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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797113

RESUMO

An important economic reason for the loss of local breeds is that they tend to be less productive, and hence having less market value than commercial breeds. Nevertheless, local breeds often have irreplaceable values, genetically and sociologically. In the breeding programs with local breeds, it is crucial to balance the selection for genetic gain and the maintaining of genetic diversity. These two objectives are often conflicting, and finding the optimal point of the trade-off has been a challenge for breeders. Genomic selection (GS) provides a revolutionary tool for the genetic improvement of farm animals. At the same time, it can increase inbreeding and produce a more rapid depletion of genetic variability of the selected traits in future generations. Optimum-contribution selection (OCS) represents an approach to maximize genetic gain while constraining inbreeding within a targeted range. In the present study, 515 Ningxiang pigs were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 array or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Porcine 50K array. The Ningxiang pigs were found to be highly inbred at the genomic level. Average locus-wise inbreeding coefficients were 0.41 and 0.37 for the two SNP arrays used, whereas genomic inbreeding coefficients based on runs of homozygosity were 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Simulated phenotypic data were used to assess the utility of genomic OCS (GOCS) in comparison with GS without inbreeding control. GOCS was conducted under two scenarios, selecting sires only (GOCS_S) or selecting sires and dams (GOCS_SD), while kinships were constrained on selected parents. The genetic gain for average daily body weight gain (ADG) per generation was between 18.99 and 20.55 g with GOCS_S, and between 23.20 and 28.92 with GOCS_SD, and it varied from 25.38 to 48.38 g under GS without controlling inbreeding. While the rate of genetic gain per generation obtained using GS was substantially larger than that obtained by the two scenarios of genomic OCS in the beginning generations of selection, the difference in the genetic gain of ADG between GS and GOCS reduced quickly in latter generations. At generation ten, the difference in the realized rates of genetic gain between GS and GOCS_SD diminished and ended up with even a slightly higher genetic gain with GOCS_SD, due to the rapid loss of genetic variance with GS and fixation of causative genes. The rate of inbreeding was mostly maintained below 5% per generation with genomic OCS, whereas it increased to between 10.5% and 15.3% per generation with GS. Therefore, genomic OCS appears to be a sustainable strategy for the genetic improvement of local breeds such as Ningxiang pigs, but keeping mind that a variety of GOCS methods exist and the optimal forms remain to be exploited further.


Assuntos
Endogamia , Seleção Genética , Suínos/genética , Animais , Feminino , Genômica , Homozigoto , Masculino , Fenótipo
2.
Gene ; 754: 144879, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531458

RESUMO

Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that plays a significant role in sustaining cell motility and cell metabolism. Investigations of the mutations present in the key regions of gelsolin provide extensive information to further understand the mechanism by which gelsolin causes variation in the phenotype [e.g., residual feed intake (RFI) or feed efficiency ]of pigs. However, there have been no investigations of the variation in functional binding regions or research on Chinese native pigs. In this study, three key regions of gelsolin were investigated in 144 pigs from six breeds using a sequencing method. The results revealed 16 nucleotide substitutions, eight of which (c.42-13G/T, c.59 T/C, c.86C/T, c.87G/T, c.104C/T, c.144 T/C, c.206G/C, and c.237 + 21A/G) were novel and identified in intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2. Two variants (c.87G/T and c.144 T/C) resulted in a premature stop codon (p.Gly16Uga(Stop)) and an amino acid change (p.Tyr35His), respectively. In region 1, c.144 T/C was the most common (at a total frequency of 46.5%), followed by c.42-13G/T (at a total frequency of 41.7%). In region 2, two variants (c.350A/G and c.374A/G) were most common (both at a total frequency of 36.1%). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in variant frequencies between Chinese indigenous pigs and overseas pigs. Our findings revealed one novel premature stop codon and eight novel variations in re-sequencing regions, which suggest that these variations of gelsolin may influence its mRNA expression and consequently affect production traits in swine.


