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1.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770248

RESUMO

Data from three experiments conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing available P in swine diets were used to compare two different bone processing methods. Our objective was to determine if the procedures influenced treatment differences and the ability to detect changes in the percentage bone ash. In each experiment, pigs (nursery pigs in experiments 1 and 2, and finishing pigs in experiment 3) were fed a wide range of available phosphorus levels provided from either increasing monocalcium P or added phytase. At the completion of each experiment, a subset of pigs was euthanized, and either fibulas (experiments 1 and 2) or metacarpals (experiment 3) were collected to determine the percentage bone ash. Bones were processed by cleaning away all soft tissues followed by ether extraction for 7 d (defatted), or no lipid extraction (non-defatted), and then ashed. In nursery and finishing pigs, defatted bones had increased (P < 0.001) percentage bone ash compared with non-defatted bones. No evidence of a method × treatment interaction or linear and quadratic interactions were observed in bone ash weight and percentage bone ash (P > 0.10) for nursery pigs; however, a linear interaction was detected (P < 0.05) in percentage bone ash for grow-finish pigs. This response was minimal and likely due to increased variation observed in grow-finish pigs when bones were not defatted. The processing method did not affect the ability to detect differences among treatments as a result of changing dietary P concentrations in the nursery or grow-finish pigs. In summary, either non-defatted or defatted bone processing methods can be used to determine bone ash weight and percentage bone ash as a way to assess bone mineralization and dietary treatment differences in nursery pigs; however, the increased variation observed in mature pigs suggests that defatted bone processing is the preferred method for grow-finish pigs.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/química , Minerais/análise , Suínos , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696533

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of crude protein (CP) and lactose (LAC) for weaned piglets on performance, intestinal morphology, and expression of genes related to intestinal integrity and immune system, 144 piglets with initial weight 7.17 ± 0.97 kg were allotted in a randomized design, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (20.0% and 24.0% CP and 8.0%, 12.0%, and 16.0% LAC) with eight replicates. Piglets fed 20.0% CP had greater weight gain and feed intake. Including 12.0% LAC in the 20.0% CP diet provided higher villous height in the duodenum than 8.0% LAC, and 12.0% or 16.0% LAC in the 24.0% CP diet resulted in higher villous height in the jejunum and ileum, and higher villi/crypt ratio in the ileum than 8.0% LAC. No effects of CP and LAC on interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA were observed. The 16.0% LAC diet provided higher gene expression of transforming-ß1 growth factor. Feeding 20.0% CP resulted in better performance than 24.0% CP. The 12.0% LAC diet promoted greater genetic expression of occludin and zonula occludens. Including 12.0% LAC in the diet may improve intestinal epithelial morphology and integrity, and these improvements are more evident when piglets are fed diets with 24.0% CP.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Lactose/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/imunologia , Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648357

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal microbiota impact host's biological activities, including digestion of indigestible feed components, energy harvest, and immunity. In this study, fecal microbiota of high body weight (HW) and low body weight (LW) growing pigs at 103 days of age were compared. Principal coordinates analysis separated the HW and LW groups into two clusters, indicating their potential differences between microbial community composition. Although the abundances of two major phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, did not significantly differ between the HW and LW groups, some genera showed significant differences. Among them, Peptococcus and Eubacterium exhibited strong positive correlations with body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) (Rho > 0.40), whereas Treponema, Desulfovibrio, Parabacteroides, and Ruminococcaceae_unclassified exhibited strong negative correlations with BW and ADG (Rho < -0.40). Based on these results, the structure of intestinal microbiota may affect growth traits in pigs through host-microbe interactions. Further in-depth studies will provide insights into how best to reshape host-microbe interactions in pigs and other animals as well.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Eubacterium , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Peptococcus , Ganho de Peso
4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479635

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a maternal antibiotic administration during the last week of gestation on the early life intestinal development in neonatal piglets. Colonization of the gut with bacteria starts during birth and plays a major role in the intestinal and immunological development of the intestine. We demonstrate that maternal interventions induced changes in the sows (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) fecal microbiota diversity around birth (P < 0.001, day 1). Whole-genome microarray analysis in small intestinal samples of 1-d old piglets (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) showed significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) which were involved in processes of tight junction formation and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, when performing morphometry analysis, the number of goblet cells in jejunum was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in piglets from amoxicillin administered sows compared with the respective control piglets. Both significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) and significant morphometry data (jejunum P < 0.05 and ileum P < 0.01) indicate that the crypts of piglets from amoxicillin administered sows deepen around weaning (day 26) as an effect of the amoxicillin administration in sows. The latter might imply that the intestinal development of piglets was delayed by maternal antibiotic administration. Taken together, these results show that maternally oral antibiotic administration changes in early life can affect intestinal development of the offspring piglets for a period of at least 5 wk after the maternal antibiotic administration was finished. These results show that modulation of the neonatal intestine is possible by maternal interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479590

