Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.544
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125445, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499288

RESUMO

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10-5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10-7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química , Animais , Dieta , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Análise de Componente Principal
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 235-244, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of early antibiotic exposure (EAE) on subsequent amino acid (AA) profiles and small intestinal AA transporter and receptor expression level in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets were fed creep feed diets, either with or without antibiotics while with sow on day 7. The pigs were weaned at day 23 and fed the same diets until day 42, when random pigs within each group were offered a normal- or low-CP diet, thereby creating four groups. On day 120, the pigs were euthanized, and jejunal and ileal mucosa and digesta were collected for gene-expression and AA-concentration analysis. RESULTS: With the normal-CP diet, EAE increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of six essential amino acids (EAA) and three non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in serum, four EAAs and four NEAAs in jejunal mucosa, one EAA and two NEAAs in ileal mucosa, five EAAs and three NEAAs in jejunal digesta, and three EAAs and two NEAAs in ileal digesta. Early antibiotic exposure upregulated (P < 0.05) CAT1, ASCT2, ATB0,+ , CaSR, T1R1, and T1R3 expression in the jejunum, downregulated PepT1 expression with a normal-CP diet. It upregulated (P < 0.05) the expressions of CAT1, ATB0,+ , ATP1A1, and T1R3 in the ileum with a normal-CP diet. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EAE has long-term effects on AA profiles, mainly in the jejunum and serum, by increasing AA transporter expression in the intestine, and that these effects may be influenced by dietary CP levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4242-4247, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581297

RESUMO

Two performance studies were conducted to investigate the effects of 3 different sources of Cu on production parameters of piglets. A total of 256 piglets weaned at 24 ± 2 d were randomly allocated into 4 treatments with 10 or 8 replicates per treatment of 4 or 3 piglets per pen in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. The experimental period was divided into 3 feeding phases: Phase 1 (24 to 35 d), Phase 2 (36 to 49 d), and Phase 3 (50 to 70 d). Treatments included a Control group (fed 10 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO4), a group fed 160 mg/kg of either CuSO4 (CuSO4-160) or tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC), and a group fed Cu methionine hydroxy analogue chelated (Cu-MHAC) at 150, 80, and 50 mg/kg in Phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The methionine value of Cu-MHAC was accounted during diet formulation to achieve the same levels of methionine across treatments. Phases 1 and 2 diets contained 2,200 and 1,500 ppm of ZnO, respectively; and antibiotics were used as growth promoters. Performance parameters were analyzed as completely randomized block design, in which each experiment was considered as a block. In trial 2, blood serum and mucosal samples, from the fundic region of the stomach, were collected from 1 piglet per replicate at day 70 and tested for serum growth hormone levels (GH) and ghrelin mRNA expression, respectively. The contrast between Cu-MHAC vs. CuSO4-160 + TBCC showed that piglets fed Cu-MHAC exhibited better feed conversion ratio (FCR) in all feeding phases compared with feeding inorganic Cu (P < 0.05). Overall, feeding Cu-MHAC improved body weight (BW), BW gain, feed intake (FI), and FCR vs. Control diet fed piglets; yet, it improved BW and FCR vs. TBCC fed piglets, and improved BW, BW gain, and FI vs. CuSO4-160 fed piglets (P < 0.05). Feeding TBCC promoted similar performance than feeding CuSO4-160, regardless of age (P > 0.05). Both ghrelin expression and growth hormone serum levels were significantly increased by feeding Cu-MHAC vs. Control diet fed animals (P < 0.01). Feeding CuSO4-160 upregulated ghrelin expression vs. Control (P < 0.01) while GH serum levels and ghrelin expression did no change by feeding TBCC compared with Control diet fed animals (P > 0.05). It was concluded that feeding Cu-MHAC at the levels tested herein can improve growth performance of piglets beyond feeding 160 ppm of either CuSO4 or TBCC, which may be partially explained by the increased expression of ghrelin and GH serum levels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Grelina/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Estômago/fisiologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 255-260, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571724