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação/genética , Gelsolina/genética , Variação Genética , Suínos/genética , Animais , Suínos/classificação
3.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 33, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural and artificial directional selection in cosmopolitan and autochthonous pig breeds and wild boars have shaped their genomes and resulted in a reservoir of animal genetic diversity. Signatures of selection are the result of these selection events that have contributed to the adaptation of breeds to different environments and production systems. In this study, we analysed the genome variability of 19 European autochthonous pig breeds (Alentejana, Bísara, Majorcan Black, Basque, Gascon, Apulo-Calabrese, Casertana, Cinta Senese, Mora Romagnola, Nero Siciliano, Sarda, Krskopolje pig, Black Slavonian, Turopolje, Moravka, Swallow-Bellied Mangalitsa, Schwäbisch-Hällisches Schwein, Lithuanian indigenous wattle and Lithuanian White old type) from nine countries, three European commercial breeds (Italian Large White, Italian Landrace and Italian Duroc), and European wild boars, by mining whole-genome sequencing data obtained by using a DNA-pool sequencing approach. Signatures of selection were identified by using a single-breed approach with two statistics [within-breed pooled heterozygosity (HP) and fixation index (FST)] and group-based FST approaches, which compare groups of breeds defined according to external traits and use/specialization/type. RESULTS: We detected more than 22 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 23 compared populations and identified 359 chromosome regions showing signatures of selection. These regions harbour genes that are already known or new genes that are under selection and relevant for the domestication process in this species, and that affect several morphological and physiological traits (e.g. coat colours and patterns, body size, number of vertebrae and teats, ear size and conformation, reproductive traits, growth and fat deposition traits). Wild boar related signatures of selection were detected across all the genome of several autochthonous breeds, which suggests that crossbreeding (accidental or deliberate) occurred with wild boars. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a catalogue of genetic variants of many European pig populations and identify genome regions that can explain, at least in part, the phenotypic diversity of these genetic resources.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Suínos/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Cruzamento , Domesticação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512638

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of seven concentrations of Cas9 protein (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 ng/µl) on the development and gene editing of porcine embryos. This included the target editing and off-target effect of embryos developed from zygotes that were edited via electroporation of the Cas9 protein with guide RNA targeting Myostatin genes. We found that the development to blastocysts of electroporated zygotes was not affected by the concentration of Cas9 protein. Although the editing rate, which was defined as the ratio of edited blastocysts to total examined blastocysts, did not differ with Cas9 protein concentration, the editing efficiency, which was defined as the frequency of indel mutations in each edited blastocyst, was significantly decreased in the edited blastocysts from zygotes electroporated with 25 ng/µl of Cas9 protein compared with that of blastocysts from zygotes electroporated with higher Cas9 protein concentrations. Moreover the frequency of indel events at the two possible off-target sites was not significantly different with different concentrations of Cas9 protein. These results indicate that the concentration of Cas9 protein affects gene editing efficiency in embryos but not the embryonic development, gene editing rate, and non-specific cleavage of off-target sites.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Eletroporação/métodos , Eletroporação/veterinária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Edição de Genes , Marcação de Genes/veterinária , Miostatina/genética , RNA Guia , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Zigoto , Animais , Blastocisto , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558027

RESUMO

One hundred Yorkshire × Landrace sows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (diet ND: 6,000 IU vitamin D3 /d feed; diet 25-D: 200 µg/day 25OHD3 feed). The experiment began on d 90 of gestation and continued until weaning on day 21 of lactation. In sows that received 25OHD3 , the growth rate of the piglets before weaning was significantly accelerated (0.266 kg/day, p < .05). Sow serum was collected after weaning, and those in the 25OHD3 group were found to have significantly higher serum calcium (CA) and phosphorus (PI) levels (p < .05). Interestingly, the oestrus cycle of sows fed 25OHD3 was significantly shortened (p < .05), the oestrus time was concentrated on the fifth day after weaning, and the piglets were born with a higher degree of uniformity (p < .05). Colostrum was collected on the day of delivery, and the colostrum of sows fed 25OHD3 contained higher milk fat content than the control group (p < .05). 25OHD3 supplementation increased the mRNA and protein expression of INSIG1 and SREBP1, which regulate milk fat synthesis, in the mammary gland of lactating sows (p < .05). In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets improved reproductive performance, milk fat content and the mRNA and protein levels of genes regulating milk fat synthesis in lactating sows.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/administração & dosagem , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578338

