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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 533-544, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) on udder health in Swiss dairy farms compared to a blanket dry cow treatment (BDCT). Cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) of less than 250'000 cells/ml and after BDCT in the previous dry period were selected. These animals received a SDCT in the subsequent dry period. Cows with less than 150,000 cells/ml or a negative California mastitis test (CMT) received either no treatment (group oB) or an internal teat sealant (group ZV) in all teats. Cows with more than 150,000 cells/ml or a positive CMT were treated with antibiotics and teat sealants (group ZV+AB). The SCC before and after the dry period were determined. In addition, the incidence of mastitis treatments in the dry period and the first 100 days of the following lactation as well as rates of new intramammary inflammations and healing thereof were determined. Data from 115 cows were available for evaluation. The SCC postpartum of all cows after SDCT did not differ from those after BDCT in the previous year. In the group oB the SCC was significantly higher than in the previous year. While the group ZV+AB showed a significant decrease of SCC during the dry period, the other two groups showed an increase (p < 0.0001). In the group oB, the proportion of mastitis treatments increased from 0% after BDCT to 28% after SDCT without any udder treatment (p < 0.05). Due to the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, SDCT is a valuable alternative to the BDCT. In the present study the antibiotic consumption could be reduced by 63%, while the udder health after SDCT did not deteriorate. If cows with low SCC are dried off without antibiotics the end of lactation, it is beneficial to protect the udder during the dry period with a teat sealant.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Feminino , Incidência , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
2.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 545-552, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Animal welfare in equestrian sports is a very current and important topic for animal right groups as well as for the Swiss association for equestrian sports "Schweizerischer Verband für Pferdesport (SVPS)". The penalty commission "Sanktionskomission (SAKO)" of the SVPS reported only few to none cases of infringements of animal welfare provision on horses at a time in the past few years. This fact was criticised several times by different animal right groups in Switzerland. Therefore a survey was sent in 2017 to 544 active officials (horse show judges) of the SVPS. Overall, 146 answered questionnaires could be evaluated. The evaluation of the survey was able to confirm the statement of the animal right groups that the number of infringements of animal welfare provision is much higher than the number -handled by the SAKO. Altogether, 203 offences which are relevant in animal welfare were observed by the officials who participated in this survey in 2017. In contrast to these findings, no handled cases of infringements in animal welfare provision were published in the annual report 2017 of the SAKO. 178 of the 203 offences observed by the officials were addressed and reprimanded directly on the showground. The most common incidents which are relevant in animal welfare named by the officials in the survey were inappropriate, aggressive behaviour of the rider or driver and rough handling with artificial aids. A considerable part of the officials feels that the animal welfare situation on Swiss equestrian showgrounds is unsatisfying. An improvement of animal protection in Swiss equestrian sports can be achieved by raising the awareness for this topic of the officials as well as the equestrians and horse owners.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Cavalos , Esportes/ética , Animais , Suíça
3.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106026, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437807

RESUMO

Increased uranium (U) concentrations are found in certain ground and surface waters of the Swiss Plateau. Analysis of more than 100 public fountains revealed that increased 238U concentrations frequently occur close to the interface between the Lower Freshwater Molasse and the Upper Marine Molasse, cropping out in the western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin. Out of these locations, Mont Vully, situated ca. 20 km west of Berne, was studied in detail. As this hill consists of the two aforementioned stratigraphic Molasse units, it represents an ideal case study. Two springs at the northern slopes of Mont Vully exhibit the highest 238U concentrations with more than 300 mBq/L and were thus monitored for almost two years in order to screen possible seasonal variations. Further water samples were collected from spring captures, creeks and drainage pipes. The pipes drain the farmland north of Mont Vully showing 238U concentrations with more than 600 mBq/L. In order to discover the reason for the duplication in concentration, gamma dose rate measurements were accomplished on the farmland, revealing elevated dose rates of up to 160 nSv/h. These are located above ancient pathways of creeks that originated from Mont Vully. At these locations with elevated dose rates, three shallow sediment drill cores were taken and analyzed for their U content. The sediment cores can essentially be divided into three parts: (i) an upper soil with common U concentrations of about 30 Bq/kg 238U, (ii) an U-rich peat horizon with concentrations of up to 500 Bq/kg 238U, and (iii) an impermeable clay unit that acts as an aquitard with again minor 238U concentrations. Radiocarbon dating of the U-rich peat horizon reveals ages younger than 8.1 kyrs. This study suggests that a wetland was formed on top of the impermeable clay layer after the last glaciation during the Holocene. The stream waters with 238U concentrations of more than 300 mBq/L originating from Mont Vully contributed significantly to the water supply for the development of the wetland. Due to the reducing conditions that are present in wetlands, the dissolved U in the incoming streams was reduced and adsorbed onto organic matter. Accordingly, an entrapment for U was generated, persisting for at least 6 kyrs - a sufficient time to accumulate up to 500 Bq/kg. In the course of the last century, numerous wetlands in Switzerland were drained by capturing streams and installing drainage pipes to make the land suitable for agriculture. This kind of melioration was also done at the wetlands north of Mont Vully resulting in a subsequent change in redox conditions within the soil. The solubility of U depends on its oxidation state and U can be oxidized by oxygen-rich rainwater. The rainwater leached the U adsorbed on the peat yielding 238U concentrations of more than 600 mBq/L. Consequently, the duplication of 238U concentrations in the drainage water as compared to the original concentration that creeks brought into the ancient wetlands has been clarified during this study. Twenty of the analyzed public fountains in the Swiss Plateau exhibited a 238U concentration of more than 50 mBq/L. All of them could have contributed to the formation of a wetland after the last glaciation, which leads to the assumption that the situation at Mont Vully is not a singularity in the Swiss Plateau.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos/análise , Agricultura , Solo , Suíça , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 137(2): 26-40, 2019 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453669