RESUMO

A total of 774 pigs were enrolled in 13 cohorts across 7 commercial farms to examine the effect of nursery feeding program on serum haptoglobin, subsequent growth performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Pigs were weaned [23.4 ± 0.2 days of age and 5.3 ± 1.5 kg body weight (BW)] and randomly assigned to either a complex (HC: highly digestible sources of proteins, including animal proteins; N = 346) or simple (LC: corn- and soybean meal-based; N = 340) diet for 37.7 ± 1.7 days over 3 phases (1 pen per diet per cohort; pen was the experimental unit; n = 13); sex was balanced between treatments. Thereafter, pigs received common grower-finisher diets. At a targeted BW of 118 kg, pigs (subset: n = 275 and 258 for HC and LC, respectively) were processed to evaluate carcass characteristics. Nursery feeding program did not influence BW, BW gain, or serum haptoglobin at any stage of production. Feed cost was reduced by $2.82 per pig during the nursery period for the LC-fed pigs (P < 0.001). Loin eye depth, back fat depth, carcass weight, percent lean yield, and carcass gross revenue at slaughter were not influenced by nursery feeding program. Feeding LC nursery diets on commercial farms is a feasible way to reduce feed cost without negatively impacting serum haptoglobin, growth performance during or after the nursery period, or carcass value.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos/sangue
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1750-1758, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038659

RESUMO

The effects of housing lactating sows at different locations in a shed with evaporative cooling system (ECS) on their thermoregulation and reproductive and productive performance of the sow and the litter in summer were determined. 34 females were used in the three lines of cages at these locations: near the pad cooling; in the middle of the shed and near the exhaust fans. The air temperature and the temperature and humidity index (THI) were lower near the pad cooling (22.38ºC, 71.84) than the middle (24.56ºC, 74.82) and near the exhaust fans (25.00°C, 75.62). Respiratory rate, rectal and surface temperatures were lower in sows near the pad cooling (43.67 breaths.min -1 , 38.40°C; 29.51°C) than in the center (52.04 breaths.min -1 ; 38.48ºC; 32.02ºC) and near the exhaust fans (56.38 breaths.min-1, 38.93ºC; 32.52ºC). The backfat thickness, the weaning-estrus interval and daily average consumption of the sows, number of weaning piglets, corporal mass and daily average gain of the piglets were not influenced by the location of housing in the shed. Lactating sows housed in the middle and near the exhaust fans in the ECS presented increased thermoregulation physiological variables, however, this did not impair the performance.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Abrigo para Animais/organização & administração
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1616-1622, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038675

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão da torta de algodão (TA) com adição de enzimas na ração de suínos na fase de crescimento e seus efeitos sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaças, bem como sua viabilidade econômica. Para tanto, foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com peso corporal inicial de 56,28±5,78kg e final de 79,79±7,32kg. Os níveis de inclusão da TA foram 0%, 8%, 16% e 24%. Todas as rações tiveram os valores de exigência em energia metabolizável, proteína bruta e fósforo subestimados em 1,5% com a utilização de 300g/t do complexo enzimático. Os parâmetros de desempenho e as características de carcaça não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os níveis de inclusão da TA. A torta de algodão pode ser utilizada em até o nível de 24% de inclusão com adição de complexo enzimático em rações de suínos na fase de crescimento II, sem alterar os parâmetros de desempenho e as características de carcaças, além de apresentar redução do custo/kg de suíno produzido.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of cottonseed cake (CC) with enzyme complex in the diet of pigs in the growth phase and its effects on performance, carcass characteristics and economic viability. Thus, 20 barrows were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with initial body weight of 56.28±5.78kg and final weight of 79.79±7.32kg. The inclusion levels of CC were 0%, 8%, 16% and 24%. All diets had the requirement values of metabolizable energy, crude protein and phosphorus underestimated by 1.5% and were added to 300g/t enzyme complex. The performance parameters and carcass characteristics there was no difference between the levels of inclusion of cottonseed cake. The cottonseed cake can be used up to the 24% inclusion level with addition of enzyme complex in the growth phase II, without affecting performance and carcass characteristics, besides reducing the cost/kg of pig produced.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4619-4624, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563941