RESUMO

We examined the allelic expression and positioning of two pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, and two housekeeping genes, ACTB and TUBA, in 4- and 8-cell porcine embryos utilizing RNA and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single blastomeres. The proportion of blastomeres expressing SOX2 bi-allelically increased from 45% at the 4-cell stage to 60% at the 8-cell stage. Moreover, in 8-cell embryos, SOX2 was expressed bi-allelically in significantly more blastomeres than was the case for OCT4, and this was associated with a tendency for SOX2 alleles to move toward the nuclear interior during 4- to 8-cell transition. However, the radial location of OCT4 alleles did not change significantly during this transition. The locations of active and inactive alleles based on DNA and RNA FISH signals were also calculated. Inactive OCT4 alleles were located in very close proximity to the nuclear membrane, whereas active OCT4 alleles were more centrally disposed in the nucleus. Nevertheless, the nuclear location of active and inactive SOX2 alleles did not change in either 4- or 8-cell blastomeres. Our RNA and DNA FISH data provide novel information on the allelic expression patterns and positioning of pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, during embryonic genome activation in pigs.


Assuntos
Blastômeros/citologia , Blastômeros/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 324: 126664, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380410

RESUMO

Authentication of meat products is critical in the food industry. Meat adulteration may lead to religious apprehensions, financial gain and food-toxicities such as meat allergies. Thus, empirical validation of the quality and constituents of meat is paramount. Various analytical methods often based on protein or DNA measurements are utilized to identify meat species. Protein-based methods, including electrophoretic and immunological techniques, are at times unsuitable for discriminating closely related species. Most of these methods have been replaced by more accurate and sensitive detection methods, such as DNA-based techniques. Emerging technologies like DNA barcoding and mass spectrometry are still in their infancy when it comes to their utilization in meat detection. Gold nanobiosensors have shown some promise in this regard. However, its applicability in small scale industries is distant. This article comprehensively reviews the recent developments in the field of analytical methods used for porcine identification.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Suínos , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cromatografia/métodos , DNA/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas/análise , Análise Espectral/métodos , Suínos/genética
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367123

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of divergent genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on nitrogen (N) metabolism and lysine utilization in growing pigs. Twenty-four gilts (body weight [BW] 66 ± 5 kg) were selected from generation nine of the low RFI (LRFI; n = 12) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 12) Iowa State University Yorkshire RFI selection lines. Six pigs from each genetic line were assigned to each of two levels of lysine intake: 70% and 100% of estimated requirements based on the potential of each genetic line for protein deposition (PD) and feed intake. For all diets, lysine was first limiting among amino acids. Using isotope tracer, N-balance, and nutrient digestibility evaluation approaches, whole-body N metabolism and the efficiency of lysine utilization were determined for each treatment group. No significant interaction effects of line and diet on dietary N or gross energy digestibility, PD, and the efficiency of lysine utilization for PD were observed. The line did not have a significant effect on PD and digestibility of dietary N and GE. An increase in lysine intake improved N retention in both lines (from 15.0 to 19.6 g/d, SE 1.44, in LRFI pigs; and from 16.9 to 19.8 g/d, SE 1.67, in HRFI pigs; P < 0.01). At the low lysine intakes and when lysine clearly limited PD, the efficiency of using available lysine intake (above maintenance requirements) for PD was 80% and 91% (SE 4.6) for the LRFI and HRFI pigs, respectively (P = 0.006). There were no significant effects of line or of the line by diet interaction on N flux, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Lysine intake significantly increased (P < 0.05) N flux (from 119 to 150, SE 8.7 g/d), protein synthesis (from 99 to 117, SE 10.6 g of N/d), and protein degradation (from 85 to 100, SE 6.6 g of N/d). The protein synthesis-to-retention ratio tended to be higher in the LRFI line compared with the HRFI line (6.5 vs. 5.8 SE 0.62; P = 0.06), indicating a tendency for the lower efficiency of PD in this group. Collectively, these results indicate that genetic selection for low RFI is not associated with improvements in lysine utilization efficiency, protein turnover, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 216, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of porcine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) used in genetic association studies is very large, suitable for statistical testing. However, in breed classification problem, one needs to have a much smaller porcine-classifying SNPs (PCSNPs) set that could accurately classify pigs into different breeds. This study attempted to find such PCSNPs by using several combinations of feature selection and classification methods. We experimented with different combinations of feature selection methods including information gain, conventional as well as modified genetic algorithms, and our developed frequency feature selection method in combination with a common classification method, Support Vector Machine, to evaluate the method's performance. Experiments were conducted on a comprehensive data set containing SNPs from native pigs from America, Europe, Africa, and Asia including Chinese breeds, Vietnamese breeds, and hybrid breeds from Thailand. RESULTS: The best combination of feature selection methods-information gain, modified genetic algorithm, and frequency feature selection hybrid-was able to reduce the number of possible PCSNPs to only 1.62% (164 PCSNPs) of the total number of SNPs (10,210 SNPs) while maintaining a high classification accuracy (95.12%). Moreover, the near-identical performance of this PCSNPs set to those of bigger data sets as well as even the entire data set. Moreover, most PCSNPs were well-matched to a set of 94 genes in the PANTHER pathway, conforming to a suggestion by the Porcine Genomic Sequencing Initiative. CONCLUSIONS: The best hybrid method truly provided a sufficiently small number of porcine SNPs that accurately classified swine breeds.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos/genética , África , Algoritmos , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Suínos/classificação , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379844

