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1.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 45, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crossbreeding is widely used in pig production because of the benefits of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Commonly, sire lines are bred for traits such as feed efficiency, growth and meat content, whereas maternal lines are also bred for reproduction and longevity traits, and the resulting three-way crossbred pigs are used for production of meat. The most important genetic basis for heterosis is dominance effects, e.g. removal of inbreeding depression. The aims of this study were to (1) present a modification of a previously developed model with additive, dominance and inbreeding depression genetic effects for analysis of data from a purebred sire line and three-way crossbred pigs; (2) based on this model, present equations for additive genetic variances, additive genetic covariance, and estimated breeding values (EBV) with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances; (3) use the model to analyse four production traits, i.e. ultra-sound recorded backfat thickness (BF), conformation score (CONF), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), recorded on Danbred Duroc and Danbred Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred pigs reared in the same environment; and (4) obtain estimates of genetic parameters, additive genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances, and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances for this data set. RESULTS: Additive genetic correlations (with associated standard errors) between purebred and crossbred performances were equal to 0.96 (0.07), 0.83 (0.16), 0.75 (0.17), and 0.87 (0.18) for BF, CONF, ADG, and FCR, respectively. For BF, ADG, and FCR, the additive genetic variance was smaller for purebred performance than for crossbred performance, but for CONF the reverse was observed. EBV on Duroc boars were more accurate for purebred performance than for crossbred performance for BF, CONF and FCR, but not for ADG. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological developments led to equations for genetic (co)variances and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances in a three-way crossbreeding system. As illustrated by the data analysis, these equations may be useful for implementation of genomic selection in this system.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Depressão por Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
2.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 133-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272101

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) can mediate the signaling of R-Smads and regulate different biological functions, including adipocyte differentiation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can be involved in many important biological processes, including fat metabolism, as miRNA sponges. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of fat deposition and to provide useful information for the prevention and treatment of lipid-related diseases. lncRNA sequencing was performed to compare and analyze, for the first time, the expression of lncRNAs in BMP2-induced and non-BMP2-induced preadipocytes from Junmu1 pigs. In addition, functional annotation and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed lncRNA target genes were carried out. lncRNAs and mRNAs were compared and analyzed. lncRNAs were identified that may regulate adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The results give a theoretical basis for further studies on fat deposition mechanisms and provide potential therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8268-8278, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283221

RESUMO

Species authentication of meat and fish products is crucial to safeguard public health, economic investment, and religious sanctity. We developed a heptaplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting short amplicon length (73-198 bp) for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of cow, buffalo, chicken, cat, dog, pig, and fish species in raw and processed food using species-specific primers targeting mitochondrial cytb, ND5, and 16s rRNA genes. Assay validation of adulterated and various heat-treated meatball matrices showed excellent stability and sensitivity under all processing conditions. The detection limit was 0.01-0.001 ng of DNA under pure states and 0.5% meat in meatball products. Buffalo was detected in 86.7% (13 out of 15) of tested commercial beef products, while chicken, pork, and fish products were found to be pure. The developed assay was efficient enough to detect target species simultaneously, even in highly degraded and processed food products at reduced time.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Gatos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Cães/genética , Peixes/genética , Suínos/genética
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6108-6113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotides are key constituents of milk, where they are utilized in cell replication, although there are limited studies for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of uridine monophosphate (UMP) with uridine (UR) feed supplementation on the intestinal development and nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. RESULTS: Supplementation with UMP significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, and UR supplementation significantly reduced (0.05 < P < 0.10) the plasma total cholesterol (TC) of piglets when compared with that of the control group, although non-significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth performance was observed among three groups. Piglets fed supplementary UR exhibited greater (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum when compared with those in the supplementary UMP and control groups. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results revealed that UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the relative mRNA levels of genes encoding the transmembrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin in the duodenum mucosa, and ZO-1 in the jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). Similarly, UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) expression of solute carriers SLC28A1 and SLC29A1 in the duodenum mucosa. Conversely, claudin-1 expression in the duodenum mucosa was inhibited (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation with UMP or UR. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data indicated that dietary supplementation with UMP or UR was conducive to stimulating intestinal development and promoting nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6076-6083, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the health benefits to weaning pigs, raised under low sanitary conditions, of dietary supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product (Cyberlindnera jadinii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In total, 160 weaning pigs (7.21 ± 1.05 kg) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (CON) and CON + 2 g kg-1 multi-strain yeast fraction product (MsYF) during weeks 1-2 and 0.4 g kg-1 MsYF during weeks 3-6. RESULTS: The MsYF supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) at day 42 and average daily gain (ADG) during days 1-14 and days 1-42 (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), fecal Lactobacillus counts, and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at day 42 were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed a MsYF supplemented diet. The concentration of serum haptoglobin in pigs receiving a MsYF-supplemented diet was higher (P < 0.05) at days 7, 14, and 42 than those receiving CON. The mRNA expression for INF-γ and TNF-α genes were lower (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 7 respectively and the expression of IL-6 and TLR-2 genes was lower (P < 0.01) at days 7 and 14 in pigs fed an MsFY supplemented diet than those fed CON. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product had a positive effect on ADG during the early post-weaning period and led to better health in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Higiene , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Desmame
6.
Food Chem ; 295: 395-402, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174774