RESUMO

The current study compared the effect of hydroxychloride trace minerals (HTM) with the effect of inorganic trace minerals (ITM) on growth performance and carcass quality in grower-finisher pigs. The results of 6 studies conducted throughout Europe were combined into one meta-analysis. All included studies were performed using pigs from about 19 kg of body weight until slaughter. In all studies, 2 different mineral sources were compared, HTM and sulfates as ITM. Zn from either HTM or ITM was added at a level of 80 ppm to the diet, and Cu was added at a level of 15 ppm from the same source as Zn. In most studies, an additional treatment was included in which 20 ppm Zn was used from either source in combination with 15 ppm Cu from the same source. Diets were fed in 3 phases according to local commercial standards. The body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain:feed ratio were measured at the end of each phase. At the end of each study, the carcass yield, back fat thickness, and lean meat percentage were measured at commercial slaughterhouses. The meta-analysis was conducted using a MIXED model in SAS taking into account the within-study and between-study variation. The comparison was done only between HTM and ITM added at the same Zn level. No statistical differences were observed for growth performance or carcass characteristics between the mineral sources in pigs fed 20 ppm Zn. When 80 ppm Zn was used, a significant improvement in lean meat percentage was observed in pigs fed HTM compared with pigs fed ITM. In the overall study period, there was a tendency towards an increased gain:feed ratio in pigs fed 80 ppm Zn from HTM. In the last feeding phase, before slaughter gain:feed ratio and average daily gain were both significantly improved by 3.9%. In conclusion, HTM addition improved growth performance and lean meat percentage in grower-finisher pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Suínos/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/administração & dosagem
9.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 12-21, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512316

RESUMO

The use of hyperprolific sow lines has increased litter size considerably in the last three decades. Nowadays, in some countries litters can reach up to 18-20 piglets being a major challenge for the sow's physiology during pregnancy, parturition and lactation. The increased number of piglets born per litter prolongs sensibly the duration of farrowing, decreases the piglets' average weight at birth and their vitality, increases the competition for colostrum intake and can affect negatively piglets' survival. This review aims to describe how large litters can affect the immune system of the sow and the piglets and proposes measures to improve this condition.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/imunologia , Gravidez/imunologia , Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Peso ao Nascer , Colostro , Feminino , Lactação/imunologia , Parto/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4256-4267, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504586

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effects of adding sodium butyrate (SB), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) to the diet of sows during late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance and intestinal health of suckling piglets. Twenty-four sows (Landrace × Large-White hybrid; third parity; 200 ± 15 kg) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: basal diet (control group), basal diet + 1 g SB/kg (SB group), basal diet + 7.75 g MCFA/kg (MCFA group), or basal diet + 68.2 g n-3 PUFA/kg (n-3 PUFA group). The experiment began on day 85 of gestation and ended day 22 of lactation. Colostrum samples were collected from each sow. After the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected from 1 randomly selected piglet. The results showed that the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was shorter than that of sows in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was lower than that of piglets in the control group (P < 0.05). The fat, protein, IgA, IgG, and IgM concentration in colostrum from sows increased following dietary supplementation with SB, MCFA, or n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Comparison with the control group, the mRNA expression of claudin-1, zona occludens 1, and interleukin-10 increased in the jejunum mucosa of suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups, while that of TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Chao1 and ACE indexes of microbial flora in the colon contents of piglets in the SB, MCFA, and MCFA groups increased (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes decreased at the phylum level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, during late pregnancy and lactation, dietary SB supplementation had a greater effect on intestinal health and caused a greater decrease in preweaning mortality of suckling piglets than did dietary MCFA or n-3 PUFA supplementation; dietary MCFA supplementation shortened the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows to a greater extent than did dietary SB or n-3 PUFA supplementation; and dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation increased the fat and protein content in the colostrum to the greatest extent.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Colostro/química , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4268-4281, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504612

