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1.
Toxicon ; 200: 1-2, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The St. Ignatius bean of the Strychnos ignatii tree and Nux Vomica homeopathic products presumably could contain the toxic alkaloids strychnine and brucine. This study aimed to determine the amount of these toxic alkaloids in some commercially available Nux Vomica products and the St. Ignatius bean and to determine if overdose of these products could result in clinically significant toxicity. METHODS: Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, various formulations of Nux Vomica products and St. Ignatius beans were analyzed for strychnine, and brucine with detection limits set at 0.1 ng/g. RESULTS: None of the analyzed Nux Vomica products contained any detectable strychnine or brucine, while the expected strychnine dose from a St. Ignatius bean would be < 0.001 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study reveals that the amount of strychnine in homeopathic Nux Vomica products or St. Ignatius beans are not likely to result in clinically significant strychnine toxicity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Materia Medica , Strychnos nux-vomica , Sementes , Estricnina
2.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 398-409, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the circadian responses of mice to Semen Strychni and to investigate the role of pharmacokinetics in generating chronotoxicity. METHODS: Total extract of Semen Strychni was administered by oral gavage to wild-type (WT) and Bmal1-/- (a circadian clock-deficient model) mice at different circadian time points for toxicity (including survival) and pharmacokinetic characterization. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were evaluated by measuring plasma creatinine and creatine kinase BB (CK-BB), respectively. Drug metabolism and transport assays were performed using liver/intestine microsomes and everted gut sacs, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Semen Strychni nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity as well as animal survival displayed significant circadian rhythms (the highest level of toxicity was observed at ZT18 and the lowest level at ZT2 to ZT6). According to pharmacokinetic experiments, herb dosing at ZT18 generated higher plasma concentrations (and systemic exposure) of strychnine and brucine (two toxic constituents) compared with ZT6 dosing. This was accompanied by reduced formation of both dihydroxystrychnine and strychnine glucuronide (two strychnine metabolites) at ZT18. Bmal1 ablation sensitized mice to Semen Strychni-induced toxicity (with increased levels of plasma creatinine and CK-BB) and abolished the time dependency of toxicity. Metabolism of Semen Strychni (strychnine and brucine) in the liver and intestine microsomes of WT mice was more extensive at ZT6 than at ZT18. These time differences in hepatic and intestinal metabolism were lost in Bmal1-/- mice. Additionally, the intestinal efflux transport of Semen Strychni (strychnine and brucine) was more extensive at ZT6 than ZT18 in WT mice. However, the time-varying transport difference was abolished in Bmal1-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Circadian responses of mice to Semen Strychni are associated with time-varying efflux transport and metabolism regulated by the circadian clock (Bmal1). Our findings may have implications for optimizing phytotherapy with Semen Strychni via timed delivery.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microssomos/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/farmacocinética , Estricnina/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 86-93, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify indicated homeopathic remedies based on the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in India. METHODS: In this retrospective, cohort study, confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at a COVID Health Centre in New Delhi between April 29 and June 17, 2020 were given conventional and homeopathic treatment. Patients were grouped into mild, moderate or severe categories of disease. Their symptomatologic profiles were analyzed to identify indicated homeopathic medicines. RESULTS: A total of 196 COVID-19 patients were admitted. One hundred and seventy-eight patients had mild symptoms; eighteen patients had moderate symptoms; no patients with severe symptoms were included as they were referred to tertiary care centers with ventilatory support. The mean age of patients with mild symptoms was significantly lower (38.6 years; standard deviation or SD ± 15.8) compared with patients in the moderate category (66.0 years; SD ± 9.09). The most important symptoms identified were fever (43.4%), cough (47.4%), sore throat (29.6%), headache (18.4%), myalgia (17.9%), fatigue (16.8%), chest discomfort (13.8%), chills (12.6%), shortness of breath (11.2%) and loss of taste (10.2%). Twenty-eight homeopathic medicines were prescribed, the most frequently indicated being Bryonia alba (33.3%), Arsenicum album (18.1%), Pulsatilla nigricans (13.8%), Nux vomica (8%), Rhus toxicodendron (7.2%) and Gelsemium sempervirens (5.8%), in 30C potency. CONCLUSION: Data from the current study reveal that Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Pulsatilla nigricans, Nux vomica, Rhus toxicodendron and Gelsemium sempervirens are the most frequently indicated homeopathic medicines. A randomized controlled clinical trial based on this finding is the next step.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Bryonia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gelsemium , Homeopatia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pulsatilla , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Strychnos nux-vomica , Toxicodendron
4.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(2): 131-136, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effect and adverse reactions of Strychnos nux-vomica in bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: A total of 19 MM patients with BIPN were enrolled and Nux Vomica Capsule (NVC, 0.4 g, thrice daily) were orally administrated for 30 days. Comparative analysis on parameters between pre- and post-therapy, including peripheral neuropathy (PN) grade, neurotoxicity score, Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome score, total neuropathy score (TNS), coagulation function, and serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were conducted. The adverse events were monitored. RESULTS: In BIPN of MM patients who received NVC, PN grade was lowered, neurotoxicity score was obviously decreased (P⩽0.01), and both CM syndrome score and TNS were remarkably decreased (P<0.01). After the therapy, activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged (P<0.01) and fibrinogen was declined (P<0.05), showing improvement in the hypercoagulable state of patients. No significant difference of NGF recovery degrees was detected between pre- and post-therapy (P>0.05). No evident adverse reactions were observed during the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: Strychnos nux-vomica L. has significantly effect with a good safety in treatment of BIPN in MM patients.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Strychnos nux-vomica , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Sementes
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113509, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141053