RESUMO

Umbilical hernia (UH) is one of the most frequent defects affecting pig production, however, it also affects humans and other mammals. UH is characterized as an abnormal protrusion of the abdominal contents to the umbilical region, causing pain, discomfort and reduced performance in pigs. Some genomic regions associated to UH have already been identified, however, no study involving RNA sequencing was performed when umbilical tissue is considered. Therefore, here, we have sequenced the umbilical ring transcriptome of five normal and five UH-affected pigs to uncover genes and pathways involved with UH development. A total of 13,216 transcripts were expressed in the umbilical ring tissue. From those, 230 genes were differentially expressed (DE) between normal and UH-affected pigs (FDR <0.05), being 145 downregulated and 85 upregulated in the affected compared to the normal pigs. A total of 68 significant biological processes were identified and the most relevant were extracellular matrix, immune system, anatomical development, cell adhesion, membrane components, receptor activation, calcium binding and immune synapse. The results pointed out ACAN, MMPs, COLs, EPYC, VIT, CCBE1 and LGALS3 as strong candidates to trigger umbilical hernias in pigs since they act in the extracellular matrix remodeling and in the production, integrity and resistance of the collagen. We have generated the first transcriptome of the pig umbilical ring tissue, which allowed the identification of genes that had not yet been related to umbilical hernias in pigs. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to identify the causal mutations, SNPs and CNVs in these genes to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation.


Assuntos
Hérnia Umbilical/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hérnia Umbilical/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Suínos/genética
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267923

RESUMO

Early application of genomic selection relied on SNP estimation with phenotypes or de-regressed proofs (DRP). Chips of 50k SNP seemed sufficient for an accurate estimation of SNP effects. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were composed of an index with parent average, direct genomic value, and deduction of a parental index to eliminate double counting. Use of SNP selection or weighting increased accuracy with small data sets but had minimal to no impact with large data sets. Efforts to include potentially causative SNP derived from sequence data or high-density chips showed limited or no gain in accuracy. After the implementation of genomic selection, EBV by BLUP became biased because of genomic preselection and DRP computed based on EBV required adjustments, and the creation of DRP for females is hard and subject to double counting. Genomic selection was greatly simplified by single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). This method based on combining genomic and pedigree relationships automatically creates an index with all sources of information, can use any combination of male and female genotypes, and accounts for preselection. To avoid biases, especially under strong selection, ssGBLUP requires that pedigree and genomic relationships are compatible. Because the inversion of the genomic relationship matrix (G) becomes costly with more than 100k genotyped animals, large data computations in ssGBLUP were solved by exploiting limited dimensionality of genomic data due to limited effective population size. With such dimensionality ranging from 4k in chickens to about 15k in cattle, the inverse of G can be created directly (e.g., by the algorithm for proven and young) at a linear cost. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, ssGBLUP is routinely used for genomic selection by the major chicken, pig, and beef industries. Single step can be used to derive SNP effects for indirect prediction and for genome-wide association studies, including computations of the P-values. Alternative single-step formulations exist that use SNP effects for genotyped or for all animals. Although genomics is the new standard in breeding and genetics, there are still some problems that need to be solved. This involves new validation procedures that are unaffected by selection, parameter estimation that accounts for all the genomic data used in selection, and strategies to address reduction in genetic variances after genomic selection was implemented.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genômica , Modelos Genéticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249920

