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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068986

RESUMO

A therapeutic potential of the TRPA1 channel agonist cinnamaldehyde for use in inflammatory bowel disease is emerging, but the mechanisms are unclear. Semi-quantitative qPCR of various parts of the porcine gastrointestinal tract showed that mRNA for TRPA1 was highest in the colonic mucosa. In Ussing chambers, 1 mmol·L-1 cinnamaldehyde induced increases in short circuit current (ΔIsc) and conductance (ΔGt) across the colon that were higher than those across the jejunum or after 1 mmol·L-1 thymol. Lidocaine, amiloride or bumetanide did not change the response. The application of 1 mmol·L-1 quinidine or the bilateral replacement of 120 Na+, 120 Cl- or 25 HCO3- reduced ΔGt, while the removal of Ca2+ enhanced ΔGt with ΔIsc numerically higher. ΔIsc decreased after 0.5 NPPB, 0.01 indometacin and the bilateral replacement of 120 Na+ or 25 HCO3-. The removal of 120 Cl- had no effect. Cinnamaldehyde also activates TRPV3, but comparative measurements involving patch clamp experiments on overexpressing cells demonstrated that much higher concentrations are required. We suggest that cinnamaldehyde stimulates the secretion of HCO3- via apical CFTR and basolateral Na+-HCO3- cotransport, preventing acidosis and damage to the epithelium and the colonic microbiome. Signaling may involve the opening of TRPA1, depolarization of the epithelium and a rise in PGE2 following a lower uptake of prostaglandins via OATP2A1.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/agonistas , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073915

RESUMO

The recovery of cerebral circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important to improve the neurologic outcomes of cardiac arrest patients. To evaluate the feasibility of an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based prediction model as a CPR feedback indicator of high- or low-CBF carotid blood flow (CBF), the frontal EEG and hemodynamic data including CBF were measured during animal experiments with a ventricular fibrillation (VF) swine model. The most significant 10 EEG parameters in the time, frequency and entropy domains were determined by neighborhood component analysis and Student's t-test for discriminating high- or low-CBF recovery with a division criterion of 30%. As a binary CBF classifier, the performances of logistic regression, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor, random forest and multilayer perceptron algorithms were compared with eight-fold cross-validation. The three-order polynomial kernel-based SVM model showed the best accuracy of 0.853. The sensitivity, specificity, F1 score and area under the curve of the SVM model were 0.807, 0.906, 0.853 and 0.909, respectively. An automated CBF classifier derived from non-invasive EEG is feasible as a potential indicator of the CBF recovery during CPR in a VF swine model.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Suínos , Fibrilação Ventricular
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066410

RESUMO

Pig weight and body size are important indicators for producers. Due to the increasing scale of pig farms, it is increasingly difficult for farmers to quickly and automatically obtain pig weight and body size. Due to this problem, we focused on a multiple output regression convolutional neural network (CNN) to estimate pig weight and body size. DenseNet201, ResNet152 V2, Xception and MobileNet V2 were modified into multiple output regression CNNs and trained on modeling data. By comparing the estimated performance of each model on test data, modified Xception was selected as the optimal estimation model. Based on pig height, body shape, and contour, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the model to estimate body weight (BW), shoulder width (SW), shoulder height (SH), hip width (HW), hip width (HH), and body length (BL) were 1.16 kg, 0.33 cm, 1.23 cm, 0.38 cm, 0.66 cm, and 0.75 cm, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) value between the estimated and measured results was in the range of 0.9879-0.9973. Combined with the LabVIEW software development platform, this method can estimate pig weight and body size accurately, quickly, and automatically. This work contributes to the automatic management of pig farms.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suínos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069374

