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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13493, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314533

RESUMO

Although successful fertilization is completed by only 150 sperm in the pig oviduct, more than 50,000 sperms are required to achieve a fertilization rate of more than 70% by pig in vitro fertilization (IVF). In this study, to improve the efficiency of pig IVF, the effects of hypoxic conditions and treatment with creatine and methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MßCD) on the glycolytic pathway were investigated. Under low O2 conditions, zig-zag motility was strongly induced within 30 min; however, the induction disappeared at 60 min. Although caffeine suppressed zig-zag motility under low O2 conditions, creatine induced and sustained zig-zag motility until 120 min. Additionally, pretreatment with MßCD for 15 min greatly enhanced zig-zag motility via ATP production in sperm incubated with creatine under low O2 conditions. Sperm pretreated with MßCD were used for IVF in medium containing creatine under low O2 conditions. A fertilization rate of approximately 70% was achieved with only 1.0 x 104 sperms/mL, and there were few polyspermic embryos. Therefore, our novel method was beneficial for efficient production of pig embryos in vitro. Moreover, the zig-zag motility may be a novel movement which boar capacitated sperm exhibit in the culture medium.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização/fisiologia , Masculino , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo/fisiologia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13492, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314560

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to assess the productivity of pigs to investigate the time-dependent change in productivity and compare productivity according to breeding company group and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) status on commercial swine farms in southern Kyushu, Japan. Data used in the present study were 245 annual productivity records from 2014 to 2018 obtained from 72 farms. Average sow inventory was 481.2 sows. Mean numbers of pigs weaned per sow per year and market pigs sold per sow per year were 23.7 and 21.6, respectively. Pigs born alive per litter increased from 11.1 to 11.9 pigs from 2014 to 2018 (p < .05). Farms using domestic breeding companies had similar numbers in 2016 to those using international breeding companies, but fewer pigs in 2014, 2015, 2017, and 2018 (p < .05). Farms with an unknown or unstable PRRS status had fewer pigs born alive per litter and pigs weaned per sow per year than those with stable or negative PRRS statuses (11.2 ± 0.06 vs. 11.8 ± 0.08 pigs and 22.6 ± 0.38 vs. 25.0 ± 0.22 pigs, respectively; p < .05). These results can be used to establish feasible targets and standards of performance to identify problem areas and improve production.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Cruzamento/economia , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053106

RESUMO

The suckling behavior of piglets was evaluated in summer and winter, using 21 sows of the same genetic line. Data were collected in July (winter) and in January (summer). The experimental design was a randomized complete block (age of piglets) in a 2x2 factorial scheme, with season of the year (winter and summer) and shift (day, from 06 h to 1h:59min and night from 18h to 05h:59min) as factors. The behavioral variables analyzed were number, interval, and frequency of suckling. The behaviors were monitored on day 7 and 15 of lactation, for 24 hours. In winter, the farrowing room had a mean temperature of 20.32 ±2.17°C and a relative humidity (RH) of 58.63 ±2.99%. In the summer, the mean temperature was 26.65 ±4.02°C, with an RH of 62.22 ±12.06%. During winter, the piglets presented longer sucklings during the night, dedicating 1.84 minutes more to suckling compared to the daytime. Nighttime sucklings were 3.13 minutes longer in winter than in summer. However, in summer, piglets suckled more often during the night, with greater interval between feeds during the day. Based on our results, the season influences the suckling behavior of piglets, with shorter feedings and greater frequencies in summer.


Assuntos
Lactação , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Suínos/fisiologia , Temperatura
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13457, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959472

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the efficiency of non-surgical embryo transfer (ET) using a newly developed catheter, which enables transferring embryos into a proximal site of the uterus (mostly uterine body), and surgical ET of vitrified porcine embryos. In Experiment 1, the catheter was inserted into 12 gilts, with each half of the group allocated to skilled or novice operators. The time required for insertion into the uterus did not differ between skilled and novice operators (4 min 9 s and 4 min 6 s, respectively). In Experiment 2, 12 gilts were used as recipients for non-surgical and surgical ET with vitrified embryos (n = 6, each). There was no significant difference in the rate of piglet production based on the number of transferred embryos between surgical and non-surgical ET (25.8% vs. 15.4%, p = .098). The results suggest that non-surgical ET catheter allowed for easy insertion and transfer of embryos without special training. Although the catheter is effective for deposition of embryos into the proximal site of uterus, the efficiency of piglet production is not enhanced compared with surgical ET. The ET method using this catheter, being labor-saving and less-invasive, may contribute to the improvement of ET in pigs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Útero , Vitrificação , Animais , Cateteres , Transferência Embrionária/instrumentação , Feminino , Reprodução , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13453, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926526

