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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 335-342, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibacterial activity of honey is not only crucial characteristic in selection of honey for medical usage but also an important honey quality marker. The aim of the study was to characterise the antibacterial potential of 29 honey samples representing the main types of multi-floral blossom and honeydew honeys produced in Switzerland. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed as a minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Furthermore, the content of bee-derived glucose oxidase (GOX) and its enzymatic product, H2 O2 , were also evaluated. RESULTS: All honey samples successfully met basic defined criteria (moisture and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) tested in this study. Honeydew honeys were the most effective honey samples and generated the highest levels of H2 O2 . A strong significant correlation was found between the overall antibacterial activity and the level of H2 O2 among all honey samples. Interestingly, the content of GOX in honey samples did not correlate with their antibacterial activity as well as H2 O2 production capacity. A weak antibacterial activity was determined in five floral honeys, most likely due to increased enzymatic activity of pollen-derived catalase. CONCLUSION: This study showed that antibacterial effect of Swiss honey samples is associated mainly with H2 O2 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Mel/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Abelhas , Catalase/análise , Glucose Oxidase/análise , Mel/classificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suíça
2.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109794, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780268

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are a subset of micropollutants, present in the environment in trace concentrations. Because of their persistent nature, these chemicals are of particular concern. Little is known about how mixtures of pharmaceutical residues, found in WWTP effluents, affect the environment or public health. Yet, numerous studies show negative outcomes for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, suggesting that they are given both to bioaccumulation and uptake in plants. Israel leads the world in effluent reuse (86%), almost exclusively utilized for purposes of agricultural irrigation. Pharmaceuticals, however, are not included in Israel's water regulatory oversight or management, essentially creating an epidemiological experiment among its citizens and environment. Globally, these compounds also are not commonly subject to monitoring or regulation. This study reviews and analyzes water policies and regulation worldwide that address the presence of pharmaceuticals in water resources, with a particular focus on Australia, Singapore, Switzerland, and the USA. Furthermore, the study investigates the reasons why these chemicals are not yet regulated in Israel. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the data and analysis of the regulatory rationale in other countries, a list of recommended pharmaceutical standards that should be measured and monitored in Israel's wastewater treatment system is proposed. The suggested prioritization criteria should be at the heart of a new regulatory agenda for controlling pharmaceutical contamination in wastewater.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Israel , Singapura , Suíça , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(675): 2304-2305, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840960

Assuntos
Impostos , Suíça
4.
Zootaxa ; 4620(1): zootaxa.4620.1.1, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716286

RESUMO

The personal collection of P.H. Vercammen-Grandjean, which is deposited in the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Switzerland), is revised and a catalogue of holotypes is compiled. The inventory includes data on the holotypes of 92 valid trombiculid species, 18 specimens erroneously labeled as holotypes and 84 specimens designated as holotypes of unpublilshed species (nomina nuda).


Assuntos
Trombiculidae , Animais , Museus , Suíça
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(673): 2202-2204, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778050

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been covered under basic health insurance in Switzerland since July 1, 2016, in accordance with the OFSP immunization plan and with the support of the Federal Vaccine Commission (CFV). The decision to include the vaccine in young adult vaccination plans came as a response to mounting evidence showing its efficiency in reducing HPV infections and associated diseases, especially cervical cancer, ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. General practitioners, pediatricians, urologists and gynecologists are the first in line to diagnose this sexually transmitted infection and are essential actors in its treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Suíça , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(670): 2046-2051, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696680

RESUMO

Stroke is the most common acute neurological disease in the world. Approximately 16 000 strokes occur each year in Switzerland. In the older population, the stroke outcomes are related to high risk of malnutrition due to neurological deficits impacting oral feeding. Therefore, systematic screening of malnutrition is required upon admission to hospital. Then, assessment of the nutritional status by a specialist should be initiated before deciding on individualised nutritional strategy. Rehabilitation is complex and must be done in multidisciplinary team to provide optimal care to the patients.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(670): 2058-2061, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696682

RESUMO

N-of-1 trials therapeutic tests allow an objective evaluation of treatment efficacy in a single patient. Thereby, they can support off-label prescriptions, or promote treatment safety and efficiency in chronic patients through the deprescription of useless drugs. They also encourage active participation of patients in their medical care. Practically a treatment is compared to a placebo in double blind during a series of randomly alternating periods. Statistical analysis comparing measurements performed in the patient throughout the test enable to evaluate objectively treatment efficacy. The performance of this type of test is now offered to patients and practitioners by the Service of Clinical Pharmacology in the University Hospital of Lausanne.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Uso Off-Label , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir ; 51(6): 410-417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698484

RESUMO

Reconstructive microsurgery using free and pedicled flaps has become a reliable method with a high success rate. Preoperative perforator mapping and intraoperative assessment of perfusion might further reduce flap-associated morbidity.There are various techniques for perforator mapping and perfusion measurement, but no guidelines regarding their use. Therefore, an expert panel at the 40th Annual Meeting of the German-Speaking Working Group for Microsurgery of the Peripheral Nerves and Vessels (DAM) discussed and critically reviewed the current literature. The consensus statement represents the expert opinion based on the available literature and provides recommendations regarding the use of preoperative perforator mapping and intraoperative perfusion measurement.