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to determine the optimal concentration of dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys required to maximize litter gain and minimize sow BW loss in modern high-yielding lactating sows when SID CP was kept constant across dietary treatments. A total of 396 parity 1 to 5 sows (L × Y, DanBred, Herlev, Denmark) were included in the study from day 3 after farrowing until weaning at day 26. Sows were allocated to 6 dietary treatments increasing in SID Lys concentration (6.19, 6.90, 7.63, 8.33, 9.04, and 9.76 g/kg). Diets were isoenergetic (14.04 MJ ME/kg as-fed). Litters were standardized to 14 piglets at day 3 ± 2 d postpartum. At day 3 ± 2 d and at day 26 ± 3 d in lactation, litter weight, and sow BW and back fat were registered. On a subsample of 72 parity 2 to 4 sows, litters were additionally weighed at days 10 and 17 ± 3 d, and milk and blood were sampled at day 3 ± 2 d, and 10, 17 and at 24 ± 3 d in lactation. For the 72 sows, body pools of fat and protein were also determined at days 3 ± 2 and 26 ± 3 d using the D2O dilution technique. All data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using PROC MIXED in SAS. Furthermore, data were subjected to linear and quadratic polynomial contrasts. Variables with quadratic or linear effects or days in milk × treatment interactions were selected for analysis in PROC NLMIXED using linear broken-line models to evaluate optimal SID Lys concentrations. Only models that converged and the best fitting models were included. Average daily litter gain increased until a breakpoint at 8.11 g/kg of SID Lys (as-fed). At and above the breakpoint, multiparous and primiparous sows had litter gains of 3.36 and 2.93 kg/d, respectively. Weaning litter size (13.0 ± 0.1) was similar between the 6 dietary treatments (P = 0.28). Lactation sow BW loss was minimized to 0.17 kg/d at 9.05 g/kg of SID Lys and sow body protein loss was minimized to 0.23 kg at 9.22 g/kg of SID Lys. Linear broken-line analyses showed that for 3, 10, 17, and 24 DIM, plasma urea was minimized at 7.02, 8.10, 8.73, and 8.32 g/kg of SID Lys, respectively, and milk fat was maximized at 7.80 g/kg of SID Lys. In conclusion, in our conditions, high-yielding lactating sows required 8.11 g/kg of SID Lys to maximize litter gain and 9.05 g/kg of SID Lys to minimize sow BW loss. Based on plasma urea, the optimal dietary concentration of SID Lys was lowest in week 1, intermediate in week 2 and 4, and greatest in week 3 of lactation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinamarca , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Leite/química , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 48, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency (FE) has a major impact on the economic sustainability of pig production. We used a systems-based approach that integrates single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) co-association and gene-expression data to identify candidate genes, biological pathways, and potential predictors of FE in a Duroc pig population. RESULTS: We applied an association weight matrix (AWM) approach to analyse the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for nine FE associated and production traits using 31K SNPs by defining residual feed intake (RFI) as the target phenotype. The resulting co-association network was formed by 829 SNPs. Additive effects of this SNP panel explained 61% of the phenotypic variance of RFI, and the resulting phenotype prediction accuracy estimated by cross-validation was 0.65 (vs. 0.20 using pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction and 0.12 using the 31K SNPs). Sixty-eight transcription factor (TF) genes were identified in the co-association network; based on the lossless approach, the putative main regulators were COPS5, GTF2H5, RUNX1, HDAC4, ESR1, USP16, SMARCA2 and GTF2F2. Furthermore, gene expression data of the gluteus medius muscle was explored through differential expression and multivariate analyses. A list of candidate genes showing functional and/or structural associations with FE was elaborated based on results from both AWM and gene expression analyses, and included the aforementioned TF genes and other ones that have key roles in metabolism, e.g. ESRRG, RXRG, PPARGC1A, TCF7L2, LHX4, MAML2, NFATC3, NFKBIZ, TCEA1, CDCA7L, LZTFL1 or CBFB. The most enriched biological pathways in this list were associated with behaviour, immunity, nervous system, and neurotransmitters, including melatonin, glutamate receptor, and gustation pathways. Finally, an expression GWAS allowed identifying 269 SNPs associated with the candidate genes' expression (eSNPs). Addition of these eSNPs to the AWM panel of 829 SNPs did not improve the accuracy of genomic predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Candidate genes that have a direct or indirect effect on FE-related traits belong to various biological processes that are mainly related to immunity, behaviour, energy metabolism, and the nervous system. The pituitary gland, hypothalamus and thyroid axis, and estrogen signalling play fundamental roles in the regulation of FE in pigs. The 829 selected SNPs explained 61% of the phenotypic variance of RFI, which constitutes a promising perspective for applying genetic selection on FE relying on molecular-based prediction.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Suínos/genética , Agricultura , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4282-4292, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410464