RESUMO

A simple and rapid method for animal species identification to prevent food adulteration based on mitochondrial DNA using two independent multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and microchip electrophoresis was developed. This method was designed to identify fourteen domestic animals (Group I: cattle, donkey, dog, fox, raccoon-dog, deer and horse; Group II: pig, sheep, goat, chicken, duck, cat and mouse) simultaneously using ten pairs of primers and three of which were degenerate primers. Sequences for species-specific primers were generated based on mitochondrial genes, including 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ND2 and CO I. This method was validated in terms of the specificity, sensitivity and practicability, and the developed multiplex PCR method was able to correctly identify animal species of raw meats and processed meat products. The detection limits of two multiplex PCRs were 0.02 ng DNA for animal species in Group I and 0.2 ng DNA for Group II, respectively.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cervos/genética , Patos/genética , Equidae/genética , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Genes Mitocondriais , Cabras/genética , Cavalos/genética , Camundongos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/instrumentação , RNA Ribossômico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ovinos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2852, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253764

RESUMO

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) enable programmable C-to-T conversion without DNA double-stranded breaks and homology-directed repair in a variety of organisms, which exhibit great potential for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, all reported cases only involved C-to-T substitution at a single targeted genomic site. Whether C-to-T substitution is effective in multiple sites/loci has not been verified in large animals. Here, by using pigs, an important animal for agriculture and biomedicine, as the subjective animal, we showed that CBEs could efficiently induce C-to-T conversions at multiple sites/loci with the combination of three genes, including DMD, TYR, and LMNA, or RAG1, RAG2, and IL2RG, simultaneously, at the embryonic and cellular levels. CBEs also could disrupt genes (pol gene of porcine endogenous retrovirus) with dozens of copies by introducing multiple premature stop codons. With the CBEs, pigs carrying single gene or multiple gene point mutations were generated through embryo injection or nuclear transfer approach.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Mutação Puntual , Suínos/genética , Desaminase APOBEC-1 , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , DNA/genética , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Genoma , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , RNA Guia/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 461, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The improvement of feed efficiency is a key economic goal within the pig production industry. The objective of this study was to examine transcriptomic differences in both the liver and muscle of pigs divergent for feed efficiency, thus improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms influencing feed efficiency and enabling the identification of candidate biomarkers. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for two populations of pigs from two different farms of origin/genotype. The 6 most efficient (LRFI) and 6 least efficient (HRFI) animals from each population were selected for further analysis of Longissimus Dorsi muscle (n = 22) and liver (n = 23). Transcriptomic data were generated from liver and muscle collected post-slaughter. RESULTS: The transcriptomic data segregated based on the RFI value of the pig rather than genotype/farm of origin. A total of 6463 genes were identified as being differentially expressed (DE) in muscle, while 964 genes were identified as being DE in liver. Genes that were commonly DE between muscle and liver (n = 526) were used for the multi-tissue analysis. These 526 genes were associated with protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and immune function. In the muscle-only analysis, genes associated with RNA processing, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were down regulated in the LRFI animals while in the liver-only analysis, genes associated with cell signalling and lipid homeostasis were up regulated in the LRFI animals. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the transcriptome segregated on pig RFI value rather than the genotype/farm of origin. Multi-tissue analysis identified that genes associated with GO terms protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and a range of terms relating to immune function were over represented in the differentially expressed genes of both liver and muscle.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Suínos/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8950-8957, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189310