RESUMO

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play an important role in physiology and production in farm animals such as pigs. Here, we report the generation of a pig SMC line. Our original objective was to establish an enteroendocrine cell line from the pig ileum epithelium through lentiviral transduction of the Simian Virus (SV) 40 large T antigen. However, an initial expression analysis of marker genes in nine cell clones revealed that none of them were enteroendocrine cells or absorptive enterocytes, goblet cells, or Paneth cells, some of the major cell types existing in the ileum epithelium. A more detailed characterization of one clone named PIC7 by RNA-seq showed that these cells expressed many of the known smooth muscle-specific or -enriched genes, including smooth muscle actin alpha 2, calponin 1, calponin 3, myosin heavy chain 11, myosin light chain kinase, smoothelin, tenascin C, transgelin, tropomyosin 1, and tropomyosin 2. Both quantitative PCR and RNA-seq analyses showed that the PIC7 cells had a high expression of mRNA for smooth muscle actin gamma 2, also known as enteric smooth muscle actin. A Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of SV40 T antigen in the PIC7 cells. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the expression of smooth muscle actin alpha 2 filaments in the PIC7 cells. A collagen gel contraction assay showed that the PIC7 cells were capable of both spontaneous contraction and contraction in response to serotonin stimulation. We conclude that the PIC7 cells are derived from an enteric SMC from the pig ileum. These cells may be a useful model for studying the cellular and molecular physiology of pig enteric SMCs. Because pigs are similar to humans in anatomy and physiology, the PIC7 cells may be also used as a model for human intestinal SMCs.


Assuntos
Suínos/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Linhagem Celular , Íleo/fisiologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Miosinas/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos/genética , Tenascina/genética , Tropomiosina/genética
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323457

RESUMO

Direct selection for litter size or weight at weaning in pigs is often hindered by external interventions such as cross-fostering. The objective of this study was to infer the causal structure among phenotypes of reproductive traits in pigs to enable subsequent direct selection for these traits. Examined traits included: number born alive (NBA), litter size on day 21 (LS21), and litter weight on day 21 (LW21). The study included 6,240 litters from 1,673 Landrace dams and 5,393 litters from 1,484 Large White dams. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was used to infer the causal structure, which was then fitted to a structural equation model (SEM) to estimate causal coefficients and genetic parameters. Based on the IC algorithm and temporal and biological information, the causal structure among traits was identified as: NBA â†’ LS21 â†’ LW21 and NBA â†’ LW21. Owing to the causal effect of NBA on LS21 and LW21, the genetic, permanent environmental, and residual variances of LS21 and LW21were much lower in the SEM than in the multiple-trait model for both breeds. Given the strong effect of NBA on LS21 and LW21, the SEM and causal information might assist with selective breeding for LS21 and LW21 when cross-fostering occurs.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Variação Genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277238