RESUMO

Introduction : In the context of an upsurge in the number of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in 2015, caregivers encountered new issues.Background : We lack local studies that simultaneously analyze asylum seekers' experiences of the healthcare system and the perceptions of health professionals in contact with asylum seekers.Objectives : To assess the health problems of this population in order to gain a better understanding of their specific needs and to implement best practice interventions in order to improve access to care and efficiency of care.Methods : A qualitative study with twenty interviews, either one-to-one or in groups, with Eritrean and Afghan ASs, and three focus groups with registered nurses, interpreters, and emergency department professionals.Results : The main results concern access to healthcare in the country of origin, expectations about the living conditions in Switzerland, the effects of migration on health, cultural beliefs on physical health and psychiatry, visits to the emergency department, reasons for missed appointments, and peer support.Discussion : Information, trust, and time are the main issues identified to optimize access to care.Conclusion : Our results allow for a better understanding of specific needs and health interventions for Afghan and Eritrean ASs. Recommendations for practice were issued.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Refugiados , Afeganistão/etnologia , Eritreia/etnologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Suíça
5.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 137(2): 6-17, 2019 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453673

RESUMO

Introduction : The concept of palliative sedation is not defined in a uniform way at the international level. In Switzerland, it is outlined by the recommendations issued in 2005.Background : The conceptualization of palliative sedation by nurses is likely to be heterogeneous, due to the diversity of local protocols but also to personal experiences. This poses both epistemological and practical difficulties. Although this point is crucial to take into account in order to define the object of future studies in Switzerland, it has not yet been explored in the French-speaking part of Switzerland.Objectives : To discover and describe the conceptualization of palliative sedation by nurses in a palliative care unit in French-speaking Switzerland.Methods : Exploratory qualitative research with comprehensive individual interviews.Results : Palliative sedation is considered as a treatment of last resort for one or more refractory symptoms. The search for the lowest effective dose and the temporary (at least initially) character of sedation are the main elements put forward by nurses.Discussion and conclusion : The conceptualization of palliative sedation is consistent withSwiss recommendations. These results form a basis for developing a national study on the subject.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Linguagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suíça
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1012-1016, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438077

RESUMO

Despite similar policy goals, the adoption of eHealth practices took different paths in Austria (AT), Switzerland (CH), and Germany (GER). We seek to provide a rigorous analysis of the current state of hospitals by focusing on three key eHealth areas: electronic patient records (EPR), health information exchange (HIE), electronic patient communication. For validation and in order to gain better contextual insight we applied a mixed method approach by combining survey results from clinical directors with qualitative interview data from eHealth experts of all three countries. Across countries, EPR adoption rates were reported highest (AT: 52%, CH: 78%, GER: 50%), HIE-rates were partly lower (AT: 52%, CH: 14%, GER: 17%), and electronic patient communication was reported lowest overall (AT: 17%, CH: 8%, GER: 19%). Amongst others, results indicate patient awareness about eHealth to be equally weak across countries, which thus may be an important focal point of future policy initiatives.