RESUMO

To determine how nutritional restriction compromised milk synthesis, sows were fed 100% (control) or 76% (restricted) of the recommended feed allowance from postpartum day (PD)-1 to PD-28. In comparison to the control, more body reserves loss, increased plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and decreased plasma methionine concentrations were observed in the restricted group at PD-21. The increased plasma malondialdehyde level, decreased plasma histidine and taurine concentrations, and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity were observed at PD-28 when backfat loss further increased in the restricted group. In mammary glands, vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (v-ATPase), as the upstream of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, showed decreased activity, while phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and ß-casein abundance all decreased following feed restriction. Altogether, long-term nutrition restriction could induce progressively aggravated oxidative stress and compromise mammary protein synthesis through repression of v-ATPase/mTORC1 signaling.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Suínos/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 1967-1978, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222274

RESUMO

Pig is one of the major dietary protein sources for human consumption, from which muscle is the largest protein origin. However, molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds are still unclear. In this study, an integrated analysis of transcriptome and miRNAome was conducted using longissimus dorsi muscle of 4 early embryonic stages around the primary myofiber formation time (18-, 21-, 28-, and 35-d post coitus) from 2 pig breeds (Landrace [LR] and Wuzhishan [WZS]) differing in meat mass. The global miRNA/mRNA expression profile showed that WZS prepared for myogenic developmental processes earlier than LR. After identifying and analyzing the interaction network of top 100 up-/down-regulated miRNA and their target genes, we were able to find 3 gene clusters: chromatin modification-related (Chd2, H3f3a, Chd6, and Mll1), myogenesis-related (Pax3, Pbx1, Mef2a, and Znf423), and myosin component-related (Mylk, Myo5a, Mylk4, Myh9, and Mylk2) gene clusters. These genes may involve in miRNA-gene myogenic regulatory network that plays vital role in regulating distinct early porcine embryonic myogenic processes between LR and WZS. In summary, our study reveals an epigenetic-mediated myogenic regulatory axial that will help us to decipher molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 33, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we evaluate the performance of using family-specific low-density genotype arrays to increase the accuracy of pedigree-based imputation. Genotype imputation is a widely used tool that decreases the costs of genotyping a population by genotyping the majority of individuals on a low-density array and using statistical regularities between the low-density and high-density individuals to fill in the missing genotypes. Previous work on population-based imputation has found that it is possible to increase the accuracy of imputation by maximizing the number of informative markers on an array. In the context of pedigree-based imputation, where the informativeness of a marker depends only on the genotypes of an individual's parents, it may be beneficial to select the markers on each low-density array on a family-by-family basis. RESULTS: In this paper, we examined four family-specific low-density marker selection strategies and evaluated their performance in the context of a real pig breeding dataset. We found that family-specific or sire-specific arrays could increase imputation accuracy by 0.11 at one marker per chromosome, by 0.027 at 25 markers per chromosome and by 0.007 at 100 markers per chromosome. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there may be room to use family-specific genotyping for very-low-density arrays particularly if a given sire or sire-dam pairing have a large number of offspring.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Marcadores Genéticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Linhagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2793-2802, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087081