RESUMO

Exploring factors that might affect nitrogen (N) efficiency in pigs could support the development of precision feeding concepts. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of birth weight (BiW) on N retention, N efficiency, and concentrations of metabolites in plasma and urine related to N efficiency in male pigs of 14 wk of age. BiW of the low BiW (LBW) and high BiW (HBW) pigs was 1.11 ± 0.14 and 1.79 ± 0.12 kg, respectively. Twenty LBW and 20 HBW pigs were individually housed in metabolism cages and were subjected to an N balance study in two sequential periods of 5 d, after an 11-d adaptation period. Pigs were assigned to a protein adequate (A) or protein restricted (R, 70% of A) regime in a change-over design and fed restrictedly 2.8 times the energy requirements for maintenance. Nontargeted metabolomics analyses were performed in urine and blood plasma samples. The N retention in g/d was higher in the HBW than in the LBW pigs (P < 0.001). The N retention in g/(kg BW0.75·d) and N efficiency (= 100% × N retention / N intake), however, were not affected by BiW of the pigs. Moreover, fecal digestibility of N and urinary concentration of N and urea were not affected by BiW of the pigs. The concentration of insulin (P = 0.08) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1;P = 0.05) in blood plasma was higher in HBW pigs, whereas the concentration of α-amino N tended to be lower in HBW pigs (P = 0.06). The LBW and HBW pigs could not be discriminated based on the plasma and urinary metabolites retrieved by nontargeted metabolomics. Restricting dietary protein supply decreased N retention (P < 0.001), N efficiency (P = 0.07), fecal N digestibility (P < 0.001), urinary concentration of N and urea (P < 0.001), and concentration of urea (P < 0.001), IGF-1 (P < 0.001), and α-amino N (P < 0.001) in blood plasma. The plasma and urinary metabolites differing between dietary protein regime were mostly amino acids (AA) or their derivatives, metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glucuronidated compounds, almost all being higher in the pigs fed the A regime. This study shows that BiW affects absolute N retention but does not affect N efficiency in growing pigs. Therefore, in precision feeding concepts, BiW of pigs should be considered as a factor determining protein deposition capacity but less as a trait determining N efficiency.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Masculino , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/fisiologia , Suínos/urina , Ureia/sangue
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378296

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of reduced dietary crude protein (CP) levels supplemented with or without exogenous phytase on growing pigs. Six dietary treatments arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangements of 3 CP levels (containing 14%, 16%, and 18% CP) supplemented each with or without 5,000 FTU/g phytase enzyme. Thirty growing pigs (average weight of 17.80 ± 0.10 kg) were allotted to the six dietary treatments in a complete randomized design. The final weight, daily weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased significantly with increasing CP levels. While, phytase supplementation improved (p = .044) FCR in pigs. Total solid and volatile solid content of the slurry were higher (p = .001) in pigs fed 14% and 16% CP diets supplemented with phytase when compared with other treatment groups. Concentration of methane gas emitted was lowest (p = .001) in the slurry of pigs fed 14% CP diet with or without phytase and those fed 16% CP diet with phytase supplementation. In conclusion, reduction in dietary CP levels resulted in reduced weight gain and poor FCR. While, reduced CP with phytase supplementation reduced concentration of methane gas emitted.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Gases/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso
7.
Animal ; 14(S2): s303-s312, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349831