Assuntos
Metas , Telemedicina , Áustria , Alemanha , Humanos , Suíça
7.
Urologe A ; 58(8): 877-880, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267141

RESUMO

Currently, continuing medical evaluation takes place in Germany-but not nationally or regularly, and without national standards. Therefore, comparisons between different clinics and trainers can currently not be drawn. Survey modes, such as those that have existed in Switzerland for decades, could provide a constructive basis in the assessment of the current continuing medical education of urology residents and subsequently facilitate the discussion on improvements. This requires constructive cooperation of all involved, without attributing the responsibility only to the educators. Models of rewarding good continuing education should also be found.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/normas , Urologia/educação , Alemanha , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Urologia/normas
8.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 651-661, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279142

RESUMO

Circular economy (CE) aims at sustainable development (SD) by focusing more on renewable sources of energy and precise management of waste to i) guarantee the secure access to resources, ii) combat climate change and global warming. Environmental issues arising from energy use and lack of policies to monitor them challenge sustainable development. Circular economy emphasizes the economic development with the least amount of undesirable environmental impacts. To evaluate the environmental performance of decision-making units (DMUs) with data envelopment analysis (DEA), this paper develops a common set of weights (CSW) model using the ideal point method. Therefore, energy and environmental efficiency of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries is analyzed using the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) during 2012-2015. Although Switzerland has the highest energy and environmental efficiency during 2012-2014, findings indicate that Ireland and the USA have continuously improved their energy and environmental efficiency.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Irlanda , Suíça
9.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(7): 445-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overbagged udders are commonly seen at dairy cow shows in Switzerland and abroad due to prolonged milking intervals. In recent years various studies documented the negative effects of prolonged milking intervals and examined the objectivity of an ultrasound-based assessment scheme for determining udder filling. In addition, risk factors were calculated which lead to udder edema outside the puerperal phase. For example, the effects of a sudden increased 24-hour milking interval were altered behavior (reduced feeding time, increased rumination time) and a significantly increased cell count in experimental cows. Edema formation was observed sonographically in the subcutaneous udder tissue at the sites of predilection known from previous studies. No evidence of edema was observed in cows milked at 12 hour intervals. Based on these results, a new scoring system was defined using ultrasound images of show cows (grade 0 = no edema, grade 1 = slight, grade 2 = moderate, grade 3 = severe edema). Results documented that experienced clinicians were able to score ultrasound images reliable (interobserver reliability κ = 0.815, three different clinicians; intraobserver reliability κ = 0.90 and κ = 0.85, two clinicians) and little variability existed between the clinicians. A prolonged milking interval was identified as the main risk factor. Modified Swiss Dairy Show Regulations were implemented by January 1st, 2018 and ultrasonographic examinations proofed to be reliable in practice. Since January 1st, 2019 visual scoring of the udder filling is evaluated as part of a pre-show inspection. The sonographic evaluation can be used as a reliable diagnostic addition.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Lactação , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(7): 453-462, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The calf transports of 34 veal farms were documented over a one-year period in order to describe the transport from dairy to veal farms. Veal farms were visited four to eight times, and general farm management data and information on calf purchase were collected. Thirty-five transports were accompanied and documented in detail by the project team. Whenever possible during the accompanied transports, a questionnaire on calf management prior to purchase (calving location, colostrum feeding, vaccinations, iron and selenium supplementation) was filled in with the manager of the dairy (birth) farm. Unaccompanied transports were recorded using a form completed by the veal farmers and the transporters. Information was collected on the number and origin of the calves, transport duration and distance, and stops on farms and markets. A total of 721 transports from dairy to veal farms (531 transports by veal farmers and 190 by suppliers/livestock traders) were documented in the course of the project. Six veal farmers always collected and transported their own calves, nine received their calves from cattle traders only, and 19 used both systems. Veal farmers transported a median of 2.0 (1-21 calves) and traders 3.0 calves (1-74 calves) per transport. The median number of dairy farms per 10 transported calves was 10.0 (1.2-10 dairy farms per 10 transported calves) for transports performed by veal farmers, and 10.0 (2.5-10 dairy farms per 10 transported calves) by traders. The median transport duration was 20.0 minutes (1-330 minutes) with veal farmers and 45.0 minutes (2-414 minutes) with traders. The median available surface per calf during transport was 2 m2 (0.4-6 m2) in transports by veal farmers and 0.6 m2 (0.4-2.7 m2) in those by traders. No bedding was provided on three transports performed by veal farmers although this is prescribed by law. Intranasal vaccination against respiratory disease was performed in 7% of the 88 birth farms included in the study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Transportes/normas
11.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(7): 465-472, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ovine footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus is a highly contagious and painful disease representing an economic as well as an animal welfare problem. In order to get more information on the infection dynamics, 26 lambs and 4 ewes enrolled in an in-contact infection trial were monitored over two weeks for the presence of D. nodosus-specific DNA. Two D. nodosus-positive ewes were housed together with 13 confirmed negative lambs. The control group consisted of another 13 lamb siblings and two confirmed D. nodosus-negative ewes. Every foot of all sheep was sampled seven times over the two weeks experiment period and subsequently analyzed for the presence of D. nodosus by quantitative real-time PCR. The control group was negative at the beginning and the end of the experiment and showed no clinical symptoms of footrot. The two positive ewes showed a high, but hundred fold differing level of virulent D. nodosus that remained constant over time with one of the ewes being also weakly positive for benign D. nodosus. All lambs of the infection group were positive for virulent D. nodosus at 14 days post infection (dpi). The first positive animals were observed on 3 dpi. The D. nodosus load remained at a low level and only increased in a few lambs at the end of the trial. Five of the contact lambs showed suspicious clincal signs (score 1-2) at 14 dpi corroborating the PCR results and indicating that the disease starts as early as two weeks after contact with positive sheep.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Dichelobacter nodosus/fisiologia , Feminino , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Suíça/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 265, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is a zoonotic disease mainly affecting herbivores. The last Swiss outbreak was over 20 years ago. We describe a recent anthrax outbreak involving two cows from the same herd. One cow was designated as a peracute clinical case with sudden death and typical lung lesions, while the other cow presented with protracted fever and abortion. CASE PRESENTATION: On April 29th 2017, a 3.5-year-old Montbéliard dairy cow was found dead while out at pasture with haemorrhage from the nose. The veterinarian suspected pneumonia and performed a necropsy on site. Subsequently, a lung and liver sample were sent to the laboratory. Unexpectedly, Bacillus anthracis was isolated, a pathogen not found in Switzerland for decades. Several days later, a second cow from the same farm showed signs of abortion after protracted fever. Since these symptoms are not typical for anthrax, and the bacteria could not be demonstrated in blood samples from this animal, a necropsy was performed under appropriate biosafety measures. Subsequently, Bacillus anthracis could be isolated from the placenta and the sublumbal lymph nodes but not from the blood, liver, spleen and kidney. The outbreak strain (17OD930) was shown to belong to the lineage B.Br.CNEVA, the same as Swiss strains from previous outbreaks in the region. We speculate that the disease came from a temporarily opened cave system that is connected to an old carcass burial site and was flushed by heavy rainfall preceding the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Even in countries like Switzerland, where anthrax is very rare, new cases can occur after unusual weather conditions or ground disturbance. It is important for public officials to be aware of this risk to avoid possible spread.