RESUMO

This study was performed to evaluate reproductive performance after non-surgical embryo transfer (Ns-ET) of 10-15 porcine expanded blastocysts (ExBs) that had been vitrified and warmed (V/W) using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method. The effect of asynchrony between the donor and recipient estrous cycle was investigated. Ns-ET was conducted in recipients whose estrous cycle was asynchronous to that of donors by a delay of 2, 1, or 0 days. In the 2-day and 1-day groups, the similar farrowing rates (27.3% and 25.0%) and survival rates to term (13.9% and 15.7%) were obtained after Ns-ET of V/W ExBs. None of the recipients in 0-day group farrowed. Artificial insemination (AI) prior to Ns-ET was then evaluated. Ten-15 V/W ExBs were transferred non-surgically to 12 recipients whose estrous cycles were asynchronous to that of donors by a 2-day delay. All of the recipients produced piglets, and all (100.0%) delivered piglets were derived from the transferred V/W ExBs. The survival rate of V/W ExBs to term was 25.2%. These results demonstrate that Ns-ET of V/W ExBs using MVAC can facilitate piglet production, even if 10-15 embryos are transferred. Moreover, piglets were obtained stably when AI was performed prior to Ns-ET.


Assuntos
Blastocisto , Sobrevivência Celular , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Vitrificação , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Reprodução
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822385

RESUMO

Before fertilization, sperm bind to epithelial cells of the oviduct isthmus to form a reservoir that regulates sperm viability and capacitation. The sperm reservoir maintains optimum fertility in species, like swine, in which semen deposition and ovulation may not be well synchronized. We demonstrated previously that porcine sperm bind to two oviductal glycan motifs, a biantennary 6-sialylated N-acetyllactosamine (bi-SiaLN) oligosaccharide and 3-O-sulfated Lewis X trisaccharide (suLeX). Here, we assessed the ability of these glycans to regulate sperm Ca2+ influx, capacitation and affect sperm lifespan. After 24 h, the viability of sperm bound to immobilized bi-SiaLN and suLeX was higher (46% and 41% respectively) compared to viability of free-swimming sperm (10-12%). Ca2+ is a central regulator of sperm function so we assessed whether oviduct glycans could affect the Ca2+ influx that occurs during capacitation. Using a fluorescent intracellular Ca2+ probe, we observed that both oviduct glycans suppressed the Ca2+ increase that occurs during capacitation. Thus, specific oviduct glycans can regulate intracellular Ca2+. Because the increase in intracellular Ca2+ was suppressed by oviduct glycans, we examined whether glycans affected capacitation, as determined by protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the ability to undergo a Ca2+ ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We found no discernable suppression of capacitation in sperm bound to oviduct glycans. We also detected no effect of oviduct glycans on sperm motility during capacitation. In summary, LeX and bi-SiaLN glycan motifs found on oviduct oligosaccharides suppress the Ca2+ influx that occurs during capacitation and extend sperm lifespan but do not affect sperm capacitation or motility.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Oviductos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Capacitação Espermática , Motilidade Espermática
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817703

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the impact of two different respiratory rates in hemodynamic, perfusion and ventilation parameters in a pediatric animal model of cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: An experimental randomized controlled trial was carried out in 50 piglets under asphyxial CA. After ROSC, they were randomized into two groups: 20 and 30 respirations per minute (rpm). Hemodynamic, perfusion and ventilation parameters were measured 10 minutes after asphyxia, just before ROSC and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after ROSC. Independent medians test, Kruskal-Wallis test and χ2 test, were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Spearman's Rho was used to assess correlation between continuous variables. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was significantly lower in the 30 rpm group after 15 minutes (41 vs. 54.5 mmHg, p <0.01), 30 minutes (39.5 vs. 51 mmHg, p < 0.01) and 60 minutes (36.5 vs. 48 mmHg, p = 0.02) of ROSC. The percentage of normoventilated subjects (PaCO2 30-50 mmHg) was significantly higher in the 30 rpm group throughout the experiment. pH normalization occurred faster in the 30 rpm group with significant differences at 60 minutes (7.40 vs. 7.34, p = 0.02). Lactic acid levels were high immediately after ROSC in both groups, but were significantly lower in the 20 rpm group at 30 (3.7 vs. 4.7 p = 0.04) and 60 minutes (2.6 vs. 3.6 p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This animal model of asphyxial CA shows that a respiratory rate of 30 rpm is more effective to reach normoventilation than 20 rpm in piglets after ROSC. This ventilation strategy seems to be safe, as it does not cause hyperventilation and does not affect hemodynamics or cerebral tissue perfusion.