RESUMO

Quantifying robustness of farm animals is essential before it can be implemented in breeding and management strategies. A generic modelling and data analysis procedure was developed to quantify the feed intake response of growing pigs to perturbations in terms of resistance and resilience. The objective of this study was to apply this procedure to quantify these traits in 155 pigs from an experiment where they received diets with or without cereals contaminated with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The experimental pigs were divided equally in a control group and three DON-challenged groups. Pigs in each of the challenged groups received a diet contaminated with DON for 7 days early on (from 113 to 119 days of age), later on (from 134 to 140 days of age) or in both periods of the experiment. Results showed that the target feed intake trajectory of each pig could be estimated independently of the challenge. The procedure also estimated relatively accurately the times when DON was given to each challenged group. Results of the quantification of the feed intake response indicated that age and previous exposure to DON have an effect on the resilience capacity of the animals. The correlation between resistance and resilience traits was modest, indicating that these are different elements of robustness. The feed intake analysis procedure proved its capacity to detect and quantify the response of animals to perturbations, and the resulting response traits can potentially be used in breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas , Tricotecenos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricotecenos/análise , Tricotecenos/toxicidade
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367123

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of divergent genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on nitrogen (N) metabolism and lysine utilization in growing pigs. Twenty-four gilts (body weight [BW] 66 ± 5 kg) were selected from generation nine of the low RFI (LRFI; n = 12) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 12) Iowa State University Yorkshire RFI selection lines. Six pigs from each genetic line were assigned to each of two levels of lysine intake: 70% and 100% of estimated requirements based on the potential of each genetic line for protein deposition (PD) and feed intake. For all diets, lysine was first limiting among amino acids. Using isotope tracer, N-balance, and nutrient digestibility evaluation approaches, whole-body N metabolism and the efficiency of lysine utilization were determined for each treatment group. No significant interaction effects of line and diet on dietary N or gross energy digestibility, PD, and the efficiency of lysine utilization for PD were observed. The line did not have a significant effect on PD and digestibility of dietary N and GE. An increase in lysine intake improved N retention in both lines (from 15.0 to 19.6 g/d, SE 1.44, in LRFI pigs; and from 16.9 to 19.8 g/d, SE 1.67, in HRFI pigs; P < 0.01). At the low lysine intakes and when lysine clearly limited PD, the efficiency of using available lysine intake (above maintenance requirements) for PD was 80% and 91% (SE 4.6) for the LRFI and HRFI pigs, respectively (P = 0.006). There were no significant effects of line or of the line by diet interaction on N flux, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Lysine intake significantly increased (P < 0.05) N flux (from 119 to 150, SE 8.7 g/d), protein synthesis (from 99 to 117, SE 10.6 g of N/d), and protein degradation (from 85 to 100, SE 6.6 g of N/d). The protein synthesis-to-retention ratio tended to be higher in the LRFI line compared with the HRFI line (6.5 vs. 5.8 SE 0.62; P = 0.06), indicating a tendency for the lower efficiency of PD in this group. Collectively, these results indicate that genetic selection for low RFI is not associated with improvements in lysine utilization efficiency, protein turnover, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277238

RESUMO

A 42-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn source and Cu level on pig performance, mineral status, bacterial modulation, and the presence of antimicrobial-resistant genes in isolates of Enterococcus spp. At weaning, 528 pigs (5.9 ± 0.50 kg) were allotted to 48 pens of a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two Cu and Zn sources (SF: sulfate and HCl: hydroxychloride) and two Cu levels (15 and 160 mg/kg). As a challenge, the pigs were reared in dirty pens used by a previous commercial batch. Two-phase diets were offered: the pre-starter (PS) phase from day 1 to 14 and the starter phase (ST) from day 14 to 42. At days 14 and 42, pigs were individually weighed and blood samples from one pig per pen were taken. At the end of the experiment, one pig per pen was euthanized to collect the samples. Feeding high levels of Cu increased body weight (BW) from 16.6 to 17.7 kg (P < 0.001). Furthermore, average daily gain, gain to feed (G:F) ratio, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and mineral status were enhanced with Cu at 160 mg/kg (P < 0.05) compared with Cu at 15 mg/kg. There was no effect of the interaction between source × level on any of the growth performance responses except for ADFI (P = 0.004) and G:F (P = 0.029) at the end of the ST period and for G:F (P = 0.006) for entire nursery period (day 0 to 42). At the end of the ST period, pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl had not only higher ADFI but also lower G:F than those fed Cu as SF at 160 mg/kg. Meanwhile, for the entire nursery period, G:F did not differ between pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl or SF. In colonic digesta, the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, among others, decreased (P-adjust < 0.05), while Lachnospira and Roseburia tended (P-adjust < 0.10) to increase in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl compared with those fed Cu SF at 160 mg/kg. An increase (P-adjust < 0.05) in Methanosphaera and Roseburia was observed in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg. From colon digesta, Enterococcus spp. was isolated in 40 samples, being E. faecalis the most dominating (65%) regardless of the experimental diet. Genes of ermB (7.5%) and tetM (5%) were identified. No genes for Cu (tcrB) or vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2) were detected. In conclusion, European Union permissible levels of Cu (160 mg/kg), of both sources, were able to increase performance, mineral status, and bacterial modulation compared with nutritional level. Different effects on growth performance, mineral tissue content, and microbial modulation were observed between Cu and Zn sources.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280983