Assuntos
Retalho Perfurante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Consenso , Humanos , Microcirurgia , Nervos Periféricos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Suíça
9.
Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir ; 51(6): 418-423, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698485

RESUMO

The profitability of medical treatment has gained increasing importance in health politics and likewise has become a considerable part of a microsurgeon's daily practice. The resulting cost pressure leads to microsurgeons having to justify their often complex and expensive treatments against hospital providers and health insurances. In this position paper of the German Speaking Group for Microsurgery of Peripheral Nerves and Vessels, we analyze the current status of profitability of microsurgical extremity and breast reconstruction, and its impact on choice of therapy and residency training. We specifically highlight the available literature, that shows often reduced long-term treatment costs after microsurgical reconstruction in comparison to cheaper initial treatments. The statements are based on a consensus workshop on the 40th meeting of the DAM in Lugano, Switzerland.


Assuntos
Microcirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Cirurgia Plástica , Internato e Residência , Mamoplastia/economia , Microcirurgia/economia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Suíça
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(672): 2159-2163, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746573

RESUMO

The main aims of the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus cohort study are to better understand: 1) the personal, biologic, genetic end environmental determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, and 2) the existing association of mental disorders with cardiovascular diseases. The study was initiated in 2003 and over 6700 participants from the city of Lausanne were include and very rich phenotypic data were collected making the study unique worldwide. Numerous scientific articles were published in various fields such as epidemiology, public health, genetic, social and environmental determinants of cardiovascular diseases and their association with mental health. We briefly present here some key results obtained over the last 16 years.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 432-438, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the perspective of executives on the implementation of peer support in psychiatric facilities - an aspect that has been insufficiently addressed in research so far. METHODS: We guided qualitative interviews with eleven executives of psychiatric institutions from Germany and Switzerland, in which peer workers are employed. The interview transcripts were evaluated according to the principles of content analysis. RESULTS: The study participants evaluated the inclusion of peer workers very positively overall. Peer support was described as a special quality feature of a psychiatric institution. In addition, improvements were reported with regard to a more respectful and conscious interaction with colleagues and patients as well as a more positive therapeutic climate. Based on their experience, the executives named a number of change management tasks, e. g. with regard to the preparation of the organization, personnel selection and financing, job descriptions and the integration of the peer workers in the team. DISCUSSION: Our results underline the specific advantages of peer support for the further development of psychiatric practice. Some implications for personnel management are discussed.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Alemanha , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suíça
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1807-1811, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599522

RESUMO

Measles is a disease that was considered as relegated to medical history, since an extremely efficient vaccine had been developed. However, in Switzerland and elsewhere there has been an increasing number of epidemics in the past years, and the highest number of new cases this year. Based on two clinical cases showing very different outcomes, we discuss the disease, its clinic, complications, management, and the challenges remaining in obtaining a sufficient vaccination coverage worldwide as well as in our country.


Assuntos
Exantema/etiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Sarampo/complicações , Sarampo/terapia , Vacina contra Sarampo , Suíça/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1825-1830, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599524