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to identify informative genomic regions that affect the exterior traits of purebred Korean Yorkshire pigs and to investigate and compare the accuracy of genomic prediction for response variables. Phenotypic data on body height (BH), body length (BL), and total teat number (TTN) from 2,432 Yorkshire pigs were used to obtain breeding values including as response variable the estimated breeding value (EBV) and 2 types of deregressed EBVs-one including the parent average (DEBVincPA) and the other excluding it (DEBVexcPA). A final genotype panel comprising 46,199 SNP markers was retained for analysis after quality control for common SNPs. The BayesB and BayesC methods-with various π and weighted response variables (EBV, DEBVincPA, or DEBVexcPA)-were used to estimate SNP effects, through the genome-wide association study. The significance of genomic windows (1 Mb) was obtained at 1.0% additive genetic variance and was subsequently used to identify informative genomic regions. Furthermore, SNPs with a high model frequency (≥0.90) were considered informative. The accuracy of genomic prediction was estimated using a 5-fold cross-validation with the K-means clustering method. Genomic accuracy was measured as the genomic correlation between the molecular breeding value and the individual weighted response variables (EBV, DEBVincPA, or DEBVexcPA). The number of identified informative windows (1 Mb) for BH, BL, and TTN was 4, 3, and 4, respectively. The number of significant SNPs for BH, BL, and TTN was 6, 4, and 5, respectively. Diversity π did not influence the accuracy of genomic prediction. The BayesB method showed slightly higher genomic accuracy for exterior traits than BayesC method in this study. In addition, the genomic accuracy using DEBVincPA as response variable was higher than that using other response variables. Therefore, the genomic accuracy using BayesB (π = 0.90) with DEBVinPA as a response variable was the most effective in this study. The genomic accuracy values for BH, BL, and TTN were calculated to be 0.52, 0.60, and 0.51, respectively.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Análise por Conglomerados , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Genótipo , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Suínos/anatomia & histologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6809-6818, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134808

RESUMO

Strategies to increase feed intake are of great importance for producing more meat in swine production. Intestinal and hypothalamic amino acid receptors are found to largely participate in feed intake regulation. The purpose of the current research is to study the function of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in the regulation of feed intake through sensors that can detect amino acids in piglets. Twenty-four piglets were assigned one of four treatments and fed one of the experimental diets for either a short period (Expt. 1) or a long period (Expt. 2): a normal protein diet (NP, 20.04% CP), a reduced-protein diet (RP, 17.05% CP), or a reduced-protein test diet supplemented with one of two doses of BCAAs (BCAA1, supplemented with 0.13% l-isoleucine, 0.09% l-leucine, and 0.23% l-valine; BCAA2, supplemented with the 150% standardized ileal digestibility BCAA requirement, as recommended by the National Research Council (2012)). In Expt. 1, no differences were observed in the feed intake among piglets fed different diets ( P > 0.05). In Expt. 2, compared with the RP group, the feed intake of piglets was significantly increased after sufficient BCAAs were supplemented in the BCAA1 group, which was associated with decreased cholecystokinin secretion ( P < 0.05), down-regulated expression of type-1 taste receptors 1/3 (T1R1/T1R3) in the intestine, as well as increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, activated general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in the hypothalamus ( P < 0.05). However, the feed intake was decreased for unknown reasons when the piglets were fed a BCAA over-supplemented diet. Our study confirmed that a BCAA-deficient diet inhibited feed intake through two potential ways: regulating the amino acid T1R1/T1R3 receptor in the intestine or activating GCN2/eIF2α pathways in the hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptores de Aminoácido/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Suínos/genética
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 414, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immediately after birth, the porcine intestine rapidly develops morphologically, functionally, and immunologically. The jejunum, the second part of the small intestine, is of importance for nutrient uptake and immune surveillance. To study the early postnatal development of the jejunum, a meta-analysis was performed on different transcriptomic datasets. These datasets were acquired from different experimental in-house studies or from experiments described in literature of porcine jejunum mucosa. Gene expression was measured under different experimental interventions, such as nutritional intervention, at various time-points (age). RESULTS: The studies included in the meta-analysis provided gene expression data for various time-points (piglet ages) for piglets that had received a treatment versus control piglets. In separate studies, treatments were administered to the sow (i.e. amoxicillin), or nutritional supplementation directly to the piglets with medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), and oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or a high dose of zinc-oxide, respectively. In the meta-analysis, genes were grouped into 16 clusters according to their temporal gene expression profiles for control piglets, i.e. the changes of gene expression level over time. Functional analysis showed that these temporal profile clusters had different dominant processes, such as immune related processes or barrier function. Transcriptomics data of treatment piglets was subsequently superimposed over the control temporal profiles. In this way we could investigate which temporal profile clusters (and which biological processes) were modulated by the treatments. Interestingly, not all 16 temporal profiles were modulated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that it is possible to re-use (publicly available) transcriptomics data and produce temporal gene expression profiles for control piglets with overexpression of genes representing specific biological processes. Subsequently, by superimposing gene expression data from (nutritional) intervention studies we observed deviations from some of these reference profile(s) and thus the plasticity of the system. By employing this meta-analysis approach we highlighted the importance of birth and weaning and the underlying biological processes.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 349, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palatoschisis or cleft palate is a known anomaly in pigs resulting in their death. However, little is known about its aetiology. A detailed description of the phenotype was derived from necropsy and by computed tomography revealing that all 20 cases also exhibited hypodontia and renal cysts. Furthermore, a genetic origin was assumed due to dominant inheritance as all 20 recorded cases were confirmed offspring of a single boar. RESULTS: Single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotyping data were used to map the defect in the porcine genome and led to the detection of a chromosomal imbalance in the affected offspring. Whole genome sequencing of an affected piglet and a normal full sib was used to identify a chromosomal translocation and to fine map the breakpoints in the genome. Finally, we proved that the boar, which sired the malformed piglets, carried a balanced translocation. The detected translocation of Mb-sized segments of chromosome 8 and 14 had not been previously observed during karyotyping. All affected offspring were shown to be carriers of a partial trisomy of chromosome 14 including the FGFR2 gene, which is associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes in man, and partial monosomy of chromosome 8 containing MSX1 known to be associated with tooth agenesis and orofacial clefts in other species. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the usefulness of recently established genomic resources in pigs. In this study, the application of genome-wide genotyping and sequencing methods allowed the identification of the responsible boar and the genetic cause of the observed defect. By implementing systematic surveillance, it is possible to identify genetic defects at an early stage and avoid further distribution of congenital disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Fissura Palatina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Animais , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Yi Chuan ; 41(5): 384-390, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106774