RESUMO

This research evaluated a feed additive (benzoic acid, eugenol, thymol, and piperine), associated or not with colistin, in weaned piglets feeding. The parameters evaluated were growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, diarrhea incidence, intestinal morphology, relative weights of digestive organs, microbial diversity, and the percentages of operational taxonomic units of microorganisms in the cecum content of pigs. One-hundred and eight crossbred piglets (5.3 ± 0.5 kg) were used in a three-phase feeding program (21 to 35, 36 to 50, 51 to 65 d of age) and fed a control diet with no inclusion of growth promoter feed additive, a diet with 40 ppm of colistin, a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive, and a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive and 40 ppm of colistin. The diets were based on corn, soybean meal, dairy products, and spray-dried blood plasma and formulated to provide 3.40, 3.38, and 3.20 Mcal of ME/kg and 14.5, 13.3, and 10.9 g/kg of digestible lysine, in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The piglets were housed three per pen, with nine replicates per diet, in a complete randomized block design based on initial BW. The data were submitted to ANOVA and means were separated by Tukey test (5%), using SAS. Pigs fed diets with the alternative feed additive had greater (P < 0.05) ADG (114.3 vs. 91.8 g) and ADFI (190.1 vs. 163.3 g) in phase 1 than pigs fed diets without the product. The alternative additive improved (P < 0.05) ATTD of crude protein (CP) in phase 1 (71.0% vs. 68.6%), gross energy in phases 1 (77.4% vs. 75.2%) and 3 (79.0% vs. 77.1%), and dry matter in phase 3 (79.1% vs. 77.1%). The antibiotic inclusion in the diets increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of CP in phase 1 (71.5% vs. 68.2%). The alternative feed additive tended (P = 0.06) to increase (46%) normal feces frequency, decreased (P < 0.05) goblet cells count (104.3 vs. 118.1) in the jejunum, and decreased (P < 0.05) small intestine (4.60% vs. 4.93%) and colon (1.41% vs. 1.65%) relative weights, compared with pigs not fed with the alternative additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a lower concentration of Escherichia-Shigella (1.46% vs. 3.5%) and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of Campylobacter (0.52% vs. 10.21%) in the cecum content of piglets fed diets containing essential oils and benzoic acid compared with pigs fed diets without the alternative feed additive. The alternative feed additive was effective in improving growth performance, diets digestibility, and gut health in piglets soon after weaning.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenol/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Soja , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Timol/farmacologia , Desmame , Zea mays
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307528

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diet complexity and l-Thr supplementation level on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and microbial metabolites in nursery pigs. Thirty-two weaned pigs (body weight 7.23 ± 0.48 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement based on diet complexity (complex or simple) and dietary Thr content. The complex diet contained fish meal, plasma protein, and dried whey to mimic a conventional nursery diet. The simple diet was formulated with corn, wheat, and soybean meal and did not contain any animal products. l-Thr was supplemented to each diet to supply either 100% (STD Thr) or 115% (SUP Thr) of the NRC (2012) requirement for standardized ileal digestible Thr. Pigs were individually housed and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 14 d. Diet complexity, dietary Thr content, and their interactions were considered the main effects. Pigs fed the simple diet had greater (P < 0.05) plasma interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 concentrations compared with those fed the complex diet on days 7 and 14, respectively. Simple diet-fed pigs tended to show greater (P < 0.10) expression of genes encoding for tumor necrosis factor-α, claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1 in the jejunum compared with complex diet-fed pigs. The simple diet-fed pigs had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of NH3-N in the jejunum digesta than did complex diet-fed pigs. The SUP Thr increased (P < 0.05) villus height and goblet cell (GC) density in villi and crypts in the jejunum and deepened (P < 0.05) crypts in the proximal colon. The SUP Thr resulted in the upregulation (P < 0.05) of occludin gene expression and a tendency toward the downregulation (P = 0.10) of IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum. Interactions (P < 0.05) between diet complexity and l-Thr supplementation level were observed in GC density in the crypt, NH3-N concentration in the jejunum, and the contents of acetate, propionate, and total volatile fatty acids in the colon. In conclusion, feeding a simple diet to nursery pigs resulted in systemic and intestinal inflammation. The SUP Thr diet did not normalize the simple diet-induced inflammation but improved gut integrity. SUP Thr seems to have greater benefits with a simple diet than with a complex diet. Therefore, SUP Thr in a simple diet could be a beneficial nutritional strategy for enhancing gut health.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Soja , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame , Zea mays
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249285