Assuntos
Antraz/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Animais , Antraz/complicações , Antraz/microbiologia , Antraz/patologia , Bacillus anthracis/classificação , Bacillus anthracis/genética , Bacillus anthracis/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Cavernas/microbiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 591, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of Toscana virus infection imported into Switzerland in a 23-year old man who travelled to Imperia (Italy) 10 days before onset of symptoms. Symptoms included both meningitis and as well epididymitis. This is only the fourth case of Toscana virus reported in Switzerland. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with lymphocytic meningitis and scrotal pain due to epididymitis. Meningitis was initially treated with ceftriaxone. Herpes simplex, tick-borne encephalitis, enterovirus, measles, mumps, rubella and Treponema pallidum were excluded with specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology. In support of routine diagnostic PCR and serology assays, unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing was performed of cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Toscana virus infection was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and the full coding sequence could be obtained. Specific PCR in cerebrospinal fluid and blood and serology with Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG against Toscana virus confirmed our diagnosis. Neurological symptoms recovered spontaneously after 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: This case of Toscana virus infection highlights the benefits of unbiased metagenomic sequencing to support routine diagnostics in rare or unexpected viral infections. With increasing travel histories of patients, physicians should be aware of imported Toscana virus as the agent for viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Epididimite , Meningite Viral , Metagenômica/métodos , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Epididimite/diagnóstico , Epididimite/imunologia , Epididimite/virologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/imunologia , Meningite Viral/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/genética , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(657): 1334-1338, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290629

