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2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10791-10799, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497956

RESUMO

Very weak signals of fragment ions of nosiheptide could be observed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The preparation of 4-hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (HMIA), a specific fragment of nosiheptide, by alkaline hydrolysis is described. HMIA showed a good mass spectrometric signal in negative electrospray ionization mode. In the new method, the nosiheptide residue in muscle tissue was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution; this was followed by cleanup using mixed mode cartridges. Identification and quantification of nosiheptide were carried out by analyzing HMIA in hydrolysate of muscles. Nosiheptide showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.996) in the calibration range of 2-500 µg/kg, and a low limit of quantification of 2 µg/kg was obtained in swine, chicken, and fish muscles. Recoveries of nosiheptide from spiked muscle samples were 85-108% with relative standard deviations less than 10%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of the nosiheptide residue in medicated animal tissues samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Álcalis/química , Animais , Galinhas , Peixes , Hidrólise , Limite de Detecção , Músculos/química , Suínos , Tiazóis/química
4.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(8): 614-616, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474044

RESUMO

On October 3rd, 2017, one male patient, aged 27 years, was admitted to our hospital 6 hours after hydrothermal scald of torso, buttocks, and limbs. The total area of burn was about 60% total body surface area, and the depth was from deep partial-thickness burn to full-thickness burn. Immediately after admission, the patient was given symptomatic support treatments, such as anti-shock, fluid replacement, and anti-infection, etc. After being treated by debridement and xenogenic (porcine) skin grafting for 2 times, the wounds were healed well. On the 12th day of admission, linezolid was used to prevent infection according to the results of microbial culture and drug sensitivity test, since when the level of his blood lactate continued to increase. After 8 days, linezolid was discontinued and vitamin B1 was given orally for 1 week, and the level of lactic acid gradually decreased to normal in result. This case was used mainly to analyze whether linezolid could directly cause hyperlacticemia and its important mechanism, aiming at reminding clinicians of being alert to the risk of hyperlacticemia when using linezolid. If hyperlacticemia occurs, linezolid should be discontinued immediately and vitamin B1 should be taken orally to correct the high lactic acid value, and the treatment plan should be adjusted if necessary.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Hiperlactatemia/induzido quimicamente , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Pele , Suínos
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122031, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476566

RESUMO

The influence of pine leaf biochar (PLB) amendment on bacterial community succession and its correlation with physic-chemical parameters during pig manure (PM) composting was evaluated. The five different dosages of PLB [at 0% (T1), 2.5% (T2), 5% (T3), 10% (T4) and 15% (T5)] mixed with initial composting mass were conducted to composting for 50 days. The present study indicated that bacterial diversity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PLB amended treatments than the control, but T4 treatment showed the highest among the all PLB applied treatment. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidete were four most abundant phyla of all the treatments. Furthermore, redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial community were significantly (p < 0.05) positively correlated with temperature, pH, TOC, CO2 and NH3 emissions, while they were negatively correlated with the N2O and CH4 emission. Overall, the results suggested that the addition of 10% PLB (T4 treatment) was a potential option to enhance the composting efficiency with significantly greater abundance of bacterial community and finally improved the compost quality.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo , Suínos
6.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 181-186, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404594

RESUMO

The cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) family includes key enzymes for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Several animal models have been used to determine the metabolite profile of specific drugs. Among these are porcine microsomes prepared from Göttingen minipigs. However, CYP expression profile in microsomes from this pig breed is unknown. In the present study, we determined the mRNA and protein profiles of a comprehensive selection of CYPs in microsomes prepared from male and female Göttingen minipigs. Using RT-PCR, western blotting and mass spectroscopy, we found that the expression levels of CYP1A, CYP2A and CYP2E1 were significantly higher in females than males. Moreover, some of the transcription factors controlling CYP transcription also showed a sex-dependent expression pattern. Conversely, expression of CYP2B, CYP2D and CYP3A was comparable between sexes. The overall CYP expression distribution showed high similarity with what previously been reported in humans. In conclusion, our results suggest that Göttingen minipigs are a reliable model for studying CYPs.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Isoenzimas , Masculino , Microssomos/enzimologia , Modelos Animais , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade por Substrato , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4911-4929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456637