RESUMO

A total of 467 sows were used to evaluate the effect of feeding duration of increased lysine (Lys) and metabolizable energy (ME) prior to farrowing on sow and litter performance, piglet survival, and colostrum quality. Sows were blocked by body weight (BW) and parity category on day 106 of gestation and allotted to one of three dietary regimens starting on day 107 of gestation: 1) Control: 2.0 kg/d gestation feed (12.5 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys and 6.5 Mcal ME) until day 113 of gestation, then 2.7 kg/d lactation feed (28 g SID Lys and 9.4 Mcal ME) until parturition; 2) 2.0 kg/d gestation feed (12.5 g SID Lys and 6.5 Mcal ME) until day 113 of gestation, then 3.8 kg/d lactation feed (40 g SID Lys and 13.3 Mcal ME) until parturition; or 3) 3.8 kg/d lactation feed (40 g SID Lys and 13.3 Mcal ME) until parturition. Data were analyzed for treatment within parity effects using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Increasing the duration of feeding additional Lys and ME increased (P < 0.05) sow weight gain from day 106 to 113. Sow backfat gain from day 106 to 113 of gestation increased (P < 0.05) in gilts and sows fed 3.8 kg/d of the lactation diet starting on day 107 vs. the control regimen. Average total born and born alive piglet birth weight (BiWt) were greater (P < 0.05) in gilts fed 3.8 kg/d lactation diet starting on day 107 or 113 vs. control, with no evidence (P > 0.05) for the difference in piglet BiWt in sows or weaning weight in gilts and sows. Piglet mortality after cross-fostering to weaning was decreased (P < 0.05) in sows fed 3.8 kg/d lactation diet starting on day 113 vs. control or increased lactation diet starting on day 107 but not in gilts. Litter gain from cross-foster to weaning was decreased (P < 0.05) in gilts fed 3.8 kg/d lactation diet starting on day 107 compared with control, with no evidence for difference in sows. Colostrum immunoglobulin G was increased (P < 0.05) in gilts and sows fed 3.8 kg/d of the lactation diet starting on day 113 compared with control. There was no evidence that dietary regimen influenced (P > 0.05) piglet colostrum intake or colostrum yield. There was also no evidence for difference (P > 0.05) among regimens in wean-to-estrus interval, subsequent farrowing rate, or subsequent litter characteristics. In conclusion, feeding increased Lys and ME prior to farrowing increased BW and backfat. Feeding increased Lys and ME when gilts were moved into the farrowing room increased BiWt, but reduced litter growth to weaning, with little evidence that sow performance was influenced in this study.


Assuntos
Colostro/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Lisina/farmacologia , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Estro , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez , Análise de Sobrevida , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255185

RESUMO

Antibiotics are commonly overused to reduce weaning stress that leads to economic loss in swine production. As potential substitutes of antibiotics, plant extracts have attracted the attention of researchers. However, one of the plant extracts, tannic acid (TA), has an adverse effect on the growth performance, palatability, and intestinal absorption in weaning piglets when used at a large amount. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a proper dose of microencapsulated TA on the growth performance, organ and intestinal development, intestinal morphology, intestinal nutrient transporters, and colonic microbiota in weaning piglets. Forty-five Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire] (initial body weight = 5.99 ± 0.13 kg, weaned days = 21 d) piglets were randomly divided into five treatment groups (n = 9) and raised in 14 d. The piglets in the control group were raised on a basal diet; the piglets in the antibiotic test group were raised on a basal diet with three antibiotics (375 mg/kg Chlortetracycline 20%, 500 mg/kg Enramycin 4%, 1,500 mg/kg Oxytetracycline calcium 20%); and the other three groups were raised on a basal diet with three doses of microencapsulated TA (TA1, 500 mg/kg; TA2, 1,000 mg/kg; TA3, 1,500 mg/kg). All the piglets were raised in the same environment and given the same amount of nutrients for 2 wk. The results showed that both TA1 and TA2 groups had no adverse effect on the growth performance, organ weight and intestinal growth, and the pH value of gastrointestinal content. TA2 treatment improved the duodenal morphology (P < 0.05), increased the gene expression level of solute carrier family 6, member 19 and solute carrier family 15, member 1 (P < 0.05) in the ileum, and modulated the colonic bacteria composition (P < 0.05), but inhibited the activity of maltase in the ileum (P < 0.05) and the jejunal gene expression level of solute carrier family 5, member 1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our study suggests that a dosage between 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of microencapsulated TA is safe to be included in the swine diet and that 1,000 mg/kg of microencapsulated TA has beneficial effects on intestinal morphology, intestinal nutrient transporter, and intestinal microbiota in weaning piglets. These findings provide new insights into suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improving growth performance and colonic microbiota.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285108