RESUMO

Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a type of fatal arrhythmia that can cause sudden death within minutes. The study of a VF detection algorithm has important clinical significance. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for the automatic detection of VF based on the acquisition of cardiac mechanical activity-related signals, namely ballistocardiography (BCG), by non-contact sensors. BCG signals, including VF, sinus rhythm, and motion artifacts, were collected through electric defibrillation experiments in pigs. Through autocorrelation and S transform, the time-frequency graph with obvious information of cardiac rhythmic activity was obtained, and a feature set of 13 elements was constructed for each 7 s segment after statistical analysis and hierarchical clustering. Then, the random forest classifier was used to classify VF and non-VF, and two paradigms of intra-patient and inter-patient were used to evaluate the performance. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity were 0.965 and 0.958 under 10-fold cross-validation, and they were 0.947 and 0.946 under leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm combining feature extraction and machine learning can effectively detect VF in BCG, laying a foundation for the development of long-term self-cardiac monitoring at home and a VF real-time detection and alarm system.


Assuntos
Balistocardiografia , Algoritmos , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Suínos , Fibrilação Ventricular/diagnóstico
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 221, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insemination with spermatozoa, seminal plasma and extender, cause a rapid inflammatory response in pig endometrium, characterized by an influx of neutrophils into the uterus. The transient inflammatory response to semen involves cytokine induction. Potential functions for Interleukin-23 (IL-23) in the inflammatory response to different insemination treatments were examined by studying mRNA expression and immunostaining in gilt oviduct and endometrium 35-40 h after insemination. Insemination was performed with seminal plasma (SP), spermatozoa (SPZ) without SP in the extender Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), or BTS alone. In control gilts an insemination catheter was inserted without anything being inseminated. RESULTS: Results showed that IL-23 mRNA was expressed in oviduct and endometrium after insemination regardless of treatment. There was an approximate two- to fourfold increase in expression of IL-23 mRNA in catheter-insertion control compared with SPZ, SP and BTS treatment groups. IL-23 immunolabelling was detected in a small number of separate cells and in the sub-epithelial connective tissue of the endometrium, the endosalpinx of isthmus and infundibulum. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, insemination with SP, SPZ in BTS, and BTS alone decreased the expression of IL-23 mRNA in the endometrium compared to catheter-insertion control, indicating a possible role for IL-23 in the inflammatory response after insemination in gilts.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial , Interleucina-23 , Masculino , Oviductos , Espermatozoides , Suínos
6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112182, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082982

RESUMO

Ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) require excellent osteoconductive ability to imitate the bone environment. We developed a mineralised tissue-derived ECM-modified true bone ceramic (TBC) scaffold for the delivery of aspartic acid-modified bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptide (P28) and assessed its osteogenic capacity. Decellularized ECM from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was coated onto the surface of TBC, followed by mineralisation modification (mSIS/TBC). P28 was subsequently immobilised onto the scaffolds in the absence of a crosslinker. The alkaline phosphatase activity and other osteogenic differentiation marker results showed that osteogenesis of the P28/mSIS/TBC scaffolds was significantly greater than that of the TBC and mSIS/TBC groups. In addition, to examine the osteoconductive capability of this system in vivo, we established a rat calvarial bone defect model and evaluated the new bone area and new blood vessel density. Histological observation showed that P28/mSIS/TBC exhibited favourable bone regeneration efficacy. This study proposes the use of mSIS/TBC loaded with P28 as a promising osteogenic scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Osteogênese , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Matriz Extracelular , Peptídeos , Ratos , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 445, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In mammals, the ovary is the essential system of female reproduction for the onset of puberty, and the abnormal puberty has negative outcomes on health. CircRNA is a non-coding RNA produced by non-canonical alternative splicing (AS). Several studies have reported that circRNA is involved in the gene regulation and plays an important role in some human diseases. However, the contribution of circRNA has received little known within the onset of puberty in ovary. RESULTS: Here, the profiles of ovarian circRNAs across pre-, in- and post-pubertal stages were established by RNA-sEq. In total, 972 circRNAs were identified, including 631 stage-specific circRNAs and 8 tissue-specific circRNAs. The biological functions of parental genes of circRNAs were enriched in steroid biosynthesis, autophagy-animal, MAPK signaling pathway, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and ras signaling pathway. Moreover, 5 circRNAs derived from 4 puberty-related genes (ESR1, JAK2, NF1 and ARNT) were found in this study. The A3SS events were the most alternative splicing, but IR events were likely to be arose in post-pubertal ovaries. Besides, the circRNA-miRNA-gene networks were explored for 10 differentially expressed circRNAs. Furthermore, the head-to-tail exon as well as the expressions of 10 circRNAs were validated by the divergent RT-qPCR and sanger sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the profiles of ovarian circRNAs were provided during pubertal transition in gilts, and these results provided useful information for the investigation on the onset of puberty at the ovarian-circRNAs-level in mammals.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Circular , Animais , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Ovário , Puberdade , RNA/genética , Suínos/genética
8.
Urologe A ; 60(6): 696-705, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097109