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacological relevance Processed Nux vomica seed extracts and homeopathic medicinal preparations (HMPs) are widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for respiratory, digestive, neurological and behavioral disorders. Antioxidant property of Nux vomica is well known and recent investigation has highlighted the anticonvulsant potential of its homeopathic formulation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic potential of Nux vomica HMPs (6CH, 12CH and 30CH potency) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced acute and chronic experimental seizure models in mice and investigate their effects on cognition, memory, motor activity and oxidative stress markers in kindled animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute seizures were induced in the animals through 70 mg/kg (i.p.) administration of PTZ followed by the evaluation of latency and duration of Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). Subconvulsive PTZ doses (35 mg/kg, i.p.) induced kindling in 29 days, which was followed by assessment of cognition, memory and motor impairment through validated behavioral techniques. The status of oxidative stress was estimated through measurement of MDA, GSH and SOD. RESULTS: HMPs delayed the latency and reduced the duration of GTCS in acute model signifying possible regulation of GABAergic neurotransmission. Kindling was significantly hindered by the HMPs that justified the ameliorated cognition, memory and motor activity impairment. The HMPs attenuated lipid peroxidation by reducing MDA level and strengthened the antioxidant mechanism by enhancing the GSH and SOD levels in the kindled animals. CONCLUSIONS: Nux vomica HMPs showed anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic potency in acute and chronic models of epilepsy. The test drugs attenuated behavioral impairment and reduced the oxidative stress against PTZ induced kindling owing to which they can be further explored for their cellular and molecular mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Epilepsia/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Strychnos nux-vomica , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Excitação Neurológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Nootrópicos/isolamento & purificação , Pentilenotetrazol , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Strychnos nux-vomica/química
6.
Bogotá; s.n; 2021. 1-48 p.
Tese em Espanhol | MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1344455

RESUMO

La cefalea tensional constituye una patología de gran prevalencia, que tiene impactos no solo a nivel de la salud física de las personas sino también a nivel laboral y social. Considerando lo anterior, desde Medicinas complementarias existan diferentes herramientas terapéuticas, entre ellas la Homeopatía. El presente trabajo describe el reporte de un caso exitoso de un cuadro de cefalea tensional manejado homeopáticamente con el medicamento Nux vómica en el Centro de Atención de Salud a Estudiantes (CASE), dentro de la consulta de Medicina Alternativa de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia- Sede Bogotá, durante los años 2018-2019. (Texto tomado de la fuente).


