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1.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4786(4): zootaxa.4786.4.5, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056462

RESUMO

This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Hydropsyche doehleri Tobias 1972. Species association was enabled by the fact that both larval and adult specimens were collected at the same location and that H. doehleri was the only Hydropsychidae collected at this site, based on light-trap samples of adults. In addition, association of larvae with adult males and females were performed using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase region. Information on the morphology of the larva is given, and the most important diagnostic features separating H. doehleri from its sister taxon H. siltalai Döhler 1963 are discussed. In both species, gills are lacking on abdominal segment VII. In the context of the Hydropsychidae key of Waringer Graf (2011), the two species can be separated by the morphology and coloration of the frontoclypeal apotome, and by their distribution patterns: whereas H. siltalai is widespread in Europe, H. doehleri has been reported from only France, Italy, and southern Switzerland (Tessin).                #We dedicate this paper to Univ. Prof. Dr Hans Malicky on the occasion of his 85th birthday.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Suíça
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1926-1931, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058579

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of Listeriosis. Its mortality is currently the highest for food borne diseases. Affected are mainly elderly or immunocompromised patients, as well as pregnant women. Despite food hygiene measures and surveillance, outbreaks are possible in developed countries. In the canton of Valais, six hospitalized cases including one death occurred between end of March and the beginning of May 2020. The typing of these strains of L. monocytogenes showed a link to a larger Swiss outbreak associated with contaminated soft cheese (Brie). The outbreak ended once the producer recalled the incriminated cheese. This article describes the outbreak with a review of other outbreaks' sources and a reminder of preventive measures.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Suíça/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1932-1936, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058580

RESUMO

Myiasis is an infestation by maggots. In humans, it predominates in regions with low socio-economic development. We report on two cases of myiasis acquired during a tropical travel and in Switzerland, respectively. The first one presented as a furunculous-like disease due to the invasion of subcutaneous tissues by Cordylobia sp. larvae. The second corresponded to a chronic wound infestation that resulted in a rarely reported bacteremia due to Ignatzschineria larvae, a commensal bacteria of maggots' digestive tract. Surgery was necessary in both cases, mainly for psychological reasons in the first case. Both the entomologist and molecular biology were instrumental for treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Gammaproteobacteria/patogenicidade , Larva/patogenicidade , Miíase/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Miíase/microbiologia , Suíça
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1938-1940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058581

RESUMO

In recent years, several cases of measles have appeared on the campuses of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). In response to this, several medical students have mobilized in collaboration with various cantonal authorities in order to set up a free measles, mumps and rubella vaccination campaign on the UNIL/EPFL campuses, in 2019. This first edition was a success and will be repeated in the future. Such an approach having shown its feasibility, it could be applied to other public health issues. The involvement of medical students could thus be extremely valuable if a generalized vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were to take place.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 610, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 load in lower respiratory tract (LRT) are scarce. Our objectives were to describe the viral shedding and the viral load in LRT and to determine their association with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a binational study merging prospectively collected data from two COVID-19 reference centers in France and Switzerland. First, we described the viral shedding duration (i.e., time to negativity) in LRT samples. Second, we analyzed viral load in LRT samples. Third, we assessed the association between viral presence in LRT and mortality using mixed-effect logistic models for clustered data adjusting for the time between symptoms' onset and date of sampling. RESULTS: From March to May 2020, 267 LRT samples were performed in 90 patients from both centers. The median time to negativity was 29 (IQR 23; 34) days. Prolonged viral shedding was not associated with age, gender, cardiac comorbidities, diabetes, immunosuppression, corticosteroids use, or antiviral therapy. The LRT viral load tended to be higher in non-survivors. This difference was statistically significant after adjusting for the time interval between onset of symptoms and date of sampling (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.13-12.64, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The viral shedding in LRT lasted almost 30 days in median in critically ill patients, and the viral load in the LRT was associated with the 6-week mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Suíça/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066008