RESUMO

Viral infections are extremely common and generally self-restricted, thus antiviral therapy is limited to precise indications. Apart from HIV (not reviewed in this article), the principal treatable viruses are HSV 1 and 2, VZV, CMV, Influenza A and B, and hepatitis B and C. Vaccination is another cornerstone of viral infections control. This article summarizes actual and available therapy. New treatments arrived recently on the market or are being developed : HCV can now be treated with a high success rate, baloxavir against the flu, a new zoster vaccine will probably soon be available in Switzerland and letermovir improves CMV prophylaxis in the case of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Medicina Geral , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suíça , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 834, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-containing combinations were introduced in Switzerland after October 2016 and are recommended over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with osteoporosis or impaired renal function. METHODS: We included all participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study on TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy with follow-up visits after January 2016. We determined the proportion of switches from TDF to TAF overall, and among patients with risk factors for TDF toxicity, including osteoporosis, impaired renal function or marked proteinuria. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore predictors of switching from TDF to TAF. RESULTS: We included 5'012 patients, of whom 652 (13.0%) had risk factors for TDF toxicity. A switch from TDF to TAF was undertaken in 2'796 (55.8%) individuals overall, and in 465 (71.3%) with risk factors. Predictors of switching to TAF were male sex (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.50), age > 50 years (1.43, 1.23-1.66) and the presence of risk factors for TDF toxicity (2.21, 1.77-2.75). In contrast, patients with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based single-pill regimen (0.11, 0.09-0.13), those treated in non-tertiary care centers (0.56, 0.46-0.70), as well as those with CD4 cell counts below 500/µL (0.77, 0.66-0.90) and with chronic hepatitis C infection (0.66, 0.54-0.80) were most likely to stay on TDF. CONCLUSIONS: Over 50% of patients on TDF-containing therapy, including the majority of patients at risk for TDF toxicity, were switched to TAF within two years of its introduction in Switzerland. Individuals on NNRTI-based single-pill regimens were most likely to remain on TDF.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(665): 1770-1774, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580022

RESUMO

Nowadays, new psychotropic treatments might result on rapid onset of weight gain also related to other factors such as individual vulnerability, poor diet and lack of exercise. Many studies have reported that weight gain is only the premise of a series of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular complications. In this context, we have established since June 2017 in an ambulatory centre in Geneva, a 4F program (Fit, Fun, Feel and Food), to optimize the measures and strategies needed to prevent and reduce weight gain in these patients. This transversal program is naturalistically and systematically centered on physical activity, healthy diet and improved body perception. We will show some preliminary results of 4F program.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Ganho de Peso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Imagem Corporal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suíça , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1987-1990, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663699

RESUMO

This article addresses the issue of health inequalities and the measures allowing to reduce them. Starting from the observation that, in Switzerland like in the rest of the world, health gaps between the riches and the poorest are still very marked, this article questions the role that health promotion and prevention can play in the fight against this phenomenon. The main approaches allowing to reduce inequalities are presented and illustrated with examples : the universal approach, the targeted approach and proportionate universalism. This last approach appears as the ideal towards which all health promotion and prevention actions should converge in order to reduce health inequalities all along the social gradient. However, its translation into prevention measures remains subject to interpretation. Therefore, the article ends with a set of recommendations for the elaboration of measures aiming to reduce health inequalities.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Pobreza , Suíça/epidemiologia
19.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109652, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629174

RESUMO

Decision-making in environmental management requires eliciting preferences of stakeholders and predicting outcomes of decision alternatives. Usually, preferences and predictions are both uncertain. Uncertainty of predictions can be tackled by multi-attribute utility theory, but the uncertainty of preferences remains a challenge. We demonstrate an approach for including both uncertainties in a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), using utility theory and the concept of expected expected utility. For a decision regarding a regional merger of wastewater infrastructure in Switzerland, we constructed preference models for four stakeholders. These models also allowed for non-additive interactions between objectives. We evaluated the performance of eleven decision alternatives for which we predicted potential outcomes. Even though uncertainties were high, we could draw conclusions based on the expected expected utility of alternatives. Building a pipeline to discharge treated wastewater to a larger river emerged as a potential consensus alternative to mitigate the problem of micropollutants in a small stream. We investigated the robustness of the findings with sensitivity analysis regarding the preference parameters and the included objectives. In their actual decision, the stakeholders partly preferred other alternatives than those proposed by the model. Their choices could be explained by reduced decision models in which only few objectives were included. This may indicate the use of simplified choice heuristics by the stakeholders. The presented approach is feasible for supporting other difficult environmental or engineering decisions in practice, for which we give a number of recommendations.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Águas Residuárias , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Suíça , Incerteza
20.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1909-1913, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643150

RESUMO

In Switzerland, since modifications of the law regulating reproductive medicine introduced the 1rst of September 2017, preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) has been legalised. Infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) can benefit from this technology by detecting which embryos are aneuploid (ie abnormal number of chromosomes, PGT-A). This is performed in order to transfer euploid embryos (normal number of chromosomes) and to optimise success, though data are limited. Couples at risk of transmitting a severe monogenic disease or unbalanced translocation can undergo PGT for monogenic disease or chromosomal structural rearrangements (PGT-M/SR). These tests are subject to strict legal criteria. Their clinical application needs to be approved through a multidisciplinary approach taking into account legal and ethical issues while respecting the autonomy of the couples.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/ética , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/ética , Aneuploidia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Suíça
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