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that excess dietary Leu affects metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in growing pigs. Forty barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 30.0 ± 2.7 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates and allotted to 5 dietary treatments (8 replicates per treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The 5 diets were based on identical quantities of corn, soybean meal, wheat, and barley and designed to contain 100%, 150%, 200%, 250%, or 300% of the requirement for standardized ileal digestible Leu. Initial and final (day 15) BW of pigs were recorded. Daily feed consumption was also recorded. Urine and fecal samples were collected for 5 d following 7 d of adaptation to the diets. At the end of the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected to analyze plasma urea N (PUN), plasma and hypothalamic serotonin, tissue BCAA, serum and tissue branched-chain α-keto acids, and messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of genes involved in BCAA metabolism. Results indicated that acid detergent fiber, average daily feed intake, and gain-to-feed ratio decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. A trend (linear, P = 0.082) for decreased N retention and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) biological value of dietary protein was also observed, and PUN increased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. A quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in plasma serotonin and a linear reduction (P < 0.05) in hypothalamic serotonin were observed with increasing dietary Leu. Concentrations of BCAA in liver increased (linear, P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of BCAA in skeletal muscle decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. Concentration of α-ketoisovalerate was reduced (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001) in liver, skeletal muscle, and serum, and α-keto-ß-methylvalerate was reduced (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle and serum. In contrast, α-keto isocaproate increased (linear, P < 0.05) in liver and skeletal muscle and also in serum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Leu. Expression of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and of the E1α subunit of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase increased (linear, P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle as dietary Leu increased. In conclusion, excess dietary Leu impaired growth performance and nitrogen retention, which is likely a result of increased catabolism of Ile and Val, which in turn reduces availability of these amino acids resulting in reduced protein retention, and excess dietary Leu also reduced hypothalamic serotonin synthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Serotonina/biossíntese , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Cetoácidos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Serotonina/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Animal ; 13(11): 2727-2735, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407650

RESUMO

The gut is composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells and plays important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune and barrier functions and amino acid metabolism. Weaning stress impairs piglet intestinal epithelium structural and functional integrities, which results in reduced feed intake, growth rates and increased morbidity and mortality. Several measures are needed to maintain swine gut development and growth performance after weaning stress. A large body of evidence indicates that, in weaning piglets, glutamine, a functional amino acid, may improve growth performance and intestinal morphology, reduce oxidative damage, stimulate enterocyte proliferation, modulate cell survival and death and enhance intestinal paracellular permeability. This review focuses on the effects of glutamine on intestinal health in piglets. The aim is to provide evidentiary support for using glutamine as a feed additive to alleviate weaning stress.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glutamina/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4235-4241, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430375

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), polyglycerol fatty acid ester (PGFE), and combined emulsifiers (0.02% SSL and 0.08% PGFE) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and plasma lipid profiles in weaned piglets and to further evaluate the possible effects of feeding exogenous emulsifiers on digestive enzyme activities and liver bile acid (BA) metabolism. Twenty-eight barrows (age at 35 d, Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 10.13 ± 0.16 kg were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatment groups (7 pigs/treatment). Dietary treatment groups included the following: 1) basal diet (Control, CTR); 2) basal diet with 0.1% SSL (SSL); 3) basal diet with 0.1% PGFE (PGFE); and 4) basal diet with 0.08% PGFE+0.02% SSL (PG-SL). SSL diet increased ADG and ADFI of piglets during day 0 to 17 (P < 0.05) compared with the CTR treatment. Piglets fed emulsifier diets experienced a significant improvement in the digestibility of nutrients (DM, CP, ether extract, energy, calcium, and phosphorus) during the first 17 d (P < 0.05). The level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was lower in the PGFE and PG-SL treatment groups than in the CTR treatment group (P < 0.05). Feeding emulsifier diets increased the lipase activity of the pancreas when compared with the CTR diet (P < 0.05). Moreover, the emulsifier diets significantly increased the mRNA expression of FXR (P < 0.05) and decreased the mRNA expression of CYP27A1 (P < 0.05) in the liver. In conclusion, the addition of emulsifiers improved nutrient digestibility and increased the mRNA expression of FXR BA receptors while inhibiting the mRNA expression of BA biosynthesis by CYP27A1 in weanling piglets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Estearatos/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Emulsificantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Nutrientes , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4023-4031, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376282