RESUMO

University students were confronted with abrupt changes to their daily lives by the COVID-19 lock-down. We investigated Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and anxiety levels, and the association between perceived impact on well-being, studies, and daily lives and anxiety levels, adjusted for gender, age, social class and affiliation. Early in the lock-down all students of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (N = 12,429) were invited to a voluntary longitudinal health survey. Participation rate was 20% (n = 2437): 70% females, median age 25 yrs. (IQR 23-28). A total of 10% reported a deterioration of well-being compared to pre-Corona. LCA yielded three classes varying in perceived COVID-19 impact: 1 (low, n = 675), 2 (moderate, n = 1098), and 3 (strong, n = 656). Adjusted proportion of moderate to severe anxiety by class were 45% (95% CI: 28.0-62.0), 15.5% (95% CI: 13.1-17.9), and 5.1% (95% CI: 4.7-5.6), respectively. Multivariate regression analyses yielded an OR for moderate to severe anxiety of 3.88 (95% CI: 2.5-6.0, class 2) and 22.43 (95% CI: 14.5-34.6, class 3) compared to class-1. The investigated association implies that containment measures have a selective effect on anxiety in students. The diversity of students' perception and associated anxiety should be monitored and considered in future response to pandemics.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 853-858, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873161

RESUMO

Bachelor of Human Medicine at the ETH Zurich. A Contribution to the Training of Tomorrow's Physicians Abstract. With ever-changing lifestyles and an increasingly older but also more dynamic society, the maintenance and health as well as the improvement of treatment play a central role. At the same time, developments in bioinformatics, molecular biosciences and imaging techniques are revolutionizing medicine. In order to fully exploit the new possibilities, for example in medical technology or personalised medicine, doctors with a sound knowledge in several disciplines will be needed in the future. In-depth knowledge in the medical, technical and biological sciences will become indispensable. This is where the new Bachelor of Human Medicine at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich has been in place since autumn 2017, combining medical with technical and scientific aspects of human health. In addition to traditional medical content, it also covers topics from the bioinformatics and medical technology sectors. The continuation of the studies takes place at one of the partner universities in Basel, Lugano or Zurich.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
9.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 834-840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873162

RESUMO

Reflections on Trends in the Undergraduate Curricula of Human Medicine at the Universities in Switzerland Abstract. Reflections on current trends and progressions in the undergraduate curricula of Human Medicine of the universities in Switzerland. Both updated modern learning objectives and the politically intended higher number of graduated swiss physicians will make an impact on clinical skills training and offers opportunities in focusing as well as in coordinating the curricula.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Medicina , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Suíça , Universidades
10.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 901-928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873163

RESUMO

Illustrated Medical History of the Zurich University Hospital and the Medical Policlinic (Including Cultural and Urban Side Effects) Abstract. Zurich has always played a significant role in the history of medicine, with technical developments and biomedical discoveries (including numerous Nobel Prize laureates) or with Zurich physicians who are now commonplace in the world of medicine as eponyms. The story of the Kantonsspital of the University of Zurich, founded in 1833, is perfect to illustrate and locate Zurich's medical history - but also to show intriguing and unexpected cultural or urban references.


Assuntos
Medicina , Prêmio Nobel , História do Século XX , Suíça
11.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 840-842, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873164

RESUMO

Cosmetic or Fundamental Reform of Medical Education? Abstract. At regular intervals, medical faculties and national committees discuss adjustments to the training of physicians. These adaptations are mostly of a cosmetic nature. Discussions on fundamental reform concepts of training rarely take place. Too many different interests, sometimes openly declared but more often concealed, make discussions difficult as soon as fundamental questions are raised. As a result, there is no fundamental debate about the goal and concept of medical education. The issue of the assumption of medical activities by non-physician professions is at least discussed, but hardly any of it is implemented. It is closely linked to the question of how many physicians are needed in Switzerland. The following considerations, which some may find provocative, will hopefully trigger a fundamental discussion. In this case they will have achieved their goal.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Médicos , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Suíça
12.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 866-870, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873166