Assuntos
Strychnos nux-vomica , Cefaleia/terapia , Terapias Complementares , Saúde do Estudante , Colômbia , Atenção à Saúde , Homeopatia
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 35 p.
Tese em Português | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1281880

RESUMO

Este trabalho foi realizado a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a Rinossinusite Aguda e o uso da Homeopatia. Foi estudado a epidemiologia e os custos diretos e indiretos da Rinossinusite. Realizado a definição clínica a partir dos sintomas clínicos da Rinossinusite. Com esses sintomas, realizamos uma repertorização dos sintomas e estudamos os medicamentos encontrados: Nux vômica e Kali Bichromicum. A partir desses resultados, ampliamos nossa revisão em que encontramos estudos relacionando a melhora dos sintomas sinusais com o uso do Kali bichromicum. Revisamos também os estudos que utilizam a homeopatia no tratamento da Rinossinusite. Concluimos que a utilização da homeopatia no tratamento da Rinossinusite Aguda é um tratamento eficaz que encurta a duração do curso da doença e melhora o bem-estar geral dos pacientes. Devemos, entretanto, individualizar e modalizar os sintomas específicos de cada paciente.(AU)


This work was carried out from a literature review on Acute Rhinosinusitis and the use of Homeopathy. The epidemiology and direct and indirect costs of rhinosinusitis were studied. Clinical definition based on the clinical symptoms of Rhinosinusitis. With these symptoms, we performed a repertorization of symptoms and studied the drugs found: Nux vômica and Kali Bichromicum. Based on these results, we expanded our review in which we found studies relating the improvement of sinus symptoms with the use of Kali bichromicum. We also review studies that use homeopathy in the treatment of Rhinosinusitis. We conclude that the use of homeopathy in the treatment of Acute Rhinosinusitis is an effective treatment that shortens the duration of the disease course and improves the patients' general well-being. We must, however, individualize and modalize the specific symptoms of each patient.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sinusite , Kali Bichromicum/farmacologia , Strychnos nux-vomica , Homeopatia
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 48 p.
Tese em Português | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1281872

RESUMO

Relato de caso de paciente gênero feminino, gestante, com idade de 29 anos, atendida em clinica homeopática na cidade de Amparo ­ SP. Previamente diagnosticada com Dermatite Atópica, desde infância, com agravamento de lesões na pele periodicamente. Relato de agravação no período de agosto de 2019 onde realizou acompanhamento prévio com especialista dermatologista em tratamento com corticoides tópicos de baixa potencia e medicamentos antialérgicos por via oral, sem resultado satisfatório. No período foram instituídas medicações homeopáticas onde se obteve resultado satisfatório ao uso de Nux Vomica após processo de repertorização. Observou-se processo de cura após agravação, sem retorno dos sintomas em todo período de acompanhamento.(AU)