RESUMO

Background: Apocynin (APO) is a bioactive phytochemical with prominent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Designing a nano-delivery system targeted to potentiate the gastric antiulcerogenic activity of APO has not been investigated yet. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a low molecular weight chitosan and its oral nanoparticulate system for potentiating the antiulcerogenic activity of the loaded APO has been described here. Methods: COS-nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with APO (using tripolyphosphate [TPP] as a cross-linker) were prepared by ionic gelation method and fully characterized. The chosen formula was extensively evaluated regarding in vitro release profile, kinetic analysis, and stability at refrigerated and room temperatures. Ultimately, the in vivo antiulcerogenic activity against ketoprofen (KP)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was assessed by macroscopic parameters including Paul's index and antiulcerogenic activity, histopathological examination, immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression level in ulcerated gastric tissue, and biochemical measurement of oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: The selected NPs formula with COS (0.5 % w/v) and TPP (0.1% w/v) was the most appropriate one with drug entrapment efficiency percentage of 35.06%, particle size of 436.20 nm, zeta potential of +38.20 mV, and mucoadhesive strength of 51.22%. It exhibited a biphasic in vitro release pattern as well as high stability at refrigerated temperature for a 6-month storage period. APO-loaded COS-NPs provoked marvelous antiulcerogenic activity against KP-induced gastric ulceration in rats compared with free APO treated group, which was emphasized by histopathological, IHC, and biochemical studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, APO-loaded COS-NPs could be considered as a promising oral phytopharmaceutical nanoparticulate system for management of gastric ulceration.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/administração & dosagem , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Suínos , Difração de Raios X
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121853, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377510

RESUMO

The concentration of antibiotics in anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) usually gradually increases due to the addition of antibiotics in livestock feed. Lemna aequinoctialis was used to treatment synthetic ADSW contaminated by oxytetracycline (OTC) whose concentrations were 0.05, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L, and its influences on NH3-N and TP remove were investigated. The fresh weight, photosynthetic pigment and protein content of duckweed were also investigated. Results have shown that nutrient removal and duckweed growth followed the "dose-response" relationships, and 0.05 mg/L OTC could significantly promote the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and proteins in duckweed. Meanwhile, the protein content gradually decreased during investigation. More important, the degradation products and possible degradation pathways of OTC were diagrammatized via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and twelve intermediates were detected in the duckweed systems. This study can offer a novel view for phytoremediation of ADSW containing antibiotics by aquatic plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Oxitetraciclina/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromatografia Líquida , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 144-153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400776

RESUMO

Ivermectin is a pesticide that has been used for over 30 years in livestock. Although there are a number of studies on the therapeutic potential of ivermectin, little is known about the effects of the drug during the early stage of pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the detrimental effects of ivermectin on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Ivermectin not only inhibited the proliferation of both cells via the regulation of cell cycle-associated genes, but also induced apoptosis in pTr and pLE cells. We also verified its effect on mitochondrial dysfunction as shown by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in pTr and pLE cells. As a mechanistic approach, we evaluated ivermectin-mediated cell signaling interactions including PI3K, AKT and MAPK pathways. Overall, our results suggest that constant exposure to and accumulation of ivermectin may cause abnormal fetal morphogenesis and placentation during the early stages of pregnancy. Our results may further provide a comprehensive understanding of the detrimental effects of ivermectin during pregnancy and will contribute to the establishment of a complete safety profile for ivermectin and its association with environmental pollution and public health in humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Útero/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Suínos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 37-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419763