RESUMO

Five experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in three sorghum varieties compared with corn and to determine the effects of sorghum varieties on nursery pig growth. In exp. 1, 48 barrows (initially 18.6 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial evaluating two levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 units/kg) and four grain sources (corn, high-lysine, red, or white sorghum). Added phytase improved (P < 0.05) STTD of P in all ingredients, but was not different among the grains. In exp. 2, the DE and ME in the three sorghum varieties were not different from corn. In exp. 3, 10 growing barrows (initially 25.9 kg) with a T-cannula in the terminal ileum were used. Standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met, Thr, and Val were greater (P < 0.05) in corn than in the sorghum-based diets with no differences among the sorghum varieties. In exp. 4, 160 pigs (initially 6.3 kg) were randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments with five pigs per pen and eight replicate pens per treatment in a 20-d experiment. Dietary treatments included corn or the three sorghum varieties, where the varieties of sorghum replaced corn on an SID Lys basis. No differences among treatments were observed in any growth performance parameters. In exp. 5, treatments consisted of a corn-based diet, a diet based on conventional sorghum (a mixture of red and white sorghum), and four diets with high-lysine sorghum containing increasing amounts of feed-grade AA, replacing soybean meal. Overall, pigs fed the high-lysine sorghum diet with the greatest amount of added feed-grade AA had the poorest gain:feed ratio (G:F; P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all the other experimental diets. Within those fed the high-lysine sorghum and feed-grade AA, average daily gain, final body weight (linear, P < 0.10), and G:F (linear, P < 0.01) decreased as feed-grade AA increased. In summary, no differences in STTD of P or in DE and ME were observed among the grain sources. The SID AA values for the three sorghum varieties were not different; however, they were all lower than for corn. These results indicate that these varieties of sorghum can successfully replace corn in nursery pig diets if diets are formulated to account for differences in AA digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Sorghum/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Sorghum/metabolismo , Soja/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150274

RESUMO

The effect of increasing the feed level (1.8, 2.5, and 3.2 kg/d) during early gestation in parity 1 (PO1) and parity 2 (PO2) sows on maternal growth and litter size was evaluated. A total of 361 sows were group-housed and fed a diet based on a corn-soybean meal (3.15 Mcal Metabolizable Energy (ME) per kg and 0.68% standardized ileal digestible lysine) from day 6 of gestation until day 30. Sows were weighed at weaning and on day 30 of gestation. Farrowing rate, number of total piglets born, piglets born alive, stillborn piglets, and mummified fetuses were recorded at farrowing. The effect of feed level on the total number of piglets born was also evaluated according to classes of body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), backfat (BF), and caliper unit at weaning for each parity order. There was no evidence for significant effect of the interaction between feed level × parity on the variables related to maternal growth and reproductive performance (P ≥ 0.128). Greater feed levels linearly increased the gains in body condition (i.e., BW, BCS, BF, and caliper unit) between weaning and day 30 of gestation (P < 0.001). Farrowing rate was not influenced by the feed level (P ≥ 0.200) and parity (P ≥ 0.209). The number of total piglets born decreased linearly as the feed level increased (P = 0.041), whereas no evidences for differences were observed on piglets born alive among treatments (P ≥ 0.317), neither between parities (P ≥ 0.904). For PO1 sows, the total piglets born on BW classes (≤183 vs. >183 kg) and on classes of BF (≤11.5 vs. > 11.5 mm) were quadratically affected by the feed levels (P ≤ 0.041). In contrast, the number of total piglets born was marginally affected (linear; P ≤ 0.094) by the feed level in the different classes of BW, BCS, and caliper unit in PO2 sows. There was no evidence for differences for the interaction of feed level and classes of body condition (P ≥ 0.199) for PO2 sows. Similarly, no interactions between feed level and classes of BW, BCS, and BF at weaning were observed (P ≥ 0.233) for PO1 sows; however, the total piglets born were affected by an interaction between feed level and caliper unit class (P = 0.042). In conclusion, increased feed intake from day 6 of gestation until day 30 resulted in increased maternal BW gain but reduced the number of total piglets born. Furthermore, lighter and in a poor BCS PO1 sows at weaning produced fewer total born piglets with no benefits from greater amounts of feed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Nascimento Vivo , Lisina/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez , Soja , Natimorto/veterinária , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152634