Assuntos
Asfixia/terapia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Ventilação/normas , Animais , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Asfixia/fisiopatologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Pediatria , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suínos/fisiologia
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658254

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, starch, and total dietary fiber (TDF) in two varieties of hybrid rye and compare these values with values obtained for barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum. It was hypothesized that there are no differences in AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients among hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and sorghum. Twenty-four ileal cannulated barrows (initial body weight = 28.1 ± 3.0 kg) were randomly allotted to a two-period experimental design with six diets and four replicate pigs in each period for a total of eight replicate pigs per diet. Diets consisted of 97% of each grain, and each pig received a different diet in each period. The initial 5 d of each period were considered the adaptation period, whereas urine and fecal materials were collected from the feed provided from day 6 to 10, and ileal digesta were collected on days 12 and 13 of each period. Results indicated that the metabolizable energy (ME) on a dry matter (DM) basis was greatest (P < 0.05) in corn and wheat (3,732 and 3,641 kcal/kg DM), and least (P < 0.05) in barley (3,342 kcal/kg DM), whereas the two hybrid ryes contained 3,499 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The ME values in hybrid rye were not different from values determined for barley and sorghum (3,573 kcal/kg DM). In all grains, the AID of starch was greater than 90%, and the ATTD of starch was nearly 100%. Barley contained more TDF than the other cereal grains, and the two hybrid ryes had concentrations of soluble dietary fiber that were close to the concentration in barley but greater than in wheat, corn, and sorghum. The AID of TDF was less than 35% for all cereal grains, but the ATTD of TDF was greater (P < 0.05) in the two hybrid ryes (68% and 70%) than in the other ingredients (56% to 58%). In conclusion, feeding hybrid rye to pigs resulted in reduced pre-cecal absorption of energy compared with wheat, corn, and sorghum, but because hindgut fermentation of fiber was greater in hybrid rye than in other cereal grains, the content of ME in hybrid rye was not different from barley and sorghum but less than in corn and wheat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Grão Comestível , Secale , Suínos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663204

RESUMO

Wild boar are considered one the world's worst invasive species and linked to biodiversity loss, competition for resources, predation of native species, and habitat modifications. In this study, we use camera traps to evaluate whether the invasive wild boar had an effect on the medium-sized mammal community of a protected area in southern Brazil. Based on photographic records, we evaluated whether the presence and relative abundance of wild boar was associated with a decrease in diversity or change in activity of medium-sized mammals. All comparisons were made between samples where wild boar were present or absent. The records of each camera during a season were considered a sample. The wild boar was the fourth most common species in the study area being present in 7.8% of the photographic records. The species richness of mammals was not negatively affected by the occurrence of wild boar and most common species did not exhibit changes in the daily activity pattern. However, we recorded an increase in the time elapsed between an observation of wild boar and the record of the next species relative to the average latency period observed among other mammalian species. This average latency period was similar to that observed in the case of large predators such as Puma, and its increase could be reflective partly of the avoidance of native species to wild boar. Nevertheless, our results show that the effect of invasive wild boar on the mammal community is not large as expected.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies Introduzidas , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Mamíferos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677174

RESUMO

Mitochondria are necessary for the transition from oocyte to embryo and for early embryonic development. Mitofusin 1 is the main mediator of mitochondrial fusion and homeostasis. We investigated Mitofusin 1 expression levels in porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. The rate of blastocyst formation in SCNT embryos was reduced significantly compared with that of parthenogenetic activation embryos. SCNT embryos showed significantly decreased Mitofusin 1 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential, while exhibiting increased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Mitochondrial functional changes were observed in the SCNT embryos and may be correlated with low levels of Mitofusin 1 to negatively affect development.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Blastocisto , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Partenogênese/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681642