Case report of a female patient, pregnant, aged 29 years, attended at a homeopathic clinic in the city of Amparo - SP. Previously diagnosed with Atopic Dermatitis, since childhood, with periodic worsening of skin lesions. Report of aggravation in the period of August 2019 where she was followed up with a dermatologist specialist in treatment with low-power topical corticosteroids and oral anti-allergic drugs, without satisfactory results. During the period, homeopathic medications were instituted, where a satisfactory result was obtained with the use of Nux Vomica after the repertorization process. A healing process was observed after worsening, with no symptoms returning during the entire follow-up period.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Strychnos nux-vomica , Dermatite Atópica , Homeopatia
9.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(4): 562-570, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antagonistic effect of the extract of Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) (RAM) on the intestinal absorption of brucine and strychnine in Strychnos nux-vomica (NUX) and propose the mechanism of these effects. METHODS: The apparent permeability value (Papp) and absorption rate constant (Ka) were chosen as indices. The everted intestinal sac model and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model were used to study the effects of the RAM extract on the absorption of brucine and strychnine. To confirm the results, the brucine and strychnine concentrations in hepatic portal venous blood were determined. Western blotting was used to study P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the Caco-2 cell line. RESULTS: Papp and Ka of brucine and strychnine were significantly increased in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor, but no significant increase was noted in the presence of a tight junction regulator. The RAM extract inhibited the absorption of brucine and strychnine and enhanced P-gp expression. CONCLUSION: The primary absorption mechanism for brucine and strychnine is passive transport, which is affected by P-gp.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/farmacocinética , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Estricnina/administração & dosagem
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 181, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition that may lead to partial or complete motor, sensory and autonomic function loss and lacks effective therapy until date. Therefore, it is quite imperative to explore impending remedies for rapid and accurate functional retrieval following such conditions. Natural product-based intervention can prove effective to facilitate the process of functions regain. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effect of processed Strychnos nux-vomica seeds at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight in a mouse model of induced Sciatic nerve lesion in promoting the recovery of the functions. A compression injury was induced in the Sciatic nerve of the right leg in the mice. Sensory function recovery was evaluated by hot-plate and formalin tests, whereas the motor function retrieval was assessed by measuring muscle grip strength, sciatic functional index, and muscle mass restoration. Oxidative stress and blood cell count were measured by biochemistry and haematological analyses. RESULTS: This study indicates that Strychnos nux-vomica seeds enhance the rate of recovery of both sensory and motor functions. It helps restore the muscle mass, attenuates total oxidant status and enhances the total anti-oxidant capacity of the biological system. Moreover, the treated animals manifested an enhanced glucose tolerance aptitude and augmented granulocyte and platelet counts. Improved oxidant control, enhanced glucose sensitivity and amended granulocyte and platelet counts are likely to contribute to the advantageous effects of Strychnos nux-vomica, and warrant further in-depth studies for deciphering possible mechanisms and identification of active constituent(s) responsible for these effects. CONCLUSION: Strychnos nux-vomica seed offers functional recovery promoting effects following a mechanical injury to the Sciatic nerve and the possible reasons behind this effect can be reduced oxidative stress and improved glycaemic control. Further and detailed investigations can unravel this mystery.


Assuntos
Lesões por Esmagamento/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Neuropatia Ciática/tratamento farmacológico , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sementes/química
11.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 58(5): 477-484, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100010

RESUMO

A simple, rapid, cost-effective and green analytical method is developed based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) coupled to thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-image analysis for the simultaneous determination of two major alkaloids of Strychnos nux-vomica L i.e., strychnine and brucine. The method is composed of three steps, namely (i) US-DLLME by injecting a mixture of 100-µL chloroform (extraction solvent) and 1-mL methanol (disperser solvent) in 5 mL of aqueous sample, followed by ultrasonication and centrifugation, (ii) TLC of 20 µL of sedimented phase with methanol: ammonia (100:1.5, v/v) as the mobile phase and visualization under ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) and (iii) photography of TLC plate and quantification of spots by image analysis using freely available imageJ software (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). The limit of detection and limit of quantification for both alkaloids were found to be in the range of 0.12-0.15 and 0.36-0.48 µg/spot, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 0.5-5 µg/spot with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.995 and 0.997 for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of strychnine and brucine in Ayurvedic formulations and blood samples. The method does not require any sophisticated instrument and handling skills and can be adopted for rapid analysis of strychnine and brucine in forensic toxicological laboratories.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/análise , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/economia , Ayurveda , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estricnina/sangue , Comprimidos/análise , Ultrassom , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919150, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a progressive autoimmune disorder caused by the production of antibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. This study aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of grilled nux vomica (GNV) in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rat 97-116 peptides were used to mediate disease in the EAMG model in SPF female Lewis rats. The treatment groups received grilled nux vomica (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 225 mg/kg). The autoantibody and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA profiling was performed on high-dose and model group rats. Profiling results and TLR-4/NF-kappaB signaling were validated by q-PCR and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results showed that GNV could attenuate the symptoms of EAMG rats. There was a decreased level of AChR-ab, IFN-γ, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17 levels, and an increased level of TGF-ß1. In total, 235 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), consisting of 175 upregulated DEGs and 60 downregulated DEGs, were identified. Functional annotation demonstrated that DEGs were largely associated with leukocyte cell-cell adhesion, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, muscle contraction, and cardiac muscle contraction pathway. Rac2, Itgb2, Lcp2, Myl3, and Tnni1 were considered as hub genes with a higher degree value in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The q-PCR and Western blot results of hub genes were consistent with RNA profiles. GNV treatment also significantly reduced the TLR-4 and NF-kappaB p65 protein expression in EAMG rats. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that grilled nux vomica ameliorates EAMG by depressing the TLR-4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and hub genes may serve as potential targets for MG treatment.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Miastenia Gravis Autoimune Experimental/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
13.
J Sep Sci ; 42(22): 3395-3402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508887