RESUMO

ABSTRAKT: Harninkontinenz ist in Deutschland weit verbreitet und betrifft Millionen von Frauen und Männern. Vor allem Männer, die postoperativ dauerhaft inkontinent sind, werden hierzulande trotz der ausreichenden Verfügbarkeit chirurgischer Optionen unterbehandelt. Der künstliche Schließmuskel wird seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreich zur Behandlung angeborener und erworbener Stress-Harninkontinenz bei Männern und Frauen sowie neurogener Harninkontinenz eingesetzt und wird in Form neuer Modelle weiterentwickelt. Aufgrund der guten Ergebnisse, Es gilt jetzt als Standardtherapie für Männer mit anhaltender, mittelschwerer bis schwerer Harninkontinenz. Die operationstechnische Technik ist anspruchsvoll, kann aber erlernt werden. Die meisten Komplikationen können in erfahrenen Händen deutlich reduziert werden. Patientenzufriedenheit mit künstlichen Harnsphinctern (AUS) ist hoch und korreliert mit der Kontinenzrate und nicht mit der relativ hohen Revisionsrate, weshalb diese Behandlungsoption in Deutschland zunehmend mehr Patienten mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Harninkontinenz angeboten werden sollte. Urologen in der allgemeinen Praxis spielen in diesem Zusammenhang eine zentrale Rolle.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Suínos
9.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(3): 546-552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate if repeated use of pilot and depth drills for implant site preparation in combination with resterilization leads to any significant changes in cutting edges or in preparation times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With drills of different lengths and widths (pilot, parallel, and tapered), osteotomies were performed under constant conditions in pig jaws. After each osteotomy, the drills were processed and sterilized. The required time for finishing the osteotomy was noted and analyzed. At the end of each osteotomy cycle, consisting of 10 osteotomies and 10 sterilizations, the cutting edge wear of the drill was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Unused but sterilized drills served as a control group. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluated wear between pilot drills and depth drills as well as between the test and the control group. After 60 osteotomies, implant drills showed considerable signs of wear at the major cutting edge (P > .05). Osteotomy led to a significant increase in the drilling time. While pilot drills showed an increase of drilling time of the factor 33.3, and the tapered drills of the factor 5.37, the parallel drills remained constant in their performance. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the process of sterilization as well as the number of performed osteotomies play a major role in the wear of the cutting edge and the performance of implant drills.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Animais , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Temperatura Alta , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osteotomia , Esterilização , Suínos
10.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 441, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower selection intensities in indigenous breeds of Chinese pig have resulted in obvious genetic and phenotypic divergence. One such breed, the Nanyang black pig, is renowned for its high lipid deposition and high genetic divergence, making it an ideal model in which to investigate lipid position trait mechanisms in pigs. An understanding of lipid deposition in pigs might improve pig meat traits in future breeding and promote the selection progress of pigs through modern molecular breeding techniques. Here, transcriptome and tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteome (TMT)-based proteome analyses were carried out using longissimus dorsi (LD) tissues from individual Nanyang black pigs that showed high levels of genetic variation. RESULTS: A large population of Nanyang black pigs was phenotyped using multi-production trait indexes, and six pigs were selected and divided into relatively high and low lipid deposition groups. The combined transcriptomic and proteomic data identified 15 candidate genes that determine lipid deposition genetic divergence. Among them, FASN, CAT, and SLC25A20 were the main causal candidate genes. The other genes could be divided into lipid deposition-related genes (BDH2, FASN, CAT, DHCR24, ACACA, GK, SQLE, ACSL4, and SCD), PPARA-centered fat metabolism regulatory factors (PPARA, UCP3), transcription or translation regulators (SLC25A20, PDK4, CEBPA), as well as integrin, structural proteins, and signal transduction-related genes (EGFR). CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omics data set has provided a valuable resource for future analysis of lipid deposition traits, which might improve pig meat traits in future breeding and promote the selection progress in pigs, especially in Nanyang black pigs.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067360