RESUMO

Dietary lysophospholipids (LPL) would influence milk composition of sows, thus positively affect intestinal health of offspring. The objective of this study was to determine effects of dietary LPL fed to lactating sows on performance, milk characteristics, gut health, and gut-associated microbiome of offspring. Sixty pregnant sows were allotted to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design with parity and BW as blocks on day 110 of gestation. Treatments were CON (no added LPL) and LPL (0.05% LPL; Lipidol-Ultra, Pathway Intermediates, Shrewsbury, UK). Sows were fed 2 kg/d from day 110 of gestation until farrowing and ad libitum after farrowing. Diets were formulated to meet NRC requirement for lactating sows. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 sows per treatment were collected to measure nutrients and immunoglobulins on days 1 and 18 of lactation, respectively. Twelve piglets per treatment (1 piglet per litter) were euthanized on day 18 to collect tissues to measure tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, IgA, histomorphology, crypt cell proliferation rate, and microbiota in the jejunum and colon. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, and the mortality was analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There was no difference in sow BW, parity, and litter size between treatments on day 0 of lactation. Sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) litter BW gain (53.9 vs. 59.4 kg) and decreased piglet mortality (13.9% vs. 10.6%) on day 18 of lactation. Sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) omega-6:omega-3 (22.1 vs. 23.7) and unsaturated:saturated (1.4 vs. 1.6) fatty acids ratios with increased oleic acid (29.1% vs. 31.4%) and tended to have increased (P = 0.092) IgG (1.14 vs. 1.94 g/L) and linoleic acid (17.7% vs. 18.7%) in the milk on day 18 of lactation. Piglets from sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) IL-8 (184 vs. 245 pg/mg) and crypt cell proliferation rate (39.4% vs. 40.9%) and tended to have increased (P = 0.095) Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio (1.0 vs. 3.5) in the jejunum. In conclusion, sows fed with LPL had milk with increased IgG, oleic acids, and linoleic acids without changes in BW and backfat during lactation. These changes could contribute to improved survivability and intestinal health of piglets by increasing IL-8 concentration, enhancing balance among gut-associated microbiome, and increasing enterocyte proliferation in the jejunum.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Leite/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Líquidos Corporais , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisofosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687554

RESUMO

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607561

RESUMO

The study was conducted to determine the effects of high levels of phytase on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, phytate breakdown, and expression of mucosal tight junction and nutrient transporter genes in weanling pigs. A total of 128 barrows were penned in groups of four and used in a randomized completely block design and assigned to four treatments for a 28-d study. A two-phase feeding was implemented (phase 1: day 1 to 14; phase 2: day 15 to 28). The diets differed in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels (positive control [PC]: 8.1 to 7.1 g/kg Ca and 6.5 to 6.8 g/kg P; negative control [NC]: 6.6 to 5.5 g/kg Ca and 5.6 to 5.3 g/kg P) from phase 1 to phase 2, respectively. NC diets were supplemented with phytase at 0 (NC), 1,500 (NC + 1,500), or 3,000 (NC + 3,000) phytase units (FTU)/kg. Blood was collected after fasting (day 27) or feeding (day 28) for the measurement of plasma inositol concentrations. On day 28, two pigs per pen were euthanized. Duodenal-jejunal and ileal digesta samples and feces were collected to determine inositol phosphates (InsP3-6) concentrations. Phytase supplementation increased the body weight on days 14 and 28 (P < 0.05). Average daily gain and feed efficiency compared with NC were increased by phytase with the majority of its effect in phase 1 (P < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of P were increased in piglets fed phytase-supplemented diets (P < 0.01) compared with NC piglets. Disappearance of InsP6 and total InsP3-6 up to the duodenum-jejunum, ileum, and in feces was increased by both phytase application rates (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of myo-inositol were higher (P < 0.001) in the phytase-supplemented diets than PC and NC diets, irrespective of whether pigs were fed or fasted. Expression of claudin 3 was higher in pigs fed both phytase-supplemented diets in the duodenum and jejunum compared with PC and NC. Mucin 2 expression was lower in the ileum of NC + 3,000 fed piglets compared with PC (P < 0.05), whereas expression of GLUT2 (solute carrier family 2-facilitated glucose transporter member 2) was increased (P < 0.05) by the NC + 3,000 treatment in all sections. In summary, high phytase supplementation increased the growth performance of nursery pigs. The increased expression of GLUT2 by phytase may indicate an upregulation of glucose absorption from the intestine by phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nutrientes , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667675