RESUMO

A 42-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn source and Cu level on pig performance, mineral status, bacterial modulation, and the presence of antimicrobial-resistant genes in isolates of Enterococcus spp. At weaning, 528 pigs (5.9 ± 0.50 kg) were allotted to 48 pens of a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two Cu and Zn sources (SF: sulfate and HCl: hydroxychloride) and two Cu levels (15 and 160 mg/kg). As a challenge, the pigs were reared in dirty pens used by a previous commercial batch. Two-phase diets were offered: the pre-starter (PS) phase from day 1 to 14 and the starter phase (ST) from day 14 to 42. At days 14 and 42, pigs were individually weighed and blood samples from one pig per pen were taken. At the end of the experiment, one pig per pen was euthanized to collect the samples. Feeding high levels of Cu increased body weight (BW) from 16.6 to 17.7 kg (P < 0.001). Furthermore, average daily gain, gain to feed (G:F) ratio, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and mineral status were enhanced with Cu at 160 mg/kg (P < 0.05) compared with Cu at 15 mg/kg. There was no effect of the interaction between source × level on any of the growth performance responses except for ADFI (P = 0.004) and G:F (P = 0.029) at the end of the ST period and for G:F (P = 0.006) for entire nursery period (day 0 to 42). At the end of the ST period, pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl had not only higher ADFI but also lower G:F than those fed Cu as SF at 160 mg/kg. Meanwhile, for the entire nursery period, G:F did not differ between pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl or SF. In colonic digesta, the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, among others, decreased (P-adjust < 0.05), while Lachnospira and Roseburia tended (P-adjust < 0.10) to increase in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl compared with those fed Cu SF at 160 mg/kg. An increase (P-adjust < 0.05) in Methanosphaera and Roseburia was observed in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg. From colon digesta, Enterococcus spp. was isolated in 40 samples, being E. faecalis the most dominating (65%) regardless of the experimental diet. Genes of ermB (7.5%) and tetM (5%) were identified. No genes for Cu (tcrB) or vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2) were detected. In conclusion, European Union permissible levels of Cu (160 mg/kg), of both sources, were able to increase performance, mineral status, and bacterial modulation compared with nutritional level. Different effects on growth performance, mineral tissue content, and microbial modulation were observed between Cu and Zn sources.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
15.
Food Chem ; 322: 126759, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283374

RESUMO

Detection of animal species in meat product is crucial to prevent adulterated and unnecessary contamination during processing. Gold standard is the real-time PCR assays, which can be conducted at highly equipped laboratories. Toward the development of point-of-need test, two rapid molecular assays based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of pork and horse DNA were established. Target genes are the porcine mitochondrial ND2 and equine ATP 6-8 genes. The pork and horse_RPA assays detected 16 and one DNA molecules/µl in eleven to six minutes, respectively. The myoglobin in the meat did not influence the assays performances, while the presence of high background-DNA induced a one log decrease in the sensitivity. Both assays are highly specific and identify down to 0.1% of their target DNA in meat mixtures. Both RPA assays could be used on-site as a rapid and mobile detection system to determine contamination of meat products.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Cavalos/genética , Carne/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Suínos/genética , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Recombinases/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 318: 126541, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151928

RESUMO

In recent years, adulteration of meat and meat products has become a major food safety issue. PCR and real-time PCR technologies are mainstream methods used to identify animal-derived components. However, these technologies rely highly on costly equipment and professional technicians; they are therefore difficult to use in resource-limited settings. In this study, a novel, highly sensitive molecular assay, Pig-PCR-Strip (Pig specific polymerase chain reaction-Lateral flow strip), was developed for rapid detection of pig and swine-derived components. The assay is based on PCR amplification, hybridization of the PCR product to the probe, followed by detection using a strip format. Using this format, the PCR product can be detected by the naked eye within 3 min, and provides a basis for the migration of species-specific detection to a point-of-care (POC) microfluidic format. The Pig-PCR-Strip can detect pork components at a concentration of 0.01% in adulterated meat, and the limit of detection is up to 10 fg of target DNA. The assay was specific to pork and did not cross-react with other non-target species. It also can be used for commercial samples and complex food samples. It is a promising new tool for detection of pig-derived meat and can be rapidly modified for identifying other species. It could be widely used for solving problems related to meat quality assurance, species authentication, and traceability.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Carne de Porco/análise , Animais , DNA , Limite de Detecção , Fitas Reagentes , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/genética
17.
Food Chem ; 318: 126471, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120138

RESUMO

A portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument was evaluated for the discrimination of individual Iberian pig carcasses into the four official quality categories (defined by a combination of genotype and feeding regime). Spectra were obtained scanning four anatomical locations (live animal skin, carcass surface, fresh meat and subcutaneous fat samples) at a commercial abattoir, using a handheld micro electro mechanical system instrument. The best assignments into official quality categories with the NIRS measurements in the carcass surface and subcutaneous fat were able to correctly classify 75.9% and 73.8% of the carcasses, respectively. Moreover, 93.2% and 93.4% of carcasses were correctly classified according to feeding regimes by using the spectra from fresh meat and subcutaneous fat samples. The results suggest that, using subcutaneous fat samples, a portable NIRS could be used in commercial abattoirs as a tool to support the control of official quality category assignment in Iberian pig carcasses.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Carne de Porco/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Ração Animal , Animais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Pele , Espanha , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Gordura Subcutânea/química , Suínos/genética
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219950