RESUMO

Update Medical Studies 2020: Bern Abstract. The education of the young Bernese medical students is problem-based as well as practice-oriented. The didactical concept of the Bachelor Studies is a guided self-study accompanied by concept lectures and interactive tutorials. The clinical skills are taught in a highly structured way, beginning with e-learning, seminars and Bedside Teaching. The Master Studies are based on evidence-based clinical education. The well-structured internships are the heart of the Bernese Master Studies; they enable the early inclusion of the students in the medical practice of the various healthcare disciplines. The communication trainings as well as the sonography courses are examples for the innovative development of the Bernese curriculum. The rotations in GP practices give an insight into the primary healthcare.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
13.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 859-865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873167

RESUMO

Studying Medicine at the Università della Svizzera Italiana Abstract. The Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (Faculty) of the Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) was founded in 2014 with the aim of contributing to the solution of a problem that affects the whole of Switzerland: the lack of doctors trained in Switzerland. In order to achieve this goal, the Faculty, in collaboration with the University of Basel, has been offering a limited number of Bachelor's study places since 2017, and in autumn 2020 the new Master's programme in Human Medicine will start in Ticino. On the academic side, the Faculty cooperates closely with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), the University of Basel (UNIBAS) and the University of Zurich (UZH), and for the clinical training there are collaborations with various clinical institutions in Ticino. By combining clinical practice, scientific training and communication skills, the Master's degree addresses the challenges of today's medical profession.


Assuntos
Docentes , Motivação , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Suíça
14.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 843-846, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873170

RESUMO

Studying Human Medicine at the University of Zurich Abstract. We compile the most important published information on studying human medicine at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich (as of 8.6.2020), with a brief overview of the 'Education Network' (www.medunet.ch) of the six participating locations with the Universities of Zurich, Basel, St. Gallen, Lucerne, the Università della Svizzera italiana and the ETH Zurich. Within the educational network, the Universities of Lucerne and St. Gallen offer the so-called 'Lucerne Track' and 'St. Gallen Track' for 40 medical students each as a joint Master's program with the University of Zurich. The two partners present their curriculum in separate articles. Finally, information on the current curriculum revision is provided under the label ZH Med4, which stands for the main focus areas of digitization, research, networking and primary care.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Complexo Mediador , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Suíça , Universidades
15.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 871-878, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873171

RESUMO

Studying Human Medicine at the University of Geneva: An Up-to-Date, Integrated Curriculum Abstract. The curriculum of human medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva has been thoroughly renovated in 1995. It offers an integrated program allowing for a constant adaptation of the content to the explosion of biomedical knowledge and the changes in society. It uses active, student-centred learning methods. In line with the Bologna process since 2006, it has been accredited several times, most recently in 2019. It evolved to strengthen the importance of primary care and to introduce interprofessional training, in particular through its simulation centre. Through early and continuous clinical immersion, students acquire their practical skills in an integrated manner. These conditions are conducive to the introduction of new concepts, such as the Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) conveyed by the recent national competence framework PROFILES.


Assuntos
Currículo , Medicina , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Suíça
16.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 847-852, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873174