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 poultry by-products including hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), flash dried poultry protein (FDPP), and poultry meal (PM) and also a meat and bone meal (MBM) between broiler chickens and pigs. Experimental diets consisted of 4 diets containing each test ingredient as a sole source of nitrogen and a nitrogen-free diet. In experiment 1, 416 male broiler chickens with a mean initial body weight (BW) of 705 ± 100 g were allotted to 5 diets with 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor at day 18 posthatching. After 5 d of feeding experimental diets, birds were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation, and ileal digesta samples were collected from distal two-thirds of the ileum. In experiment 2, 10 barrows with a mean initial BW of 22.1 ± 1.59 kg were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to a duplicate 5 × 4 incomplete Latin Square design with 5 diets and 4 periods. Each period lasted for 7 d including 5 d of adaptation and 2 d of ileal digesta collection. Data from experiments 1 and 2 were pooled together and analyzed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with the effects of species (broiler chickens or pigs) and 4 experimental diets (HFM, FDPP, PM, or MBM). There were interactions (P < 0.05) between experimental diets and species in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val, and all dispensable AA except Tyr. In broiler chickens, the SID of Lys in FDPP (73.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (55.7%) but was lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (86.5%), which was not different from PM (78.7%). In pigs, however, the SID of Lys in FDPP and PM (70.0 and 70.1%, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than in HFM (39.0%) but were lower (P < 0.05) than in MBM (79.2%). Broiler chickens fed FDPP and PM had lower (P < 0.05) SID of His, Thr, and Trp than those fed MBM; however, there was no difference in the SID of His, Thr, or Trp among pigs fed FDPP, PM, or MBM. The SID of Val in MBM was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other test ingredients for broiler chickens, but there was no difference in the SID of Val among test ingredients for pigs. Pigs had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Ile and Met than broiler chickens. In conclusion, the pattern of differences in the SID of His, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val, but not the other indispensable AA, among poultry by-products and MBM were different between broiler chickens and pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Produtos Avícolas , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Produtos Biológicos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497179

RESUMO

Forty pigs [10.7 ± 1.2 kg initial body weight (BW) at 6 wk of age] were used in a 21-d study to evaluate the effects of supplemental xylanase (Hostazym X 100, Huvepharma, Inc., Peachtree City, GA) in nursery diets on digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility, health of the small intestine, and growth performance when supplemented with corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were individually housed and randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (n = 20/factor, 0% or 30% DDGS and 0 or 1,500 endo-pentosanase unit/kg xylanase as two factors) based on sex and initial BW. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly. On day 15 of the study, TiO2 in diets (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker to calculate apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Plasma samples were collected on day 19 to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, and peptide YY. On day 21, all pigs were euthanized to collect tissues from duodenum, jejunum, and colon to measure morphology, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde concentrations. Distal jejunal digesta were collected to measure viscosity. Ileum digesta were collected to measure AID of nutrients. During the entire period, supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 616 to 660 g/d) of nursery pigs, whereas DDGS (0 or 30%) did not affect ADG. On week 3, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P < 0.05) when fed DDGS (1,141 to 1,267 g/d) and there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between two factors indicating that supplemental xylanase decreased ADFI when DDGS was used in a diet. Use of DDGS increased (P < 0.05) viscosity [1.86 to 2.38 centipoise (cP)], whereas supplemental xylanase reduced (P < 0.05) viscosity (2.27 to 1.96 cP) of jejunal digesta. The AID of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) were improved (P < 0.05) by supplemental xylanase. Plasma TNF-α was decreased (P < 0.05, 108.5 to 69.9 pg/mL) by supplemental xylanase. Use of DDGS reduced (P < 0.05) villus height:crypt depth ratio (1.46 to 1.27), whereas supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) the crypt depth (360 to 404 µm) in duodenum. In conclusion, feeding a diet with 30% DDGS to nursery pigs for 3 wk had no negative effect on growth performance, whereas reduced AID of DM and GE, increased TNF-α level in colon tissue, and reduced the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Dietary supplementation of xylanase reduced digesta viscosity improving AID of nutrients, reduced inflammatory response, and altered intestinal morphology, collectively improving ADG of nursery pigs regardless of the use of DDGS in a diet.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Íleo/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Zea mays
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506131