RESUMO

Previous studies have begun to characterize the microbial community dynamics of the skin, soil, gut, and oral cavities of decomposing remains. One area that has yet to be explored in great detail is the microbiome of the fly larval mass, the community of immature flies that plays a significant role in decomposition. The current study aimed to characterize the microbiology and chemistry of larval masses established on pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses and to determine if these characteristics have potential as temporal evidence. Carcasses (n = 3) were decomposed on the soil surface of a tropical habitat on Oahu, Hawaii, USA and sampled over three days at 74 h, 80 h, 98 h, 104 h, 122 h, and 128 h (∼85-142 Accumulated Degree Days) postmortem. Larval masses were analyzed via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and in situ chemical measurements (pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential). A trend was observed that resulted in three distinct microbial communities (pre-98 h, 98 h, and post-98 h). The oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) of larval masses apparently regulated microbial community structure with the most negative Eh being associated with the least rich and diverse microbial communities. Overall, a significant interaction between time and taxa was observed, particularly with bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The current results provide new insight into the microbial community and chemical parameters of larval masses and indicate a temporal shift that could be further studied as a PMI estimator.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Larva/química , Larva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Entomologia , Patologia Legal , Hawaii , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos
13.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 45, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crossbreeding is widely used in pig production because of the benefits of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Commonly, sire lines are bred for traits such as feed efficiency, growth and meat content, whereas maternal lines are also bred for reproduction and longevity traits, and the resulting three-way crossbred pigs are used for production of meat. The most important genetic basis for heterosis is dominance effects, e.g. removal of inbreeding depression. The aims of this study were to (1) present a modification of a previously developed model with additive, dominance and inbreeding depression genetic effects for analysis of data from a purebred sire line and three-way crossbred pigs; (2) based on this model, present equations for additive genetic variances, additive genetic covariance, and estimated breeding values (EBV) with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances; (3) use the model to analyse four production traits, i.e. ultra-sound recorded backfat thickness (BF), conformation score (CONF), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), recorded on Danbred Duroc and Danbred Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred pigs reared in the same environment; and (4) obtain estimates of genetic parameters, additive genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances, and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances for this data set. RESULTS: Additive genetic correlations (with associated standard errors) between purebred and crossbred performances were equal to 0.96 (0.07), 0.83 (0.16), 0.75 (0.17), and 0.87 (0.18) for BF, CONF, ADG, and FCR, respectively. For BF, ADG, and FCR, the additive genetic variance was smaller for purebred performance than for crossbred performance, but for CONF the reverse was observed. EBV on Duroc boars were more accurate for purebred performance than for crossbred performance for BF, CONF and FCR, but not for ADG. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological developments led to equations for genetic (co)variances and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances in a three-way crossbreeding system. As illustrated by the data analysis, these equations may be useful for implementation of genomic selection in this system.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Depressão por Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 272, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ceftiofur Sodium is widely used in China. Our aim was to determine Ceftiofur Sodium activity and optimize dosing regimens against the pathogen Haemophilus parasuis using an in vitro and ex vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling approach. By adopting these strategies, we wanted to extend the effective life of Ceftiofur Sodium in reduce drug-resistance in pigs. RESULTS: We established an H. parasuis infection model in pigs, and assessed the pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Sodium in both healthy and infected animals. After Ceftiofur Sodium (10 mg/kg, i.m.) administration to healthy and H. parasuis-infected pigs, plasma based desfuroylceftiofur (a metabolite of Ceftiofur Sodium) was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Sodium (desfuroylceftiofur) was consistent with a two-compartment open model, with first-order absorption. We observed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy and infected pigs. Pharmacodynamics data showed that Ceftiofur Sodium was highly inhibitory against H. parasuis, with MIC, MBC, and MPC values of 0.003125, 0.0125 and 0.032 µg/mL, respectively. Desfuroylceftiofur in plasma also had strong bactericidal activity. Almost all H. parasuis cultured in plasma medium of Ceftiofur Sodium-inoculated healthy pigs, at each time point, were killed within 24 h. A weaker antibacterial activity was measured in infected-pig plasma medium at 18, 24, 36, and 48 h, after Ceftiofur Sodium inoculation. Pharmacokinetic parameters were combined with ex vivo pharmacodynamic parameters, and the bacteriostatic effect (36.006 h), bactericidal effect (71.637 h) and clearance (90.619 h) within 24 h, were determined using the Hill equation. Dose-calculation equations revealed the optimal dose of Ceftiofur Sodium to be 0.599-1.507 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in Ceftiofur Sodium pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy and infected pigs, although pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics fitting curves showed obviously differences. The optimal dose of Ceftiofur Sodium was lower than recommended (3 mg/kg), which may provide improved treatments for Glässers disease, with lower drug-resistance possibility.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus parasuis/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
15.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 45-51, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391410

RESUMO

This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cervos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Suínos , Tóquio
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374415