RESUMO

The ripened seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. have been extensively used as herbal medicines in Asian countries. Dihydroindole-type alkaloids are not only the active constituents but also the toxicants in Strychnos. However, the simultaneous determination of these alkaloids in both crude and processed Semen Strychni is still lacking. The present study represents the first quantitation and relative quantitation assay of 12 dihydroindole-type alkaloids in Strychnos nux-vomica unprocessed and sand-processed seeds using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of ten alkaloids was calculated by semi-quantification using the internal standard and their amounts in unprocessed and detoxified Semen Strychni were compared. We report here for the first time the significant increase of the two alkaloids, 19-N-methyl-strychnine, and 2,3-dimethoxy-19-N-methyl-strychnine, during the processing of Semen Strychni. Our study provides new insight into the true complexity of seed processing procedure and valuable information for assessing the efficacy and safety for clinical applications of Semen Strychni-containing drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Sementes/química , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Phytother Res ; 33(5): 1570-1578, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907037

RESUMO

Brucine and Strychnine are alkaloids isolated from the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica L., which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of tumor. However, the effect of Brucine and Strychnine on colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, Brucine and Strychnine displayed profound inhibitory effects on the growth of human colon cancer cells. The results of flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the two alkaloids induced cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the growth of DLD1 xenografted tumors in nude mice was significantly suppressed in the Brucine or Strychnine treated group. Mechanistically, the Wnt/ß-catenin is involved in this phenomenon, which is characterized by significantly increased expression of DKK1 and APC, whereas decreased expression of ß-catenin, c-Myc, and p-LRP6 in CRC cells as well as tumor tissues. Collectively, Brucine and Strychnine have targeted inhibition for colon cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and it is valuable for future exploitation and utilization as an antitumor agent of CRC.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/química , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6543230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723742

RESUMO

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) with the pattern of endothelial independent tubular structure formation lined by aggressive tumor cells mimics regular tumor blood vessels to ensure robust blood supply and correlates with the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis of malignant tumors, which was demonstrated to be a major obstacle for resistance to antiangiogenesis therapy. Therefore, it is urgent to discover methods to abrogate the VM formation of tumors, which possesses important practical significance for improving tumor therapy. Brucine is a traditional medicinal herb extracted from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae) exhibiting antitumor activity in a variety of cancer models. In the present study, the effect of brucine on vasculogenic mimicry and the related mechanism are to be investigated. We demonstrated that, in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, brucine induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation along with apoptosis induction at higher concentrations. The further study showed that brucine inhibited cell migration and invasion with a dose-dependent manner. Our results for the first time indicated that brucine could disrupt F-actin cytoskeleton and microtubule structure, thereby impairing hallmarks of aggressive tumors, like migration, invasion, and holding a possibility of suppressing vasculogenic mimicry. Hence, the inhibitory effect of brucine on vasculogenic mimicry was further verified. The results illustrated that brucine significantly suppressed vasculogenic mimicry tube formation with a dose-dependent effect indicated by the change of the number of tubules, intersections, and mean length of tubules. The in-depth molecular mechanism of vasculogenic mimicry suppression induced by brucine was finally suggested. It was demonstrated that brucine inhibited vasculogenic mimicry which might be through the downregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9.