RESUMO

AbstractThe effects of two feed levels offered during two estrous cycles before insemination were evaluated on the reproductive performance of gilts. A total of 93 gilts (PIC Hendersonville, TN) were individually housed and manually fed twice a day with 2.1 or 3.6 kg/d of a corn and soybean meal-based diet (3.15 Mcal ME/kg and 0.64% standardized ileal digestible lysine), during two estrous cycles before breeding (cycle 1, between first and second estrus; cycle 2, between second and third estrus). Gilts were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, at second and third estrus, and at slaughter (30.2 ± 1.2 d of gestation). Follicles were counted at second estrus, and the embryo-placental units and the corpora lutea were individually counted, measured, and weighed at slaughter. Gilts fed 3.6 kg/d had greater BW gain during cycle 1 and cycle 2 (P < 0.001; + 9.8 kg and + 10.0 kg, respectively) becoming heavier at second and third estrus (P < 0.001). At second estrus, gilts fed 3.6 kg/d had 1.6 more medium-large follicles (P = 0.074) but no difference in follicle size (P = 0.530) was observed. Gilts fed 3.6 kg/d in cycle 1 or cycle 2 had a greater ovulation rate at third estrus (P < 0.016) than those receiving 2.1 kg/d. Also, 3.6 kg/d in cycle 2 increased early embryo mortality (P = 0.006; 2.3 vs. 1.1 dead embryos) and consequently reduced total embryo survival (P = 0.002; 84.6 vs. 90.1%). Gilts fed 3.6 kg/d during cycle 1 had two more total embryos (P < 0.001; 17.2 vs. 15.1) and two more vital embryos on day 30 (P < 0.001; 16.7 vs. 14.5) in comparison with gilts fed 2.1 kg/d. The coefficient of variation for placental length was greater for gilts fed 3.6 kg/d during cycle 1 (P = 0.003). No further significant effects of feeding levels were observed on embryo and placental traits (P ≥ 0.063). These results suggest that the feeding level during the first cycle after pubertal estrus is crucial to set ovulation rate and potential litter size for breeding at next estrus. However, flush feeding gilts before insemination can negatively impact litter size by reducing embryo survival when breeding at third estrus.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral , Estro , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lisina/metabolismo , Ovulação , Gravidez , Soja , Zea mays
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492122

RESUMO

Longevity in commercial sows is often selected for through stayability traits measured in purebred animals. However, this may not be justifiable because longevity and stayability may be subject to both genotype by environment interaction (G × E) and genotype by genotype interaction (G × G). This study tested the hypothesis that stayability to service after first parity is more strongly genetically correlated with longevity in commercial herds when stayability is measured in commercial herds rather than multiplier herds. The analysis was based on farrowing- and service-records from 470,824 sows (189,263 multiplier; 281,561 commercial) and 300 herds (156 multiplier; 144 commercial sows). Multiplier sows were either purebred Landrace or Yorkshire and commercial sows were mainly rotationally crossbreds between the two breeds. Commercial longevity was defined as age in days when culled (LongC), and stayability to service after first parity was defined for both commercial sows (StayC) and multiplier sows (StayM). The genetic correlations between LongC, StayC, and StayM were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood using linear mixed models. Genetic parameters were estimated separately for Landrace and Yorkshire. In Landrace, the genetic correlations between LongC and StayC, LongC and StayM, and StayC and StayM were 0.86 ± 0.02, 0.24 ± 0.05, and 0.34 ± 0.06, respectively. In Yorkshire, the genetic correlations between LongC and StayC, LongC and StayM, and StayC and StayM were 0.81 ± 0.03, 0.17 ± 0.05, and 0.18 ± 0.7, respectively. Conclusively, longevity in commercial herds is more strongly correlated with stayability when stayability is measured in commercial herds rather than multiplier herds.


Assuntos
Longevidade/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Genótipo , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Paridade , Gravidez
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479590