RESUMO

The primary mechanism by which adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) exert their reparative or regenerative potential relies predominantly on paracrine action. Secretory abilities of ASCs have been found to be amplified by hypoxia pre-conditioning. This study investigates the impact of hypoxia (1% O2) on the secretome composition of pig ASCs (pASCs) and explores the effect of pASCs' conditioned media (CM) on skin cell functions in vitro and the expression of markers attributed to wound healing. Exposure of pASCs to hypoxia increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CM-Hyp compared to CM collected from the cells cultured in normoxia (CM-Nor). CM-Hyp promoted the migratory ability of pig keratinocytes (pKERs) and delayed migration of pig dermal fibroblasts (pDFs). Exposure of pKERs to either CM-Nor or CM-Hyp decreased the levels of pro-fibrotic indicators WNT10A and WNT11. Furthermore, CM-Hyp enhanced the expression of KRT14, the marker of the basal epidermis layer. In contrast, CM-Nor showed a stronger effect on pDFs manifested by increases in TGFB1, COL1A1, COL3A1, and FN1 mRNA expression. The formation of three-dimensional endothelial cell networks was improved in the presence of CM-Hyp. Overall, our results demonstrate that the paracrine activity of pASCs affects skin cells, and this property might be used to modulate wound healing.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Suínos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
Biomater Sci ; 9(12): 4433-4439, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075906

RESUMO

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an important enzyme-based biomarker present in several bacterial species; however, it is currently undervalued as a strategy to detect pathogenic bacteria. Here, we explore our ALP-responsive colorimetric and fluorescent probe (TCF-ALP) for such applications. TCF-ALP displayed a colorimetric and fluorescence response towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with a limit of detection of 3.7 × 106 CFU mL-1 after 24 h incubation. To our surprise, TCF-ALP proved selective towards Staphylococcus bacteria when compared with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Selectivity was also seen in clinically relevant S. aureus biofilms. Owing to the high prevalence and surface location of S. aureus in chronic wounds, TCF-ALP was subsequently encapsulated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based hydrogels as a proof-of-concept "smart" wound dressing. TCF-ALP hydrogels were capable of detecting S. aureus in planktonic and biofilm assays, and displayed a clear colour change from yellow to purple after 24 h incubation using ex vivo porcine skin models. Overall, TCF-ALP is a simple tool that requires no prior knowledge, training, or specialist equipment, and has the potential to overcome issues related to invasive swabbing and tissue biopsy methods. Thus, TCF-ALP could be used as a tool to monitor the early development of infection in a wound and allow for the rapid provision of appropriate treatment for Staphylococcal bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Bactérias , Bandagens , Biofilmes , Escherichia coli , Corantes Fluorescentes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Suínos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065004