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous catalase (CAT) in the diet of weaned piglets on growth performance, oxidative capacity, and hepatic apoptosis after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In experiment 1, 72 weaned piglets [Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 6.90 ± 0.01 kg body weight (BW), 21 d of age] were randomly assigned to be fed either a basal diet (CON group) or a basal diet supplemented with 2,000 mg/kg CAT (CAT group; dietary CAT activity, 120 U/kg) for 35 d. Blood samples were collected on day 21 and day 35. At the end of this experiment, 12 pigs were selected from each of the CON and CAT groups, and six pigs were injected with LPS (50 µg/kg BW), while the remaining six pigs were injected with an equal amount of sterile saline, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (experiment 2). Blood samples and rectal temperature data were collected 0 and 4 h after challenge, and liver samples were obtained after evisceration. The gain-to-feed ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets in the CAT group than in those in the CON group from day 1 to 35. Catalase and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities were higher (P < 0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were lower (P < 0.05), in piglets in the CAT group than in those in the CON group at day 35. During challenge, rectal temperature and liver MDA and H2O2 concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas plasma CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and liver CAT activity decreased markedly (P < 0.05), in LPS-challenged piglets 4 h post-challenge. Increased CAT activity and decreased MDA concentration were observed in the plasma and liver of piglets in the CAT group 4 h post-challenge (P < 0.05). Dietary CAT supplementation markedly suppressed the LPS-induced decrease in plasma GSH-Px activity and liver CAT activity to levels observed in the CON group (P < 0.05) as well as significantly decreasing the concentration and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 (P < 0.05). LPS-induced liver injury was also attenuated by dietary CAT supplementation, as demonstrated by a decrease in liver caspase-3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Overall, dietary supplementation with 2,000 mg/kg exogenous CAT (dietary CAT activity, 120 U/kg) improves growth performance and has a beneficial effect on antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets; alleviates oxidative stress and reduces liver damage by suppressing hepatic apoptosis in LPS-challenged piglets.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219939

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on growth performance, hepatic inflammation, and lipid metabolism in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-affected weaned piglets. Eight piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 IUGR-affected piglets were selected and fed either a basal diet (NBW and IUGR groups) or the basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg DHA (IUGR-DHA group) from 21 to 49 day of age. Blood and liver samples were collected on day 49. DHA supplementation significantly alleviated the compromised growth performance and liver damage in IUGR-affected piglets. Additionally, DHA supplementation decreased the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the serum levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), very-low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. In the liver, the concentrations of interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, triglycerides, and NEFA were decreased. Fatty acid synthesis was decreased by DHA supplementation, whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase were increased. Dietary DHA supplementation led to upregulation of the expression of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway-related genes, whereas that of inflammatory factor-related genes were downregulated. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of 80 mg/kg DHA can alleviate IUGR-induced impairments in piglets.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Gravidez , Desmame
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219950

RESUMO

Indigenous Okinawa Agu pigs are crossed with Large White × Landrace (WL) pigs to improve their meat production, but there is little information regarding the crossbreeding effects. The study aims to compare growth, carcass characteristics, and meat qualities of Agu pigs with those of WL crossbreeds with Agu sires (WLA) or Duroc sires (WLD). WLA pigs showed better growth performance and carcass characteristics and less intramuscular fat (IMF) contents than Agu ones, but they had higher fat deposition, smaller longissimus dorsi muscle area, and higher IMF contents than WLD pigs. Agu pigs showed higher water holding capacity than the other two breeds. The inner layer of Agu backfat contains higher and lower proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), respectively, than that in WLD animals. WLA animals had intermediate values for the fatty acid content in the inner backfat, although MUFA contents were equal to those of Agu pigs. Fatty acid profiles in IMF were similar to those in the backfat. These results indicate that crossbreeding of Agu with WL pigs improves growth performance and carcass quality. Particularly, WLA pigs have higher IMF contents and MUFA concentrations and lower PUFA concentrations than WLD pigs.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219327