RESUMO

This study focused on evaluate the effectiveness of biochar alone compare integrated with bacterial consortium amendment on the gaseous emissions mitigation as well as carbon and nitrogen sequestration during pig manure composting. Six additive treatments were performed based on uniform mixing pig manure with wheat straw [bacterial consortium (T2), 12%wood biochar (T3), 12%wood biochar + bacterial consortium (T4), 12%wheat straw biochar (T5), 12%wheat straw biochar + bacterial consortium (T6), while T1 without any additive]. The results obviously indicated that integrated use of biochar and bacterial consortium could remarkably relieved gaseous emissions, improved carbon and nitrogen conservation as well as accelerated maturity of composting. Notably the optimum combination was existed in T6 owing to lowest nutrient losses (nitrogen and carbon losses were 9.91 g/kg and 189.54 g/kg) and gas emissions (30.16 g/kg) as well as supreme maturity (germination index > 100%); it's an economic-practical and environmental protection novel disposal approach for solid waste.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem , Gases/metabolismo , Esterco , Nutrientes , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Suínos , Triticum/química , Madeira/química
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121876, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377509

RESUMO

Composting is used widely for recycling spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This study investigated the effects of inoculating a lignocellulose-degrading consortium at two levels comprising 0% (control: CK) and 10% (T) on the fungal community and cellulose-degrading genes during SMS co-composting with swine manure. Lignocellulose degradation rate in T was 8.77-34.45% higher compared with CK. Inoculation affected the distribution of the fungal community, increased the community diversity, and inhibited pathogens. Network analysis showed that inoculation changed the co-occurrence patterns of the fungal communities and made the co-composting system more stable. The relative abundances of glycoside hydrolase genes GH3E (fungal GH3), GH6, and GH7 were 0.45, 0.09, and 0.39 logs higher in T, respectively, than CK. Partial least-squares path modeling suggested that the variations in cellulose-degrading genes were driven mainly by changes in the fungal community during co-composting. Therefore, the lignocellulose-degrading consortium accelerated the transformation of lignocellulose to facilitate safer composting.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lignina/metabolismo , Esterco/microbiologia , Animais , Micobioma , Suínos
19.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(6): e201900608, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the resistance to medial traction of abdominal wall muscles, before and after performing relaxing incisions. METHODS: Seventeen live pigs were used. After a median laparotomy, the handles were made in the rectus abdominis muscles (RAM) to fit the dynamometer. Step 1 (control phase): tensile strength measured without performing relaxant incisions. Step 2: A curvilinear relaxant incision was made on the anterior blade of the right RAM sheath and then the tensile strength was measured by the edge of the wound. The same procedure was adopted after incision of the left posterior blade. Step 3: Relaxing incisions were made in the right posterior and left anterior blade, so that both sides were left with a relaxing incision on both blades. Measurements of resistance were performed. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the sides. On the right and left side, all treatments reduced the tensile strength when compared to each other and to the control. There was a reduction of 12% and 9.8% after incision of the anterior and posterior blade, respectively. CONCLUSION: Relaxing incisions reduced tensile strength in the ventral abdominal wall.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/cirurgia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Laparotomia/métodos , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Sutura , Suínos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
20.
Life Sci ; 234: 116734, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394126

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute myocardial insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for patients who undergo cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance during CPB has not been fully investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the role of myocardial insulin resistance on the cardiac function and its underlying mechanism, CPB operation and pharmacological intervention were applied in mini pigs, and myocardial insulin signaling, glucose uptake, ATP production and cardiac function were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Our data showed that CPB elicited not only hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but also inactivated Akt, and impaired the transposition of membrane glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), reduced glucose uptake and ATP production in the myocardium as well, which in turn was accompanied with cardiac dysfunction. Meanwhile, linear correlations were established among reduced myocardial glucose uptake, ATP production, and depressed cardiac systolic or diastolic function. Reactivation of Akt by SC79, an Akt agonist, partially alleviated myocardial insulin resistance and restored post CPB cardiac function via augmenting myocardial glucose uptake and ATP production. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that acute myocardial insulin resistance due to inactivation of Akt played a key role in cardiac dysfunction post CPB via suppressing glucose metabolism related energy supply.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
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