RESUMO

Phosphinate pseudopeptide are analogs of peptides containing phosphinate moiety in a place of the amide bond. Due to this, the organophosphorus fragment resembles the tetrahedral transition state of the amide bond hydrolysis. Additionally, it is also capable of coordinating metal ions, for example, zinc or magnesium ions. These two properties of phosphinate pseudopeptides make them an ideal candidate for metal-related protease inhibitors. This research investigates the influence of additional residue in the P2 position on the inhibitory properties of phosphinopeptides. The synthetic strategy is proposed, based on retrosynthetic analysis. The N-C-P bond formation in the desired compounds is conveniently available from the three-component condensation of appropriate amino components, aldehydes, and hypophosphorous acid. One of the crucial synthetic steps is the careful selection of the protecting groups for all the functionals. Determination of the inhibitor activity of the obtained compounds has been done using UV-Vis spectroscopy and standard substrate L-Leu-p-nitroanilide toward the enzymes isolated from the porcine kidney (SsLAP, Sus scrofa Leucine aminopeptidase) and barley seeds (HvLAP, Hordeum vulgare Leucine aminopeptidase). An efficient procedure for the preparation of phosphinotripeptides has been performed. Activity test shown that introduction of additional residue into P2 position obtains the micromolar range inhibitors of SsLAP and HvLAP. Moreover, careful selection of the residue in the P2 position should improve its selectivity toward mammalian and plant leucyl aminopeptidases.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leucil Aminopeptidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosfinas/química , Animais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica , Suínos
14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112177, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082977

RESUMO

Wound infections have consistently been recognized as serious threats to human. The design of antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressings for infected wounds is an area of constant research. Herein, we homogeneously synthesized an ultrabroad-spectrum antimicrobial and biocompatible quaternized chitin derivative (QC-4) in a high-efficiency and sustainable route using aqueous KOH/urea solution. Particularly, QC-4 displayed powerful multidrug resistant bacteria-killing activities even at a very low antimicrobial concentration range from 500 ng/mL to 5 µg/mL, including clinically prevalent multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDR-E. coli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). With the aim to facilitate clinical translation, we validated the biocompatibility and safety of QC-4 both in vitro and in vivo, and further assessed the effects of QC-4 on infected wound healing in a porcine infectious full-thickness skin wound model. QC-4 demonstrated significant reduction of microbial aggregates and enhanced wound-healing effects by promoted re-epithelialization and collagen deposition, which were quite comparable to that of commercial Alginate-Ag dressing and absolutely superior to commercial Chitoclot Bandage dressing. Additionally, we provided clear evidences that QC-4 had a unique mechanism of action by attracting electrostatically to the negatively charged microbial surface, thus damaging the microbial cell wall and membrane. Findings of this work provided robust preclinical rationale for the future translational applications of QC-4 as a novel ultrabroad-spectrum and multidrug resistant bacteria-killing antimicrobial wound dressing for clinical wound management.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitina , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , Cicatrização
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147215, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088076

RESUMO

The present work is the first extensive study of large-scale pesticides research in wild animals. The investigation covered three game species: wild boar (n = 42), roe deer (n = 79) and deer (n = 15) collected from north-eastern Poland. To characterize the 480 pesticides in muscle samples, LC-GC-MS/MS techniques were used. A total of 28 compounds were detected: 5 neonicotinoids, 6 organochlorine and 5 other insecticides, 9 fungicides and 4 herbicides, in the range of 0.1-85.3 ng g-1. Over four hundred detections were done. The highest mean concentrations were as follows: anthraquinone (85.3 ng g-1) > DDT-p,p' (4.6 ng g-1) > imidacloprid (4.3 ng g-1) > permethrin (3.6 ng g-1) > thiacloprid (2.8 ng g-1). DDT and metabolites were the most frequently detected, followed by acetamiprid, tebuconazole, clothianidin and imidacloprid. Overall, 92% samples with residues were recorded, including 100% of wild boar, 88% of roe deer and 86% of deer. More than one pesticide (up to 9) was found in over 73% of the tested samples. The estimated chronic and acute risk to consumers of venison were very low (below 1% ADI and ARfD). This interdisciplinary study may be helpful for estimating ecological risk to wild animals and risk to consumers of wild animal products, and also as a source of biomonitoring data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas , Animais , Agricultura Florestal , Praguicidas/análise , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147086, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088114