RESUMO

The pig teat traits are important indices of genetic improvement in pig breeding, which belong to reproductive traits and can directly affect the sows lactation rate and piglet survival rate. Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying the variation of teat traits is of immense value for the improvement of pig reproductive performance. However, the genetic mechanism underlying teat traits (including teat number, type, location distribution, and fluctuating asymmetry) remains elusive. In this review, we summarize the studies on physiology and genetics of teat traits in pigs, including the development process of the mammary gland, the QTL mapping, and candidate gene researches. This review aims to provide a new perspective for the identification of causal mutations and major genes affecting the teat traits and revealing the complex genetic mechanism of the differences in teat number, type and location distribution during embryonic development in pigs.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Reprodução
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2320-2328, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065678

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate 4 generations of divergent selection for age at puberty (young age at puberty = YOUNG; old age at puberty = OLD) in swine. Composite Landrace × Large White animals (n = 4,941) were reared at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture Tidewater Research Station. At 130 d of age, gilts were exposed to mature boars for 7 min daily. Estrous detection continued for 90 d. Puberty was defined as first observed standing reflex in the presence of a boar. Reproductive and performance traits included: age at puberty (AGEPUB), probability of a gilt reaching puberty by 220 d of age (PUB), puberty weight (PUBWT), pubertal estrus (LEN1), length of second estrus (LEN2), vulva width at puberty (VW1), vulva width at second estrus (VW2), gilt birth weight (BWT), gilt weaning weight (WWT), loin eye area (LEA), backfat depth (BF), and weight (WT178) were measured at 178 d of age on average. Variance components were estimated utilizing an animal model in ASReml 4.1. Models included fixed effects of generation and sex, a random common litter effect, and a random animal genetic effect. Covariates were fit for reproductive traits (age at boar exposure), LEA and BF (WT178) and WT178 (age weighed). In generation 4, YOUNG and OLD gilts had on average a PUB of 87% and 64%, respectively, and AGEPUB of 163 and 183 d, respectively. Heritability estimates for AGEPUB, PUB, PUBWT, LEN1, LEN2, VW1, VW2, BWT, WWT, LEA, BF, and WT178 were 0.40, 0.07, 0.39, 0.19, 0.17, 0.36, 0.48, 0.20, 0.12, 0.42, 0.43, and 0.37, respectively. Common litter effect estimates for AGEPUB, PUB, PUBWT, LEN1, LEN2, VW1, VW2, BWT, WWT, LEA, BF, and WT178 were 0.08, 0.14, 0.03, 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.00, 0.03, 0.29, 0.02, 0.10, and 0.11, respectively. Genetic correlations between AGEPUB with PUBWT, LEN1, LEN2, VW1, VW2, BWT, WWT, LEA, BF, and WT178 were 0.83, -0.22, -0.31, 0.25, 0.19, -0.08, -0.29, 0.15, -0.21, and -0.43, respectively. Results suggest selection for reduced AGEPUB in swine would decrease AGEPUB and increase PUB.