RESUMO

Joint Medical Master University of Lucerne and University of Zurich Abstract. The medical education in Switzerland is changing. On the one hand, the new, competence-based catalogue of learning objectives PROFILES has to be implemented. On the other hand, new training locations and cooperations have been created within the context of the special program 'Increasing the number of degrees in human medicine'. One of these cooperations is the Joint Medical Master of the Universities of Lucerne and Zurich. Since 2017, students have had the opportunity to complete their Bachelor's degree at the University of Zurich in the 'Lucerne Track'. In the subsequent joint Master's program (start fall semester 2020), the approximately 40 students are primarily enrolled at the University of Lucerne, which together with its partner institutions in the health care region of Central Switzerland offers about two thirds of the courses. At the University of Lucerne, which has a strong emphasis on social and human sciences, the Department of Medicine is part of the Department of Health Sciences and Medicine and focuses on a holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of health, illness and human functioning. In the training of medical students, the Joint Medical Master primarily offers interactive, practice-oriented courses in small groups, based on the new catalogue of learning objectives, and uses innovative didactic concepts and digital learning programs. The Lucerne curriculum focuses on interprofessional education, especially with health science students, as well as basic medical care and the interface between in- and outpatient care, respectively. In the last year of the course, which is currently in its final development phase, the topics of emergency medicine and patient safety will be a particular focus. Due to the manageable cohort size, the Joint Medical Master in Lucerne offers a family environment and a close exchange between students and lecturers. The students are involved in the further development of the curriculum as well as in the evaluation of the courses, and the lecturers are prepared as well as possible for their teaching duties by continuing medical education events. In the medium term, the University of Lucerne would also like to focus more on the continuum of pre- and postgraduate training, and to network nationally and internationally in the medical education landscape.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
17.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110406, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883480

RESUMO

Degradation of ecosystems and the related loss of ecosystem services have called for new policies to achieve no net loss (NNL) of or even net gain between detrimental environmental impacts and restoration or preservation measures. While biodiversity offsetting has a long tradition, soils have rarely been considered in the accounting. Considering the crucial role of soil for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity and the increasing pressure on soil resources, we investigate how a NNL strategy building on a soil-based ecosystem services index can help steer sustainable spatial development. An ecosystem services' soil quality index allows to explicitly address the interests of a broad range of stakeholder on soil uses. Using a market-driven spatial planning instrument based on a land price fee linked to the soil quality index, we demonstrate how soil quality loss and related ecosystem services could be reduced by up to 60% compared to current practice in a case study in Switzerland. More importantly, the suggested instrument allows to account for the spatial variability of the supply of the ecosystem services and the diversity of stakeholder demands for various soil qualities. We close with a discussion on the consequences of implementing a soil-based NNL strategy for spatial development and its generic application for steering settlement development.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Suíça
18.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(9): 677-683, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893610

RESUMO

This article will provide an overview of the principles and modes of action of fluorides in oral care products, followed by a brief outline of the history and current situation regarding salt fluoridation in Switzerland. Recommendations for the use of fluoridated oral care products, current research results on the use of fluoride-containing dental care products and controversies related to fluorides are presented. Finally, the changes in fluoride concentration for children's toothpastes in Europe and the corresponding implementation in Switzerland as well as changes regarding the use of fluoride in school dentistry are discussed.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos , Criança , Fluoretação , Humanos , Suíça
19.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106346, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892903

RESUMO

Early observations of the tritium (3H) activity in precipitation from Switzerland started in 1967 in Bern and a monitoring program with improved analytical techniques was carried out between 1971 and 2009. Between 2012 and 2015, we performed tritium analyses on daily precipitation samples from north-western Switzerland to better constrain the tritium variability. We also collected waters dripping inside Milandre Cave (Jura Mountains) with a 4-6 months' resolution in order to estimate the age of the drip water, which is mandatory to interpret the high-resolution speleothem (cave carbonate deposits) records. Over the monitoring period, the mean tritium concentration in the daily precipitation samples was approximately 8.7 ± 4.7 TU with distinct seasonality showing higher values in spring and summer (from April-May to August-September). The similarity in trends with the other cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (7Be) suggests that, for the study site, tritium in precipitation essentially originates from stratospheric input in spring. In winter, precipitation dynamics with increasing moisture originating from the Atlantic and diluted during transport contribute to low values close to the Atlantic background. In cave drip water, the depleted activity level of tritium indicates a relatively long percolation time from the surface to the cave of several years. A residual superimposed short tritium variability provides evidence for the occurrence of fast flowing water paths. The contribution from both components were quantified based on a two-component lumped parameter-mixing model. Finally, we show that tritium concentrations in cave drip water are linked to the moisture origin and atmospheric transport pathways.


Assuntos
Berílio , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos , Trítio , Berílio/análise , Cavernas , Radioisótopos/análise , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Trítio/análise
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