RESUMO

Determining the source of fecal contamination in a water body is important for the application of appropriate remediation measures. However, it has been suggested in the extant literature that this can best be achieved using a 'toolbox' of molecular- and culture-based methods. In response, this study deployed three indicators (Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC)), one culture-dependent human marker (Bacteroides (GB-124) bacteriophage) and five culture-independent markers (human adenovirus (HAdV), human (HMMit), cattle (CWMit), pig (PGMit) and poultry (PLMit) mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA)) within the River Tagus catchment (n = 105). Water samples were collected monthly over a 13-month sampling campaign at four sites (impacted by significant specific human and non-human inputs and influenced by differing degrees of marine and freshwater mixing) to determine the dominant fecal inputs and assess geographical, temporal, and meteorological (precipitation, UV, temperature) fluctuations. Our results revealed that all sampling sites were not only highly impacted by fecal contamination but that this contamination originated from human and from a range of agricultural animal sources. HMMit was present in a higher percentage (83%) and concentration (4.20 log GC/100 mL) than HAdV (32%, 2.23 log GC/100 mL) and GB-124 bacteriophage with the latter being detected once. Animal mtDNA markers were detected, with CWMit found in 73% of samples with mean concentration of 3.74 log GC/100 mL. Correlation was found between concentrations of fecal indicators (EC, IE and SC), CWMit and season. Levels of CWMit were found to be related to physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature and UV radiation, possibly as a result of the increasing presence of livestock outside in warmer months. This study provides the first evaluation of such a source-associated 'toolbox' for monitoring surface water in Portugal, and the conclusions may inform future implementation of surveillance and remediation strategies for improving water quality.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Bacteriófagos , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Portugal , Rios , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(6)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061959

RESUMO

Factors associated with the severity with which different challenge models (CMs) compromise growth performance in pigs were investigated using hierarchical clustering on principal components (HCPC) analysis. One hundred seventy-eight studies reporting growth performance variables (average daily gain [ADG], average daily feed intake [ADFI], gain:feed [GF], and final body weight [FBW]) of a Control (Ct) vs. a Challenged (Ch) group of pigs using different CMs (enteric [ENT], environmental [ENV], lipopolysaccharide [LPS], respiratory [RES], or sanitary condition [SAN] challenges) were included. Studies were grouped by similarity in performance in three clusters (C1, C2, and C3) by HCPC. The effects of CM, cluster, and sex (males [M], females [F], mixed [Mi]) were investigated. Linear (LRP) and quadratic (QRP) response plateau models were fitted to assess the interrelationships between the change in ADG (∆ADG) and ADFI (∆ADFI) and the duration of challenge. All variables increased from C1 through C3, except for GF, which decreased (P < 0.05). LPS was more detrimental to ADG than ENV, RES, and SAN models (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LPS also lowered GF more than all the other CMs (P < 0.05). The ∆ADG independent of ∆ADFI was significant in LPS and SAN (P < 0.05), showed a trend toward the significance in ENT and RES (P < 0.10), and was not significant in ENV (P > 0.10), while the ∆ADG dependent on ∆ADFI was significant in ENT, ENV, and LPS only (P < 0.05). The critical value of ∆ADFI influencing the ∆ADG was significant in pigs belonging to C1 (P < 0.05) but not C2 or C3 (P > 0.10). The ∆ADG independent of duration post-Ch (irreparable portion of growth) was significant in C1 and C2 pigs, whereas the ∆ADFI independent of duration post-Ch (irreparable portion of feed intake) was significant in C1 pigs only (P < 0.05). Moreover, the time for recovery of ADG and ADFI after Ch was significant in pigs belonging to C1 and C2 (P < 0.05). Control F showed reduced ADG compared with Ct-M, and Ch-F showed reduced ADFI compared with Ch-M (P < 0.05). Moreover, the irreparable portion of ΔADG was 4.8 higher in F (-187.7; P < 0.05) compared with M (-39.1; P < 0.05). There are significant differences in growth performance response to CM based on cluster and sex. Furthermore, bacterial lipopolysaccharide appears to be an appropriate noninfectious model for immune stimulation and growth impairment in pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071808