RESUMO

Indigenous Okinawa Agu pigs are crossed with Large White × Landrace (WL) pigs to improve their meat production, but there is little information regarding the crossbreeding effects. The study aims to compare growth, carcass characteristics, and meat qualities of Agu pigs with those of WL crossbreeds with Agu sires (WLA) or Duroc sires (WLD). WLA pigs showed better growth performance and carcass characteristics and less intramuscular fat (IMF) contents than Agu ones, but they had higher fat deposition, smaller longissimus dorsi muscle area, and higher IMF contents than WLD pigs. Agu pigs showed higher water holding capacity than the other two breeds. The inner layer of Agu backfat contains higher and lower proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), respectively, than that in WLD animals. WLA animals had intermediate values for the fatty acid content in the inner backfat, although MUFA contents were equal to those of Agu pigs. Fatty acid profiles in IMF were similar to those in the backfat. These results indicate that crossbreeding of Agu with WL pigs improves growth performance and carcass quality. Particularly, WLA pigs have higher IMF contents and MUFA concentrations and lower PUFA concentrations than WLD pigs.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219954

RESUMO

We have elucidated genetic relationships of Vietnamese native pigs (VNP) using preliminarily collected samples by a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. In order to confirm our previous results and compare with the results of a previous study using microsatellite (MS) markers, we aimed to characterize genetic diversity and population structure in wider varieties (24 breeds from 21 Provinces) of VNP across the country using 20 polymorphic MS markers recommended by ISAG/FAO (International Society for Animal Genetics/Food and Agriculture Organization) for diversity study. In this study, we collected 1,136 DNA samples of the VNPs and three exotic breeds. Our results revealed that the average number of alleles and allelic richness across the loci in VNPs were 10.0 and 7.6, which were higher than those of exotic breeds. Genomic components among VNPs were subjected to the sampling locations. Interestingly, Co Binh Thuan showed remarkable genetic feature compared to the other VNPs, because the habitation of Co Binh Thuan was relatively far from the other breeds. The results of this study provided useful information for exploitation, conservation, and development trends of the VNP breeds. More recently, African swine fever caused significant damage to most of the VNP populations. Therefore, our findings will help a reconstruction scheme of the VNP genetic resources.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Repetições de Microssatélites , Suínos/genética , Alelos , Animais , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vietnã
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(2): e1008330, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084248

RESUMO

Both the replication and transcription of the influenza virus are catalyzed by the viral polymerase complex. The polymerases of most avian influenza A viruses have poor performance in mammalian cells, which is considered to be one of the important species barriers. Pigs have been long considered as important intermediate hosts for interspecies transmission of the avian influenza virus, because of their susceptibility to infection with both avian and mammalian influenza viruses. However, the molecular basis of influenza polymerase adaptation in pigs remains largely unknown. ANP32A and ANP32B proteins have been identified as playing fundamental roles in influenza virus replication and host range determination. In this study, we found that swine ANP32A (swANP32A), unlike swine ANP32B or other mammalian ANP32A or B, shows stronger supporting activity to avian viral polymerase. Knockout of ANP32A in pig cells PK15 dramatically reduced avian influenza polymerase activity and viral infectivity, suggesting a unique feature of swANP32A in supporting avian influenza viral polymerase. This species-specific activity is mapped to two key sites, 106V and 156S, in swANP32A. Interestingly, the amino acid 106V is unique to pigs among all the vertebrate species studied, and when combined with 156S, exhibits positive epistasis in pigs. Mutation of 106V and 156S to the signature found in ANP32As from other mammalian species weakened the interaction between swANP32A and chicken viral polymerase, and reduced polymerase activity. Understanding the molecular basis of ANP32 proteins may help to discover new antiviral targets and design avian influenza resistant genome edited pigs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Aviária/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
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