Assuntos
Estro/genética , Reprodução/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
18.
Food Chem ; 292: 108-112, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054652

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant compounds of raw and cooked Longissimus lumborum muscles from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pig. Vitamin E, phenols, histidine-containing peptides, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity have been detected in the raw and cooked meat of both genetic types. Cooking process decreased the content of all considered antioxidant compounds (P < 0.05). The antioxidant compounds of meat were significantly influenced by genetic type (P < 0.001). Autochthonous SNL raw and cooked meat showed a higher endogenous antioxidants content (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.02) compared to CG meat. The results of this research highlighted that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, showed good concentrations of endogenous antioxidant compounds that could confer functional properties to the product.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Carne/análise , Animais , Carnosina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Genótipo , Itália , Fenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Vitamina E/análise
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2493-2504, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976794

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sequential feeding technique in two genetic lines (GL; Line A [cross having a greater proportion of Pietrain] and Line B [cross having a lower proportion of Pietrain]) of growing-finishing pigs reared under daily cyclic high ambient temperature conditions. Seventy-eight castrated male pigs (22 ± 2.5 kg BW) were housed in a single group and were allocated to one of the three feeding programs: control (CON, 24 h control diet), high-fat/low-crude protein (HF/LP, 24 h high-fat/low-crude protein diet), and sequential feeding (SEQ, control diet from 1800 to 1000 h and HF/LP diet from 1001 to 1759 h). Cyclic high ambient temperature was induced by exposing the pigs to 22ºC ambient temperature from 1800 to 1000 h (time-period 22ºC, TP22) and to 30ºC from 1001 to 1759 h (TP30). The experimental period lasted 84 days and was divided into 3 growth phases, growing 1 (from day 0 to 20), growing 2 (from day 21 to 48) and finishing (from day 49 to 83). Feed intake was recorded in real time using an automatic feeder system. Pigs were weighed at the beginning and end of each experimental phase. Animal body composition was measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on days 0, 35, and 70. The ambient temperature averaged 22.3 ± 0.4ºC during TP22 and 30.2 ± 0.5ºC during TP30, characterizing the condition of daily ambient temperature variation that which pigs are usually exposed in tropical climate areas. During growing phase 1, the feeding programs had negligible effects on pig performance (P > 0.05), whereas during growing phase 2, ADG was greater in SEQ than in CON pigs (7%; P = 0.04). During the finishing phase, HF/LP pigs had greater ADFI (+ 10%) and ADG (+ 8%) than CON pigs. Lean mass and gain did not differ among feeding programs (P > 0.05). Overall, fat mass and gain were similar between SEQ and HF/LP pigs (P > 0.05), and both were greater than those of CON pigs (P < 0.05). On the basis of pig performance per phase, the supply of high-fat/low-crude protein diets (SEQ and HF/LP feeding) improved the performance of pigs under daily cyclic high ambient temperature. However, the use of these techniques resulted in fatter carcasses and in higher energy cost of gain. Finally, pigs with greater proportion of Pietrain genes had decreased growth performance in our experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Métodos de Alimentação , Suínos/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/veterinária , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Composição Corporal , Genótipo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6423-6431, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013075

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type of mycotoxin that is disruptive to intestinal and immune systems. To better understand the molecular effects of DON exposure, we performed genome-wide comparisons of DNA methylation and gene expression from porcine intestinal epithelial cell IPEC-J2 upon DON exposure using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA-seq technologies. We characterized the methylation pattern changes and found 3030 differentially methylated regions. Moreover, 3226 genes showing differential expression were enriched in pathways of protein and nucleic acid synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. Integrative analysis identified 29 genes showing inverse correlations between promoter methylation and expression. Altered DNA methylation and expression of various genes suggested their roles and potential functional interactions upon DON exposure. Our data provided new insights into epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of intestinal epithelial cells upon DON exposure and may advance the identification of biomarkers and drug targets for predicting and controlling the toxic effects of this common mycotoxin.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/química , Suínos/genética , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo
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