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cataract is still the leading cause of blindness. Its development is well researched for UV radiation. Modern light sources like LEDs and displays tend to emit blue light. The effect of blue light on the retina is called blue light hazard and is studied extensively. However, its impact on the lens is not investigated so far. Aim: Investigation of the impact of the blue visible light in porcine lens compared to UVA and UVB radiation. Materials and Methods: In this ex-vivo experiment, porcine lenses are irradiated with a dosage of 6 kJ/cm2 at wavelengths of 311 nm (UVB), 370 nm (UVA), and 460 nm (blue light). Lens transmission measurements before and after irradiation give insight into the impact of the radiation. Furthermore, dark field images are taken from every lens before and after irradiation. Cataract development is illustrated by histogram linearization as well as faults coloring of recorded dark field images. By segmenting the lens in the background's original image, the lens condition before and after irradiation could be compared. Results: All lenses irradiated with a 6 kJ/cm2 reveal cataract development for radiation with 311 nm, 370 nm, and 460 nm. Both evaluations reveal that the 460 nm irradiation causes the most cataract. Conclusion: All investigated irradiation sources cause cataracts in porcine lenses-even blue visible light.


Assuntos
Catarata , Cristalino , Animais , Catarata/etiologia , Luz , Suínos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e025620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076053

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic disease. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is a very high altitude endemic area where the highest human prevalences and intensities have been reported. Preventive chemotherapy by treatment campaigns is yearly applied. However, liver fluke infection of cattle, sheep, pigs and donkeys assures endemicity and consequent human infection and re-infection risks. A One Health action has therefore been implemented. Activity concerns lymnaeid vectors and environment diversity. Studies included growth, egg-laying and life span in laboratory-reared lymnaeids. Different habitat types and influencing factors were assessed. All populations proved to belong to Galba truncatula by rDNA sequencing. Analyses comprised physico-chemical characteristics and monthly follow-up of water temperature, pH and quantity, and lymnaeid abundance and density. Population dynamics in the transmission foci differed. Mean environmental temperature was lower than fluke development minimum temperature threshold, but water temperature was higher, except during winter. A two generations/year pattern appeared in permanent water habitats, and one generation/year pattern in habitats drying out for months. The multidisciplinary control measures can be extended from one part of the endemic area to another. These studies, made for the first time at very high altitude, constitute a baseline useful for fascioliasis control in other countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Biologia , Bolívia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos , Suínos
20.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(4): e360405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shen-fu injection (SFI) was used to intervene in the resuscitation of porcine hemorrhagic shock (HS) model to study its protective effects on acute kidney injury. METHODS: After 60 min of HS, 28 animals were randomly assigned into four groups. The groups were as follows: hemorrhagic shock group (HS); HS resuscitation with shed-blood group (HSR); HS resuscitation with shed-blood and SFI (1 mL·kg-1) group (HSR-SFI); and the sham operation group (Sham). The bloods were analyzed for serum creatinine (sCr), cystatin C (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). BAX, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 protein expressions by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. The renal tissues were removed and pathologic changes were observed. RESULTS: Mean aortic pressure (MAP) in HSR-SFI groups were higher than that in HSR groups after shock. At the 6th hour after shock, the urine volume per hour in the HSR-SFI groups was more than that in the HSR groups. The sCr, NGAL, CysC and cytokine levels of HSR-SFI groups were lower. The Bcl-2 expression was increased in the HSR-SFI groups. The BAX and caspase-3 expressions were reduced. The histopathologic score in the HSR-SFI was lower. CONCLUSIONS: SFI may reduce the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following hemorrhagic shock by attenuating systemic inflammatory responses, and regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Choque Hemorrágico , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose , Citocinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos
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