RESUMO

RED-S is a clinical concept introduced in 2014 that broadens the understanding of the athlete's triad. It includes nine areas affected by energy deficiency relative to the body's needs for optimal functioning and it is known that both adolescents and athletes are at higher risk of suffering from a RED-S than the general population. We highlight that sports coaches in French-speaking Switzerland do not know of RED-S nor of its health consequences. They desire to learn more but mention several barriers to this training. Since they have a central role in the lives and health of adolescent athletes, they are the key persons to train in order to improve the prevention and detection of adolescent athletes in need of medical attention.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esportes , Adolescente , Atletas , Humanos , Suíça
15.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (136): 80-89, 2019 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes in children in Switzerland is becoming increasingly prevalent. The coordination of care seems to be a determining element and is essential for effective and efficient care. OBJECTIVE: Identify the difficulties and the levers of coordination faced by healthcare workers and families during the discovery of type 1 diabetes in children aged from birth to fifteen. METHOD: Qualitative analysis using semi-directed interviews. RESULTS: Three families and five healthcare workers participated in the study. Confirmation of the diagnosis was received badly and was a shock for the families. Nurses specializing in pediatric diabetes are recognized for being experts in diabetes care and education. Non-specialist nurses consider diabetes care to be stressful and complex. Collaboration between units is described as compartmentalized. ICT tools are not shared between units. Psychological support is considered to be unsatisfactory by the families. DISCUSSION: Interdisciplinary nurses need to work together and with a structured coordination of care.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/enfermagem , Família/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suíça
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2499, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175309

RESUMO

Soil microbial communities are intricately linked to ecosystem functioning such as nutrient cycling; therefore, a predictive understanding of how these communities respond to environmental changes is of great interest. Here, we test whether phylogenetic information can predict the response of bacterial taxa to nitrogen (N) addition. We analyze the composition of soil bacterial communities in 13 field experiments across 5 continents and find that the N response of bacteria is phylogenetically conserved at each location. Remarkably, the phylogenetic pattern of N responses is similar when merging data across locations. Thus, we can identify bacterial clades - the size of which are highly variable across the bacterial tree - that respond consistently to N addition across locations. Our findings suggest that a phylogenetic approach may be useful in predicting shifts in microbial community composition in the face of other environmental changes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Austrália , Bactérias/genética , China , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , África do Sul , Suíça , Estados Unidos
17.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(8): 519-524, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185842

RESUMO

CME: Zoonosis in Switzerland: Leptospirosis Abstract. Leptospirosis is worldwide a common zoonosis that also occurs in Switzerland. Frequently it presents as a self-limited, mild illness. The more severe presentation with jaundice and sever acute kidney injury (Weil's disease) is, however, associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In order to make the diagnosis, it is important to recognize the typical findings and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup. In this article, we discuss the clinical signs, diagnostic workup, therapy and prevention of leptospirosis and present the case of a 54-year-old patient with severe leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Doença de Weil , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Humanos , Icterícia/etiologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suíça , Doença de Weil/etiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(25): e16123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232962

RESUMO

To investigate changes in breast density (BD) during the menstrual cycle in young women in comparison to inter-breast and -segment changes as well as reproducibility of a novel Speed-of-Sound (SoS) Ultrasound (US) method.SoS-US uses a conventional US system with a reflector and a software add-on to quantify SoS in the retro-mammillary, inner and outer segments of both breasts. Twenty healthy women (18-40 years) with regular menstrual cycles were scanned twice with two weeks in-between. Three of these were additionally measured twice per week for 25 days. Average SoS (m/s) and ΔSoS (segment-variation SoS; m/s) were measured. Variations between follicular and luteal phases and changes over the four-week period were assessed. Inter-examiner and inter-reader agreements were also evaluated. Variances between cycle phases, examiners and readers were compared.No significant SoS difference was observed between follicular and luteal phases for the twenty women (P = .126), and between all different days for the three more frequently measured women (P = .892). Inter-reader (ICC = 0.999) and inter-examiner (ICC = 0.990) agreements were high. The SoS variance due to menstrual variations was not significantly larger than the inter-examiner uncertainty (P = .461). Inter-reader variations were significantly smaller than menstrual and examiner variations (P < .001).SoS-US showed high inter-examiner and inter-reader reproducibility. The alterations during the menstrual cycles were not significantly larger than the confidence interval of measurements.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Mama/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suíça , Ultrassonografia/métodos
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 190-201, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163325

RESUMO

Safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs) are important participative organizational behaviors that emerge in work-groups. SCBs create a work environment that supports individual and team safety, encourages a proactive management of workplace safety, and ultimately, prevents accidents. In spite of the importance of SCBs, little consensus exists on research issues like the dimensionality of safety citizenship, and if any superordinate factor level of safety citizenship should be conceptualized, and thus measured. The present study addressed this issue by examining the dimensionality of SCBs, as they relate to behaviors of helping, stewardship, civic virtue, whistleblowing, voice, and initiating change in current practices. Data on SCBs were collected from four industrial plants (N = 1065) in four European countries (Italy, Russia, Switzerland, United Kingdom). The results show that SCBs structure around two superordinate second-order factors that reflect affiliation and challenge. Multi-group analyses supported the structure and metric invariance of the two-factor model across the four national subsamples.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Cultura Organizacional , Comportamento Social , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Psicometria , Federação Russa , Suíça , Reino Unido
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