RESUMO

A study was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD P) requirement for 24- to 130-kg finishing pigs housed under commercial conditions. A total of 1,130 barrows and gilts (PIC 359 × 1050, Hendersonville, TN; initially 24.2 kg) were used, with 26 to 27 pigs per pen with 7 replicates per treatment. Pens of pigs were allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) as the blocking factor. The dietary treatments were fed in 4 phases and were formulated to contain 80%, 90%, 100%, 115%, 130%, and 150% of the National Research Council (NRC) requirement estimate for finishing pigs within each phase. Weight ranges for each phase were: 27 to 49, 49 to 76, 76 to 90, and 90 to 130 kg. Treatments were achieved by increasing the amount of monocalcium phosphate at the expense of corn in the diet with no added phytase. All diets were formulated to contain a similar 1.14:1 to 1.16:1 total Ca:P ratio across treatments in all phases. Increasing STTD P resulted in a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), and final BW. The greatest improvement was observed with STTD P at 130% of NRC for ADG and final BW and at 115% STTD P for G:F. Average daily feed intake increased linearly (linear, P < 0.05) with the inclusion of STTD P. Increasing STTD P resulted in an increase (quadratic, P < 0.05) in hot carcass weight (HCW) and carcass ADG with the greatest response observed with STTD P at 130% of NRC. There was a marginally significant response (quadratic, P < 0.10) in carcass G:F, with the greatest improvement with STTD P at 115% of NRC. Carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.05) with increasing STTD P, while there was a marginally significant (linear, P < 0.10) decrease in backfat and increase in fat-free lean. At the end of the study, a metacarpal was collected and analyzed for bone ash. Increasing STTD P resulted in an increase (linear, P < 0.05) in bone ash weight and percentage ash. For ADG and G:F, the quadratic model demonstrated the best fit. The maximum response in ADG and G:F was estimated at 122% and 116% of NRC STTD P, respectively. The broken-line linear model best fit the data for percentage bone ash, with a plateau achieved at 131% of the NRC STTD P. In conclusion, the estimated STTD P requirement of 24 to 130 kg ranged from 116% to 131% of the NRC publication (2012) requirement estimate.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Masculino , Ossos Metacarpais/química , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 659, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency (FE) is a major challenge in pig production. This complex trait is characterized by a high variability. Therefore, the identification of predictors of FE may be a relevant strategy to reduce phenotyping efforts in breeding and selection programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of expressed muscle genes in prediction of FE traits in growing pigs. The approach considered different transcriptomics experiments to cover a large range of FE values and identify reliable predictors. RESULTS: Microarrays data were obtained from longissimus muscles of two lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Pigs (n = 71) from three experiments belonged to generations 6 to 8 of selection, were fed either a diet with a standard composition or a diet rich in fiber and lipids, received feed ad libitum or at restricted level, and weighed between 80 and 115 kg at slaughter. For each pig, breeding value for RFI was estimated (RFI-BV), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and energy-based feed conversion ratio (FCRe) were calculated during the test periods. Gradient boosting algorithms were used on the merged muscle transcriptomes to identify very important predictors of FE traits. About 20,405 annotated molecular probes were commonly expressed in longissimus muscle across experiments. Six to 267 expressed muscle genes covering a variety of biological processes were found as important predictors for RFI-BV (R2 = 0.63-0.65), FCR (R2 = 0.61-0.70) and FCRe (R2 = 0.49-0.52). The error of prediction was less than 8% for FCR. Altogether, 56 predictors were common to RFI-BV and FCR. Expression levels of 24 target genes were further measured by qPCR. Linear regression confirmed the good accuracy of combining mRNA levels of these genes to fit FE traits (RFI-BV: R2 = 0.73, FRC: R2 = 0.76; FCRe: R2 = 0.75). Stepwise regression procedure highlighted 10 genes (FKBP5, MUM1, AKAP12, FYN, TMED3, PHKB, TGF, SOCS6, ILR4, and FRAS1) in a linear combination predicting FCR and FCRe. In addition, FKBP5 and expression levels of five other genes (IGF2, SERINC3, CSRNP3, EZR and RPL16) significantly contributed to RFI-BV. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify few genes expressed in muscle that might be reliable predictors of feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Músculos do Dorso/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Biológicos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382709