Assuntos
Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Estricnina/química , Estricnina/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 30 p.
Tese em Português | BBO - Odontologia, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-996572

RESUMO

Introdução: O Bruxismo é uma parafunção relacionada à distribuição desarmônica de forças, levando ao atrito de contato das superfícies oclusais dos dentes, podendo ocorrer o ranger ou o apertamento dos dentes, em vigília ou durante o sono. Objetivo: O trabalho em questão tem como objetivo analisar a contribuição da Homeopatia na etiologia e no tratamento do Bruxismo. Métodos: criou-se uma repertorização fictícia tomando-se por base como sintoma diretor a somatória das rubricas "ranger dos dentes ", "ranger os dentes durante a noite" e "inclinação constante a apertar os dentes" e como sintomas repertoriais alguns fatores relatados consistentemente e identificados na literatura como causas do bruxismo ou características clássicas associadas aos portadores do bruxismo. Resultados: Restou comprovado que os indivíduos estressados, com sono sensível a ruído, com excesso de responsabilidade, cheios de preocupações, intolerantes a contradição e que fazem uso de narcóticos, tem alta probabilidade de apresentarem o bruxismo associado. Conclusão: conclui-se que podemos optar pela terapêutica homeopática como excelente recurso no alívio e melhora dos sintomas relacionados ao bruxismo.(AU)


Assuntos
Bruxismo/terapia , Homeopatia , Arsenicum Album , Ignatia amara , Lycopodium clavatum , Strychnos nux-vomica
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 19 p.
Tese em Português | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-996571

RESUMO

Gastrite é a inflamação das paredes do estômago. Por meio de inúmeras causas, há um enfraquecimento da mucosa estomacal, permitindo que suco digestivo possa provocar dano a parede, através da quebra da barreira mucosa. Ela pode ser classificada em aguda ou crônica, e o tratamento é sempre medicamentoso. Geralmente nos casos agudos, podemos relacionar a um agente causador medicamentoso, infeccioso ou estressor - físico ou psíquico. Apesar do tratamento medicamentoso convencional, em alguns casos, o paciente ainda pode apresentar-se sintomático. Este presente relato de caso, diz respeito a um paciente que apesar do tratamento convencional, apresentava-se sintomático. A causa principal do seu problema, era atribuída principalmente ao estresse psíquico. Desta maneira, resolveu procurar a homeopatia, como medicina complementar. O tratamento homeopático, individualizado, mostrou ser muito eficaz no caso apresentado, com melhora dos sintomas iniciais da epigastralgia e também, de sintomas secundários, que não foram, motivadores da consulta. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Strychnos nux-vomica/uso terapêutico , Homeopatia , Coffea Cruda , Natrium Muriaticum , Gastrite/terapia
18.
Homeopatia Méx ; 87(715): 28-39, out. - dez. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-995979

RESUMO

El aumento de la frecuencia de uso de los medicamentos homeopáticos en la población en general implica que la calidad en la elaboración de los mismos debe indagarse para evitar situaciones adversas en la población que los consume. En Colombia existen procesos legales para obtener el permiso de producción y venta; sin embargo, en éstos no hay verificación del producto terminado contrastándolo con un control. Los medicamentos homeopáticos se elaboran mediante ultradiluciones de sustancias que actúan basados en el principio similia similibus curantur. La Nux vomica es un medicamento homeopático de uso frecuente, dado su carácter de policresto para diferentes patologías, y por lo tanto es importante tener un control de calidad de dicho medicamento. En este estudio se realizaron mediciones de la concentración de Nux vomica 6CH, 7CH y 30CH comprada en diferentes farmacias (FAR) y vendida como producto terminado, comparándolos con un medicamento elaborado por las autoras de este trabajo, utilizando para ello la espectrofotometría UV/Vis, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos después de aplicar energía cinética. (AU)