RESUMO

Exploring factors that might affect nitrogen (N) efficiency in pigs could support the development of precision feeding concepts. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of birth weight (BiW) on N retention, N efficiency, and concentrations of metabolites in plasma and urine related to N efficiency in male pigs of 14 wk of age. BiW of the low BiW (LBW) and high BiW (HBW) pigs was 1.11 ± 0.14 and 1.79 ± 0.12 kg, respectively. Twenty LBW and 20 HBW pigs were individually housed in metabolism cages and were subjected to an N balance study in two sequential periods of 5 d, after an 11-d adaptation period. Pigs were assigned to a protein adequate (A) or protein restricted (R, 70% of A) regime in a change-over design and fed restrictedly 2.8 times the energy requirements for maintenance. Nontargeted metabolomics analyses were performed in urine and blood plasma samples. The N retention in g/d was higher in the HBW than in the LBW pigs (P < 0.001). The N retention in g/(kg BW0.75·d) and N efficiency (= 100% × N retention / N intake), however, were not affected by BiW of the pigs. Moreover, fecal digestibility of N and urinary concentration of N and urea were not affected by BiW of the pigs. The concentration of insulin (P = 0.08) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1;P = 0.05) in blood plasma was higher in HBW pigs, whereas the concentration of α-amino N tended to be lower in HBW pigs (P = 0.06). The LBW and HBW pigs could not be discriminated based on the plasma and urinary metabolites retrieved by nontargeted metabolomics. Restricting dietary protein supply decreased N retention (P < 0.001), N efficiency (P = 0.07), fecal N digestibility (P < 0.001), urinary concentration of N and urea (P < 0.001), and concentration of urea (P < 0.001), IGF-1 (P < 0.001), and α-amino N (P < 0.001) in blood plasma. The plasma and urinary metabolites differing between dietary protein regime were mostly amino acids (AA) or their derivatives, metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glucuronidated compounds, almost all being higher in the pigs fed the A regime. This study shows that BiW affects absolute N retention but does not affect N efficiency in growing pigs. Therefore, in precision feeding concepts, BiW of pigs should be considered as a factor determining protein deposition capacity but less as a trait determining N efficiency.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Masculino , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/fisiologia , Suínos/urina , Ureia/sangue
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479635

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a maternal antibiotic administration during the last week of gestation on the early life intestinal development in neonatal piglets. Colonization of the gut with bacteria starts during birth and plays a major role in the intestinal and immunological development of the intestine. We demonstrate that maternal interventions induced changes in the sows (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) fecal microbiota diversity around birth (P < 0.001, day 1). Whole-genome microarray analysis in small intestinal samples of 1-d old piglets (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) showed significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) which were involved in processes of tight junction formation and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, when performing morphometry analysis, the number of goblet cells in jejunum was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in piglets from amoxicillin administered sows compared with the respective control piglets. Both significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) and significant morphometry data (jejunum P < 0.05 and ileum P < 0.01) indicate that the crypts of piglets from amoxicillin administered sows deepen around weaning (day 26) as an effect of the amoxicillin administration in sows. The latter might imply that the intestinal development of piglets was delayed by maternal antibiotic administration. Taken together, these results show that maternally oral antibiotic administration changes in early life can affect intestinal development of the offspring piglets for a period of at least 5 wk after the maternal antibiotic administration was finished. These results show that modulation of the neonatal intestine is possible by maternal interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480399

RESUMO

The creation of species-specific valid tools for pain assessment is essential to recognize pain and determine the requirement and efficacy of analgesic treatments. This study aimed to assess behaviour and investigate the validity and reliability of an acute pain scale in pigs undergoing orchiectomy. Forty-five pigs aged 38±3 days were castrated under local anaesthesia. Behaviour was video-recorded 30 minutes before and intermittently up to 24 hours after castration. Edited footage (before surgery, after surgery before and after rescue analgesia, and 24 hours postoperatively) was analysed twice (one month apart) by one observer who was present during video-recording (in-person researcher) and three blinded observers. Statistical analysis was performed using R software and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. Intra and inter-observer agreement, based on intra-class correlation coefficient, was good or very good between most observers (>0.60), except between observers 1 and 3 (moderate agreement 0.57). The scale was unidimensional according to principal component analysis. The scale showed acceptable item-total Spearman correlation, excellent predictive and concurrent criterion validity (Spearman correlation ≥ 0.85 between the proposed scale versus visual analogue, numerical rating, and simple descriptive scales), internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient >0.80 for all items), responsiveness (the pain scores of all items of the scale increased after castration and decreased after intervention analgesia according to Friedman test), and specificity (> 95%). Sensitivity was good or excellent for most of the items. The optimal cut-off point for rescue analgesia was ≥ 6 of 18. Discriminatory ability was excellent for all observers according to the area under the curve (>0.95). The proposed scale is a reliable and valid instrument and may be used clinically and experimentally to assess postoperative acute pain in pigs. The well-defined cut-off point supports the evaluator´s decision to provide or not analgesia.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Análise de Componente Principal , Software/normas
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