONS: Collection of blood samples by venepuncture via the wing in ostrich chicks younger than 3 months of age is difficult and unlikely to prove viable for routine diagnostic purposes. Clinical biochemistry data on mineral nutrients in ostriches farmed in New Zealand are similar to those in the literature from South Africa , but AST and CK are higher, and may be normal and a reflection of the high growth rates of the musculoskeletal system.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Struthioniformes , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Fígado/química , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/metabolismo , Nova Zelândia , Valores de Referência , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 39(4): 265-70, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17847821

RESUMO

In order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group A) or alfalfa hay (group B). In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. The following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (Ektachem 250 analyser, Kodak): glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC), total protein (TP), uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil), creatinine (CREA), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl-), iron (Fe), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), alpha-amylase (Amyl), lipase (LIP) and gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT). Diet significantly affected some parameters of the metabolic profile. Indeed, owing to the presence of alfalfa hay in the diet, group B showed, in comparison to group A, significantly higher values of uric acid (222.5 vs 387.5 mmol/L, p < 0.01), GGT (8.50 vs 11.3 U/L, p < 0.05), Tbil (8.50 vs 10.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05), Ca (2.41 vs 2.83 micromol/L, p < 0.01), Mg (1.01 vs 1.18 micromol/L, p < 0.05) and K (2.71 vs 3.16 micromol/L, p < 0.01). The levels of creatinine (27.3 vs 32.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and AST (344.9 vs 461.4 U/l, p < 0.01) were also higher for group B.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Medicago sativa , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Silagem , Struthioniformes/sangue , Zea mays
14.
J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med ; 54(1): 48-50, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17359455

RESUMO

Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic for chemical restraint and surgical anaesthesia in domestic and non-domestic animals. The present study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) after intramuscular (i.m.) administration to young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Ketamine was rapidly absorbed after i.m. administration. Maximal ketamine concentration (C(max)) of 2.93 +/- 0.61 microg/ml was reached at 12.5 +/- 2.50 min and thereafter ketamine concentrations decreased rapidly. The elimination half-life (t(1/2 z)) obtained was 62.37 +/- 17.37 min and mean residence time (MRT) was 77.33 +/- 19.12 min. The area under the curve (AUC) was 114.19 +/- 15.76 microg x min/ml.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacocinética , Ketamina/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Anestesia/métodos , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Struthioniformes/sangue , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
15.
Vet J ; 170(3): 364-8, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16266851

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Struthioniformes/sangue
16.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 71(1): 77-9, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15185578

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, alpha 1-globulin, alpha 2-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and alpha-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein), pre-beta-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein) and beta-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein) fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14% crude protein and 2,950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96% albumin, 0.24% alpha 1-globulin, 15.91% alpha 2-globulin, 13.34% beta-globulin, 9.55% gamma-globulin, 53.77% HDL, 0.60% VLDL and 48.09% LDL.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/veterinária , Feminino , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Turquia
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 14(5): 363-70, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12296386

RESUMO

In the fall of 1995, a 20-day-old female ostrich chick, 1 of a group of 20, was presented live with clinical signs of 2 days duration characterized by unsteady gait, circling to the left, and walking backward. Another bird with similar clinical signs had died and another had recovered. The bird was euthanized and examined at necropsy. Twenty-five milliliters of serous fluid was in the abdominal cavity and there was increased pericardial fluid. Histopathology of the brain revealed mild to moderate nonsuppurative encephalitis characterized by mild multifocal malacia, perivascular cuffing by lymphocytes, and gliosis. The heart had multifocal infiltrations of lymphocytes mixed with macrophages and a few plasma cells throughout the myocardium. Cytopathic effects were observed in primary chicken embryo liver cells following inoculation with a tissue homogenate prepared from the brain of the affected ostrich. Virus particles the size and morphology of the family Bunyaviridae were observed in cell culture lysate by negative-stain electron microscopy. Viral characterization demonstrated that the virus isolate is a previously unknown serotypic variant (subtype) of Turlock virus. Twelve of 65 sera collected over a 3-year period from ostriches aged from 1 month to 4 years were positive for neutralizing antibody to both the Turlock prototype strain and the new subtype of Turlock virus described in this report.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Encefalomielite/virologia , Miocardite/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Struthioniformes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Chlorocebus aethiops , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Encefalomielite/complicações , Encefalomielite/patologia , Feminino , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Orthobunyavirus/fisiologia , Orthobunyavirus/ultraestrutura , Prevalência , Struthioniformes/sangue , Células Vero
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 34(3): 249-56, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12094680

RESUMO

The possibility was investigated that translocation of juvenile ostriches from concrete-paved to sandfloored pens and mixing of batches of ostriches after such translocation constitute a stress strong enough to evoke changes in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes. Blood smears were obtained from 15 ostriches out of a group of 25 birds 4 and 2 days before and then 2 and 4 days after translocation. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio changed from 0.27 and 0.37 on days 4 and 2, respectively, before mixing and translocation to 0.53 and 0.84 on days 2 and 4, respectively, after translocation. Mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches appears to constitute stress. This information is important for the onfarm management of juvenile ostriches to enhance their welfare and productivity.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Granulócitos/citologia , Abrigo para Animais , Linfócitos/citologia , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Animais , Botsuana , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/sangue , Struthioniformes/sangue
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 38(1): 154-9, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11838206

RESUMO

Reference values for 18 plasma chemical variables in blue neck ostriches (Struthio camelus australis, n = 60, age 24-36 mo) were established for use in veterinary clinical practice using nonparametric statistics. The following values were established for the percentiles P2.5 and P97.5: sodium 147-157 mmol/L, calcium 2.4-4.8 mmol/L, inorganic phosphate 1.3-2.3 mmol/L, chloride 94-105 mmol/L, glucose 10.3-13.7 mmol/L, urea 0.5-0.8 mmol/L, uric acid 351-649 mumol/L, bile acids 8-33 mumol/L, total protein 39-56 g/L, albumin-globulin ratio 0.45-0.59, osmolality 304-330 mOsm/kg, alkaline phosphate 69-217 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 243-418 IU/L, gamma-glutamyltransferase 0-1 IU/L, creatine kinase 1648-4894 IU/L, glutamate dehydrogenase 8-17 IU/L, and lactate dehydrogenase 860-2236 IU/L. The plasma calcium concentration was significantly (P < 0.001; r = 0.74) related to the total protein concentration and an adjustment-formula for calcium was derived: adjusted Ca (mmol/L) = Ca (mmol/L)--0.09 TP (g/L) + 4.4. The influence of blood sample treatment on the plasma potassium concentration as seen in other avian species was demonstrated in a separate experiment, emphasizing the need to separate plasma and cells immediately after collection in avian blood samples.


Assuntos
Struthioniformes/sangue , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Cálcio/sangue , Enzimas/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Potássio/sangue , Proteínas/análise , Valores de Referência
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