The increasing use of homeopathic medicines in the general population implies that the quality in the preparation of those should be investigated to avoid adverse situations in the people who consumes them. In Colombia, there are legal processes to obtain the production and sale license, however, there is no verification of the finished product against a control. Homeopathic medicines are made by ultradilutions of substances that act based on the Similia similibus curentur principle. The Nux vomica is a homeopathic medicine of frequent use, given its character of policresto, for different pathologies and therefore it's important to have a quality control of that medication. In this study, measurements were made of Nux vomica 6CH, 7CH and 30CH concentration purchased in different pharmacies (FAR) and sold as a finished product, comparing them with a drug elaborated by the authors using UV/Vis spectrophotometry. No statistically significant differences were found between them. after applying kinetic energy. (AU)


Assuntos
Espectrofotometria , Qualidade dos Medicamentos Homeopáticos , Strychnos nux-vomica , Homeopatia , Colômbia
19.
Zebrafish ; 15(6): 610-628, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277848

RESUMO

Zebrafish larvae were used to further understand the liver toxicity of nux vomica. The histopathology, protein expression, and gene expression were assessed to confirm apoptosis in the liver, and then, profiles of the metabolites in zebrafish were investigated by untargeted metabolomic assessment to understand the potential toxicity mechanism of nux vomica. Histopathological observations showed that nux vomica caused damage to liver cells. Western blot results indicated increased expression of activated caspase3, and the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed a significant increase in the expression level of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 genes (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. The liver injury from nux vomica was linked to the downregulation of amino acid (e.g., proline and alanine) and fatty acid (e.g., palmitoleic acid) metabolism and upregulation of some other fatty acid (e.g., arachidic acid) and purine (e.g., xanthine and uric acid) metabolism. The hepatotoxicity of nux vomica resulted from metabolic pathway disturbances, including small molecules involved in energy, purine, lipids, and amino acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Strychnos nux-vomica/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo
20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 360: 109-119, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282042

RESUMO

Nux vomica has been effectively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The processing of Nux vomica is necessary to reduce toxicity before it can be used in clinical practice. However, the mechanism for processing detoxification is unclear. hERG channels have been subjected to a routine test for compound cardiac toxicity in the drug development process. Therefore, we examined the effects and mechanisms of strychnine and brucine, two main ingredients of Nux vomica, and their N-oxides on hERG channels. Strychnine and brucine exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of hERG channels with IC50 values of 25.9 µM and 44.18 µM, respectively. However, their nitrogen oxidative derivatives produced by processing of Nux vomica, strychnine N-oxide and brucine N-oxide, lost their activity on hERG channels. Compared to their parent compounds, only an oxygen atom was introduced in the nitrogen oxidative isoforms to compensate for the N+ - charge, suggesting that the protonated nitrogen is the key group for strychnine and brucine binding to hERG channel. Alanine-mutagenesis identified Y652 is the most important residue for strychnine and brucine binding to hERG channel. Y652A mutation increased the IC50 for strychnine and brucine by 21.64-fold and 29.78-fold that of WT IhERG, respectively. Docking simulations suggested that the protonated nitrogen of strychnine and brucine formed a cation-π interaction with the aromatic ring of Y652. This study suggests that introduction of an oxygen to compensate for the N+ - charge could be a useful strategy for reducing hERG potency and increasing the safety margin of alkaloid-type compounds in drug development.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/metabolismo , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Strychnos nux-vomica/química , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo
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