RESUMO

Rendered products from the meat industry can provide economical quality sources of proteins to the animal and feed industry. Similar to lipids, rendered proteins are susceptible to oxidation, yet the stability of these proteins is unclear. In addition, interest in understanding how oxidative stress can impact efficiency in production animals is increasing. Recent studies show that consumption of oxidized lipids can lead to a change in the oxidative status of the animal as well as decreases in production efficiency. To date, little is known about how consumption of oxidized proteins impacts oxidative status and growth performance. The objectives of this study were to determine if feeding diets high in oxidized protein to growing pigs would: 1) impact growth performance and 2) induce oxidative stress. Thirty pigs (42 d old; initial body weight [BW] 12.49 ± 1.45 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments with increasing levels of oxidized protein. Spray-dried bovine plasma was used as the protein source and was either unheated upon arrival, heated at 45 °C for 4 d, or heated at 100 °C for 3 d. Diets were fed for 19 d and growth performance was measured. Blood plasma (days 0 and 18), jejunum, colon, and liver tissues (day 19) were collected to analyze for markers of oxidative stress (e.g., protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, DNA damage, and glutathione peroxidase activity). Average daily gain (ADG;P < 0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI;P < 0.01) had a positive linear relationship to increased protein oxidation, but there was no effect on gain to feed ratio. Furthermore, protein (P = 0.03) and fat (P < 0.01) digestibility were reduced with increased protein oxidation in the diet. Crypt depth showed a positive linear relationship with dietary protein oxidation levels (P = 0.02). A trend was observed in liver samples where pigs fed the plasma heated to 45 °C had increased lipid oxidation compared with pigs fed the plasma either unheated or heated to 100 °C (P = 0.09). DNA damage in the jejunum tended to have a linear relationship with the dietary protein oxidation level (P = 0.07). Even though results suggest dietary oxidized protein did not induce oxidative stress during short-term feeding, differences in performance, gut morphology, and digestibility are likely a result of reduced protein availability.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103244

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of xylanase on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, organ weight, digesta pH, and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) of weaned pigs fed wheat-canola meal (CM) diets over a 35-d period. A total of 144 piglets (72 barrows and 72 gilts) weaned at 18 ± 2 d of age, with initial body weight (BW) of 6.2 ± 0.7 kg, received one of eight dietary treatments based on randomized complete block design. BW and feed intake were recorded weekly to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F). Treatments consisted of a control wheat-soybean meal-based diet and wheat-regular (RCM), dehulled (DCM), or coarse CM (CCM) without and with 16,000 BXU/kg xylanase (Econase XT). All diets contained 500 FTU/kg of phytase (Quantum Blue 5G) and titanium dioxide (0.3%). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP), phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca), dry matter, and diet were determined. On day 35, one pig per pen was euthanized to evaluate the main factors of protein, xylanase supplementation, and sex on organ weight, ileal and colon digesta pH, and colon digesta concentrations of SCFA. The main factors did not affect growth performance. Xylanase supplementation improved nutrient digestibilities in all diets and increased ileal and colonic digesta pH without affecting the growth performance of weaned pigs fed wheat and CM-based diets. A protein-xylanase effect (P < 0.05) resulted in increasing the ATTD of NDF from 28% to 32% and from 29% to 37% for RCM and DCM, respectively. The ATTD of CP was greater (P < 0.05) with xylanase supplementation (75% vs. 70%). Xylanase supplementation increased ATTD of P and Ca. A three-way interaction (P < 0.05) for protein-xylanase-gender for colon pH, acetic, and propionic acid in the colon digesta of pigs indicated that, in addition to the protein source, piglet sex could have influenced how xylanase works. Xylanase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the weight of the liver and spleen and tended (P < 0.10) to increase the size of the kidney. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase increased nutrient digestibility and digesta pH but did not influence the growth performance of weaned pigs fed wheat and CM-based diets over a 35-d period.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brassica napus , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum , Desmame
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