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the effects of breed, diet energy source, and their interaction on adipose tissue transcriptome in growing Iberian and Duroc pigs. The study comprised 29 Iberian and 19 Duroc males, which were kept under identical management conditions except the nutritional treatment. Two isoenergetic diets were used with 6% high oleic sunflower oil (HO) or carbohydrates (CH) as energy sources. All animals were slaughtered after 47 days of treatment at an average live weight of 51.2 kg. Twelve animals from each breed (six fed each diet) were employed for ham subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-Seq analysis. The data analysis was performed using two different bioinformatic pipelines. We detected 837 and 1456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to breed, depending on the pipeline. Due to the strong effect of breed on transcriptome, the effect of the diet was separately evaluated in the two breeds. We identified 207 and 57 DEGs depending on diet in Iberian and Duroc pigs, respectively. A joint analysis of both effects allowed the detection of some breed-diet interactions on transcriptome, which were inferred from RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR data. The functional analysis showed the enrichment of functions related to growth and tissue development, inflammatory response, immune cell trafficking, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and allowed the identification of potential regulators. The results indicate different effects of diet on adipose tissue gene expression between breeds, affecting relevant biological pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Hibridização Genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrigenômica , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4032-4040, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374120

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD P) requirement for 11- to 23-kg nursery pigs fed diets with or without phytase. A total of 1,080 and 2,140 pigs (PIC 359 × Camborough, Hendersonville, TN; initially 11.4 ± 0.29 and 11.1 ± 0.24 kg) were used in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. There were 23 to 27 pigs per pen with 6 and 12 replicate pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. After weaning, pigs were fed a common pelleted diet with 0.45% STTD P for 7 d, and a common phase 2 meal diet with 0.40% STTD P for 14 d in Exp. 1 and 18 d in Exp. 2. Pens of pigs were then allotted to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) as the blocking factor. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments consisted of 0.26%, 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, and 0.53% STTD P. Treatments were achieved with the inclusion of monocalcium phosphate at the expense of corn. In Exp. 2, diets contained 1,000 phytase units (FYT; Ronozyme Hiphos 2500, DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with assumed release value 0.132% STTD P, and treatments consisted of 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, 0.53%, and 0.58% STTD P. These STTD P concentrations included the expected phytase release of 0.132% STTD P. In both experiments, a similar 1.17:1 Ca:P ratio was maintained across treatments. Statistical models included linear model (LM), quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ). In Exp. 1, increasing STTD P increased (linear, P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, G:F, final BW, and grams of STTD P intake per day and per kilogram of gain. There was also a marginal quadratic response for G:F (P < 0.066). In Exp. 2, ADG and G:F increased quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas ADFI increased linearly (P = 0.060) with increasing STTD P. The BLL and QP model provided similar fit to G:F in Exp. 1, estimating the requirement for maximum G:F at 0.34% and 0.42%, respectively. The BLL was the best fitting model for ADG and G:F in Exp. 2, estimating the breakpoint at 0.40% and 0.37% STTD P, respectively. The BLL and BLQ models estimated the breakpoint for ADG as a function of STTD P intake in grams per day at 2.92 and 3.02 g/d, respectively. These data provide empirical evidence that for 11- to 23-kg pigs, the NRC (2012) accurately estimates the STTD P requirement on a g/d basis. As a percentage of the diet, the STTD P requirement for diets without or with 1,000 FYT added phytase ranged from 0.34% to 0.42%.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Suínos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6788-6795, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal muscle development; however, its functions in internal organs have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the morphological, molecular, and biological characteristics of the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and tongue of homozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN-/- ), heterozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN+/- ), and wild-type (WT) piglets. RESULTS: The heart and liver were lighter in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- piglets, while the tongue was heavier in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the tongue was longer in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets, and myofibers of the tongue were significantly larger in the former piglets than in the latter ones (P < 0.01). mRNA expression of MSTN in all organs was significantly lower in MSTN-/- and MSTN+/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, mRNA expression of follistatin, which is closely related to MSTN, in the heart and liver was significantly higher in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- and WT piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, protein expression of MSTN in the heart, kidneys, and tongue was significantly lower in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MSTN is widely expressed and has marked effects in multiple internal organs. Myostatin has crucial functions in regulating internal organ size, especially the tongue. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miostatina/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Folistatina/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Mutação , Miostatina/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Suínos/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA