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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 95-101, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678400

RESUMO

Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for farm animals are of growing interest in food and feed safety with key applications for regulated compounds including quantification of tissue concentrations, kinetic parameters and the setting of safe exposure levels on an internal dose basis. The development and application of these models requires data for physiological, anatomical and chemical specific parameters. Here, we present the results of a structured data collection of anatomical and physiological parameters in three key farm animal species (swine, cattle and sheep). We performed an extensive literature search and meta-analyses to quantify intra-species variability and associated uncertainty of the parameters. Parameters were collected for organ weights and blood flows in all available breeds from 110 scientific publications, of which 29, 48 and 33 for cattle, sheep, and swine, respectively. Organ weights were available in literature for all three species. Blood flow parameter values were available for all organs in sheep but were scarcer in swine and cattle. Furthermore, the parameter values showed a large intra-species variation. Overall, the parameter values and associated variability provide reference values which can be used as input for generic PBK models in these species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/anatomia & histologia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 235-244, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of early antibiotic exposure (EAE) on subsequent amino acid (AA) profiles and small intestinal AA transporter and receptor expression level in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets were fed creep feed diets, either with or without antibiotics while with sow on day 7. The pigs were weaned at day 23 and fed the same diets until day 42, when random pigs within each group were offered a normal- or low-CP diet, thereby creating four groups. On day 120, the pigs were euthanized, and jejunal and ileal mucosa and digesta were collected for gene-expression and AA-concentration analysis. RESULTS: With the normal-CP diet, EAE increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of six essential amino acids (EAA) and three non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in serum, four EAAs and four NEAAs in jejunal mucosa, one EAA and two NEAAs in ileal mucosa, five EAAs and three NEAAs in jejunal digesta, and three EAAs and two NEAAs in ileal digesta. Early antibiotic exposure upregulated (P < 0.05) CAT1, ASCT2, ATB0,+ , CaSR, T1R1, and T1R3 expression in the jejunum, downregulated PepT1 expression with a normal-CP diet. It upregulated (P < 0.05) the expressions of CAT1, ATB0,+ , ATP1A1, and T1R3 in the ileum with a normal-CP diet. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EAE has long-term effects on AA profiles, mainly in the jejunum and serum, by increasing AA transporter expression in the intestine, and that these effects may be influenced by dietary CP levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4540-4547, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587052

RESUMO

An industry survey and animal experiment were conducted to evaluate the amino acid (AA) compositional variability and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in animal protein by-products fed to growing pigs. Animal protein by-product meals (212) were categorized into 8 groupings (blood meal, chicken by-product meal, chicken meal, feather meal, meat and bone meal, meat meal, poultry by-product meal, and poultry meal) and analyzed for total AA. Amino acid analysis among (e.g., Lys in blood meal averaged 9.20% compared with 2.31% for feather meal, DM basis) and within (e.g., Lys range of 1.54% in blood meal and 1.44% in feather meal, DM basis) the by-product classifications varied as expected, but on average the total AA values were similar to that reported in the literature. For the determination of the SID of AA, 15 barrows (average initial and final BW of 31.6 and 78.7 kg, respectively) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 15 diets over nine 7-d periods, resulting in 9 replications per diet. Pigs were fed a basal diet based on soybean meal and dehulled-degermed corn, 13 diets containing 17.5% animal protein by-product meal to partially replace a portion of the soybean meal and dehulled-degermed corn in the basal diet, or a N-free diet. Pigs were re-allotted to diets based on minimizing the number to times that the N-free diet would precede or follow feeding either of the blood or feather meal diets because of concern with inadequate diet consumption, as well as to prevent diets from being re-fed to the same pig during the next or subsequent periods. Values for the apparent ileal AA digestibility of each diet were determined, adjusted to SID based upon the endogenous AA losses determined by feeding the N-free diet, and the SID of AA in each animal protein by-product meal calculated using the difference procedure. The SID of AA varied among (e.g., SID of Lys averaged 91% in chicken meal but 47% in feather meal) and within (e.g., SID of Lys in three meat and bone meals was 80%, 71%, and 54%) the animal protein by-product meals, as would be expected and are consistent with variation reported in the literature. Overall, the data provide total AA composition for 212 samples and SID of AA for 13 samples of animal protein by-product meals, including data on their variability, which is critical for their use in feed formulation programs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas/química , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino
4.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466777

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) are critical for cholesterol homeostasis and new roles in metabolism and endocrinology have been demonstrated recently. It remains unknown whether BA metabolism can be affected by heat stress (HS). The objective of this study was to describe the shifts in serum, hepatic and intestinal BA profiles induced by chronic HS. Twenty-seven Large White pigs weighing 40.8 ±â€¯2.7 kg were assigned to one of the three treatments: a control group (CON, 23 °C), a HS group (33 °C), or a pair-fed group (PF, 23 °C and fed the same amount as HS group) for 21 d. The concentrations of taurine-conjugated BAs (TUDCA and THDCA in serum and TCDCA, TUDCA, THDCA and THCA in liver) were decreased in HS and PF pigs. However, in HS pigs, a reduction in taurine-conjugated BAs (TCBA) correlated with decreased liver genes expression of BA synthesis, conjugation and uptake transport. BA regulated-genes (FXR, TGR5 and FGFR4) in HS pigs and TGR5, FGFR4 and KLß in PF pigs were down-regulated in liver. In ileum, total BAs and glycoursodeoxycholic acid concentrations were higher in HS pigs than other groups and PF group, respectively (P < 0.05). TCBA (P = 0.01) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (P < 0.01) were decreased in PF group. BA transporters (OSTα and MRP3) were up-regulated in HS pigs compared with CON and PF pigs, respectively (P < 0.01). In cecum, ursodeoxycholic acid was higher in HS (P = 0.02) group than CON group. The expression of apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter (P = 0.04) was lower in HS pigs than CON pigs, while OSTß (P < 0.01) was greater in HS group than PF group. These results suggest that chronic HS suppressed liver activity of synthesis and uptake of TCBA, at least in part, which was independent of reduced feed intake.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 659, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency (FE) is a major challenge in pig production. This complex trait is characterized by a high variability. Therefore, the identification of predictors of FE may be a relevant strategy to reduce phenotyping efforts in breeding and selection programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of expressed muscle genes in prediction of FE traits in growing pigs. The approach considered different transcriptomics experiments to cover a large range of FE values and identify reliable predictors. RESULTS: Microarrays data were obtained from longissimus muscles of two lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Pigs (n = 71) from three experiments belonged to generations 6 to 8 of selection, were fed either a diet with a standard composition or a diet rich in fiber and lipids, received feed ad libitum or at restricted level, and weighed between 80 and 115 kg at slaughter. For each pig, breeding value for RFI was estimated (RFI-BV), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and energy-based feed conversion ratio (FCRe) were calculated during the test periods. Gradient boosting algorithms were used on the merged muscle transcriptomes to identify very important predictors of FE traits. About 20,405 annotated molecular probes were commonly expressed in longissimus muscle across experiments. Six to 267 expressed muscle genes covering a variety of biological processes were found as important predictors for RFI-BV (R2 = 0.63-0.65), FCR (R2 = 0.61-0.70) and FCRe (R2 = 0.49-0.52). The error of prediction was less than 8% for FCR. Altogether, 56 predictors were common to RFI-BV and FCR. Expression levels of 24 target genes were further measured by qPCR. Linear regression confirmed the good accuracy of combining mRNA levels of these genes to fit FE traits (RFI-BV: R2 = 0.73, FRC: R2 = 0.76; FCRe: R2 = 0.75). Stepwise regression procedure highlighted 10 genes (FKBP5, MUM1, AKAP12, FYN, TMED3, PHKB, TGF, SOCS6, ILR4, and FRAS1) in a linear combination predicting FCR and FCRe. In addition, FKBP5 and expression levels of five other genes (IGF2, SERINC3, CSRNP3, EZR and RPL16) significantly contributed to RFI-BV. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify few genes expressed in muscle that might be reliable predictors of feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Músculos do Dorso/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Biológicos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382709

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the effects of breed, diet energy source, and their interaction on adipose tissue transcriptome in growing Iberian and Duroc pigs. The study comprised 29 Iberian and 19 Duroc males, which were kept under identical management conditions except the nutritional treatment. Two isoenergetic diets were used with 6% high oleic sunflower oil (HO) or carbohydrates (CH) as energy sources. All animals were slaughtered after 47 days of treatment at an average live weight of 51.2 kg. Twelve animals from each breed (six fed each diet) were employed for ham subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-Seq analysis. The data analysis was performed using two different bioinformatic pipelines. We detected 837 and 1456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to breed, depending on the pipeline. Due to the strong effect of breed on transcriptome, the effect of the diet was separately evaluated in the two breeds. We identified 207 and 57 DEGs depending on diet in Iberian and Duroc pigs, respectively. A joint analysis of both effects allowed the detection of some breed-diet interactions on transcriptome, which were inferred from RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR data. The functional analysis showed the enrichment of functions related to growth and tissue development, inflammatory response, immune cell trafficking, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and allowed the identification of potential regulators. The results indicate different effects of diet on adipose tissue gene expression between breeds, affecting relevant biological pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Hibridização Genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrigenômica , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
7.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 46, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meat production from the commercial crossbred Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pig is predominant in the pork industry, but its meat quality is often impaired by low ultimate pH (pHu). Muscle glycogen level at slaughter is closely associated with pHu and meat technological quality, but its genetic basis remains elusive. The aim of this study was to identify genes and/or causative mutations associated with muscle glycogen level and other meat quality traits by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and additional analyses in a population of 610 DLY pigs. RESULTS: Our initial GWAS identified a genome-wide significant (P = 2.54e-11) quantitative trait locus (QTL) on SSC15 (SSC for Sus scrofa chromosome) for the level of residual glycogen and glucose (RG) in the longissimus muscle at 45 min post-mortem. Then, we demonstrated that a low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 0.014) R200Q missense mutation in the PRKAG3 (RN) gene caused this major QTL effect on RG. Moreover, we showed that the 200Q (RN-) allele was introgressed from the Hampshire breed into more than one of the parental breeds of the DLY pigs. After conditioning on R200Q, re-association analysis revealed three additional QTL for RG on SSC3 and 4, and on an unmapped scaffold (AEMK02000452.1). The SSC3 QTL was most likely caused by a splice mutation (g.8283C>A) in the PHKG1 gene that we had previously identified. Based on functional annotation, the genes TMCO1 on SSC4 and CKB on the scaffold represent promising candidate genes for the other two QTL. There were significant interaction effects of the GWAS tag SNPs at those two loci with PRKAG3 R200Q on RG. In addition, a number of common variants with potentially smaller effects on RG (P < 10-4) were uncovered by a second conditional GWAS after adjusting for the two causal SNPs, R200Q and g.8283C>A. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the RN- allele segregates in the parental lines of our DLY population and strongly influences its meat quality. Our findings also indicate that the genetic basis of RG in DLY can be mainly attributed to two major genes (PRKAG3 and PHKG1), along with many minor genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosforilase Quinase/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/genética
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 679, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine embryos undergo rapid differentiation and expansion between Days 8 and 12 before attaching to the maternal uterine epithelial surface after Day 13. It is known that maternal recognition of pregnancy and successful implantation are driven by mutual interactions between the elongated conceptus and the maternal endometrium. While most of the genes involved in regulation of embryo development are located on autosomal chromosomes, gene expression on sex chromosomes is modulating development through sex-specific transcription. To gain more insights into the dynamic transcriptome of preimplantation embryos at the onset of elongation and into X-linked gene expression, RNA-seq analyses were performed for single female and male porcine embryos collected on Days 8, 10, and 12 of pregnancy. RESULTS: A high number of genes were differentially expressed across the developmental stages (2174 and 3275 for Days 8 vs 10, and 10 vs 12, respectively). The majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in embryo elongation, development, and embryo-maternal interaction. Interestingly, a number of DEGs was found with respect to embryo sex (137, 37, and 56 on Days 8, 10 and 12, respectively). At Day 8, most of these DEGs were X-linked (96). Strikingly, the number of DEGs encoded on the X chromosome dramatically decreased from Day 10 to Day 12. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results deepen the understanding about temporary transcriptomic changes in porcine embryos during the phase of conceptus elongation, meanwhile reveal dynamic compensation of X chromosome in the female and distinct transcriptional differences between female and male embryos.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Cromossomo X , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Implantação do Embrião , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Suínos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6788-6795, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal muscle development; however, its functions in internal organs have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the morphological, molecular, and biological characteristics of the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and tongue of homozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN-/- ), heterozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN+/- ), and wild-type (WT) piglets. RESULTS: The heart and liver were lighter in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- piglets, while the tongue was heavier in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the tongue was longer in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets, and myofibers of the tongue were significantly larger in the former piglets than in the latter ones (P < 0.01). mRNA expression of MSTN in all organs was significantly lower in MSTN-/- and MSTN+/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, mRNA expression of follistatin, which is closely related to MSTN, in the heart and liver was significantly higher in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- and WT piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, protein expression of MSTN in the heart, kidneys, and tongue was significantly lower in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MSTN is widely expressed and has marked effects in multiple internal organs. Myostatin has crucial functions in regulating internal organ size, especially the tongue. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miostatina/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Folistatina/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Mutação , Miostatina/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Suínos/metabolismo
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5464906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380429

RESUMO

As one of the essential amino acids, methionine (Met) plays an important role in biological events such as methylation and antioxidant properties besides its function in protein synthesis. Different Met sources have been used in animal production, but their effects on Met metabolic pathways are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different Met sources (L-Met, DL-Met, DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA), and DL-methionyl-DL-methionine (DL-MM)) on the metabolism of Met in small intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) and the contents of extracellular Met sources. The results showed that concentrations of intracellular Met, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the ratio of SAM to SAH in the DL-HMTBA group were significantly lower than that in other Met source groups, while the content of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) was significantly higher. Moreover, the mRNA levels of MAT2A, AHcy, CBS, MTHFR, and MTR in the DL-HMTBA group were significantly higher than those in other Met source groups. Further study showed that the total content of extracellular Met sources was highest in the DL-HMTBA group, followed by DL-MM group, followed by L-Met and DL-Met groups. These results demonstrated that DL-HMTBA mainly affects the transmethylation and remethylation of Met and it can promote the trans-sulfur metabolism of Met when compared with other Met sources. In addition, most DL-HMTBA and a small amount of DL-MM can escape the intestinal first-pass metabolism and then provide more extracellular Met sources than L-Met and DL-Met. Therefore, this study can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of Met sources in livestock.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metionina/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Suínos/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3460-3471, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260527

RESUMO

Characterizing fiber into fermentable and unfermentable fractions may enhance the accuracy of estimating DE and ME energy content in fiber-rich ingredients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of NDF, representing both the fermentable (fNDFom) and unfermentable (uNDFom) portions among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and determine their relative contributions to DE and ME content. The concentrations of DE and ME, as well as apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, were measured in a previous experiment. Samples of DDGS (0.5 g) were mixed with fecal inoculum and incubated for 8, 12, and 72 h. The ash corrected NDF (NDFom) content of DDGS residues at each time point was determined. The fNDFom increased with fermentation time of 8 h (21.6%), 12 h (29.0%), and 72 h (68.6%). The ATTD of GE increased as the uNDFom decreased at 8 h (uNDFom8; R2 = 0.83; P < 0.01) and 72 h (uNDFom72; R2 = 0.83; P < 0.01). Likewise, ME content of DDGS increased as uNDFom72 decreased (R2 = 0.59; P < 0.01). The best-fit DE equation was DE (kcal/kg DM) = 2,175 - 3.07 × uNDFom8 (g/kg, DM) - 1.50 × uNDFom72 (g/kg, DM) + 0.55 × GE (kcal/kg DM) (R2 = 0.94, SE = 36.21). The best-fit ME equation was ME (kcal/kg DM) = 1,643 - 2.31 × uNDFom8 (g/kg, DM) - 2.54 × uNDFom72 (g/kg, DM) + 0.65 × GE (kcal/kg DM) - 1.42 × crude protein (g/kg DM) (R2 = 0.94, SE = 39.21). These results indicate that in vitro unfermented fiber is negatively associated with GE and NDF digestibility, and therefore, is a good predictor of DE and ME content in corn-DDGS.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
12.
Theriogenology ; 134: 112-120, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158734

RESUMO

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ß/δ belongs to a group of nuclear receptors that act as transcription factors. PPAR ß/δ plays a significant role in the regulation of female reproductive processes. It has been demonstrated that PPARß/δ is expressed in mouse, rat and porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of selected PPARß/δ ligands on the expression of nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) and selected cytokines - interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IL-10, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), in the porcine endometrium on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle (mid- and late-luteal phases corresponding to the full activity and luteolysis of the corpus luteum, respectively) and pregnancy (maternal recognition of pregnancy and beginning of implantation, respectively). Endometrial slices were incubated in vitro in the presence of PPARß/δ agonist L-165,041 (1 or 10 µM) or antagonist GW9662 (10 µM). The expression of mRNA and protein of the immune response mediator in the tissues was determined by real-time PCR and Western Blot. In general, the PPARß/δ agonist inhibited endometrial NF-κB mRNA expression during all analyzed reproductive stages, but it did not change protein expression. In turn, the PPARß/δ antagonist increased NF-κB protein levels on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The presence of the PPARß/δ agonist stimulated mRNA expression of LIF, IL-1ß and IL-8 and decreased the expression of IL-6. The presence of PPARß/δ ligands had a varied effect on protein expression in different stages on the analyzed period. The obtained results indicate that PPARß/δ regulates the expression of endometrial NF-κB and selected cytokines in pigs. The effects of PPARß/δ ligands on immune response mediators varied subject to the reproductive status of females and could be associated with differences in endometrial receptivity.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Endométrio/metabolismo , PPAR delta/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ligantes , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
13.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(5): 643-651, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cis-atracurium pharmacokinetic data and laudanosine production of a single 1 mg kg-1 cis-atracurium dose in the pig and to compare the pharmacokinetics between two groups of different ages. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Sixteen female pigs in two groups. Group A included eight animals aged 2.0-2.5 months and weighed 26.6 ± 3.6 kg. Group B included eight animals aged 4.0-5.0 months and weighed 57.4 ± 8.3 kg. METHODS: The pigs were anaesthetized and monitored throughout the procedure. Arterial blood samples collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes after cis-atracurium injection were cooled and centrifuged. Plasma was acidified and stored at -20 °C for subsequent cis-atracurium and laudanosine analyses. RESULTS: Anaesthetic parameters were within normal ranges throughout the procedure. Plasma cis-atracurium and laudanosine concentrations were measured for the 16 pigs. Elimination rate constant, elimination half-life, area under the curve, mean residence time, distribution volume and total clearance were calculated for each pig. Statistical differences (p < 0.05) in the elimination rate constant, elimination half-life, mean residence time and distribution volume values were observed between the two groups. Elimination half-life, mean residence time and distribution volume values were higher and elimination rate constant lower in younger pigs than in older pigs. No plasma laudanosine concentrations were detected in any pig. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Longer duration of plasma cis-atracurium concentrations were observed in younger pigs. Distribution volume was also higher in younger pigs. Conversely, total clearance and area under the curve were similar between the two age groups. No laudanosine production was detected, suggesting a different cis-atracurium metabolism in the pig compared with other species.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Atracúrio/farmacocinética , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/farmacocinética , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Atracúrio/administração & dosagem , Atracúrio/sangue , Feminino , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos/metabolismo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 461, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The improvement of feed efficiency is a key economic goal within the pig production industry. The objective of this study was to examine transcriptomic differences in both the liver and muscle of pigs divergent for feed efficiency, thus improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms influencing feed efficiency and enabling the identification of candidate biomarkers. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for two populations of pigs from two different farms of origin/genotype. The 6 most efficient (LRFI) and 6 least efficient (HRFI) animals from each population were selected for further analysis of Longissimus Dorsi muscle (n = 22) and liver (n = 23). Transcriptomic data were generated from liver and muscle collected post-slaughter. RESULTS: The transcriptomic data segregated based on the RFI value of the pig rather than genotype/farm of origin. A total of 6463 genes were identified as being differentially expressed (DE) in muscle, while 964 genes were identified as being DE in liver. Genes that were commonly DE between muscle and liver (n = 526) were used for the multi-tissue analysis. These 526 genes were associated with protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and immune function. In the muscle-only analysis, genes associated with RNA processing, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were down regulated in the LRFI animals while in the liver-only analysis, genes associated with cell signalling and lipid homeostasis were up regulated in the LRFI animals. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the transcriptome segregated on pig RFI value rather than the genotype/farm of origin. Multi-tissue analysis identified that genes associated with GO terms protein targeting to membrane, extracellular matrix organisation and a range of terms relating to immune function were over represented in the differentially expressed genes of both liver and muscle.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Suínos/metabolismo
15.
Amino Acids ; 51(7): 1081-1092, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175485

RESUMO

Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were selected to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) and/or glutamic acid (Glu) on free amino acid (FAA) profiles, expression of AA transporters, and growth-related genes in skeletal muscle. The animals were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (basic diet, iso-nitrogenous, Arg, Glu, and Arg + Glu groups). The results showed that plasma Glu concentration was lowest in the Arg + Glu group and highest in the Glu group (P < 0.05). In the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, the concentrations of histidine, Arg, and taurine in the Arg + Glu group were higher, and the concentrations of 3-methylhistidine was lower, than in the basic diet group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of ASC amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2), L-type AA transporter 1, and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the LD muscle, as well as the mRNA levels of ASCT2 and proton-assisted amino acid transporter in the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, were higher in the Arg + Glu group compared to the basic diet group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of the muscle-specific RING finger-1 and muscle atrophy F-box genes in the LD muscle were downregulated in the Glu and Arg + Glu groups compared to the basic diet group (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that dietary supplementation with both Arg and Glu increases intramuscular FAA concentrations and decreases the mRNA levels of genes involved in protein degradation in skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arginina/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Glutâmico/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 867-879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237071

RESUMO

AIMS: The gut microbiota is believed to play important roles in the health of pregnant mammals, including their nutrient metabolism, immune programming and metabolic regulation. However, until recently, the shifts in gut microbiota composition and faecal and blood metabolic activity during different stages of pregnancy had not been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the shifts in backfat thickness, plasma and faecal metabolites and gut microbiota on days 30, 60, 90 and 110 of pregnancy and on day 21 after parturition (weaning) in sows. The backfat thickness of sows did not significantly differ among the different stages of pregnancy. The plasma concentrations of lipid metabolites, including triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and calcium were reduced (P < 0·05) during pregnancy. In addition, the concentration of these metabolites, except TG, reached their maximum at the time of weaning. We also found that Tenericutes, Fibrobacteres and Cyanobacteria varied significantly according to the stages of pregnancy in sows (P < 0·05). Most of the genera, such as Clostridiales, Desulfovibrio, Mogibacteriaceae and Prevotella, increased (P < 0·05) with the progression of pregnancy and decreased (P < 0·05) at weaning. The alpha diversity values (i.e., Shannon diversity and observed species) of sow gut microbiota increased (P < 0·05) from pregnancy to weaning. Pregnancy stages also significantly influenced (P < 0·05) the community structure (beta diversity) of gut microbiota. The progression of pregnancy was associated with changes in lipid metabolism and several carbohydrate-degradation bacteria (i.e., Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Bacteroides and Parabacteroides). CONCLUSIONS: Although causal links between the measured parameters remain hypothetical, these findings suggest that the increased diversity and concentration of beneficial gut microbes are associated with the metabolism of pregnant sows. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Manipulation of the sow gut microbiota composition may potentially influence metabolism and health during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactação , Prenhez , Gravidez , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Filogenia , Plasma/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8950-8957, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189310

RESUMO

To determine how nutritional restriction compromised milk synthesis, sows were fed 100% (control) or 76% (restricted) of the recommended feed allowance from postpartum day (PD)-1 to PD-28. In comparison to the control, more body reserves loss, increased plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and decreased plasma methionine concentrations were observed in the restricted group at PD-21. The increased plasma malondialdehyde level, decreased plasma histidine and taurine concentrations, and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity were observed at PD-28 when backfat loss further increased in the restricted group. In mammary glands, vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (v-ATPase), as the upstream of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, showed decreased activity, while phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and ß-casein abundance all decreased following feed restriction. Altogether, long-term nutrition restriction could induce progressively aggravated oxidative stress and compromise mammary protein synthesis through repression of v-ATPase/mTORC1 signaling.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Suínos/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6108-6113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotides are key constituents of milk, where they are utilized in cell replication, although there are limited studies for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of uridine monophosphate (UMP) with uridine (UR) feed supplementation on the intestinal development and nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. RESULTS: Supplementation with UMP significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, and UR supplementation significantly reduced (0.05 < P < 0.10) the plasma total cholesterol (TC) of piglets when compared with that of the control group, although non-significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth performance was observed among three groups. Piglets fed supplementary UR exhibited greater (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum when compared with those in the supplementary UMP and control groups. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results revealed that UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the relative mRNA levels of genes encoding the transmembrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin in the duodenum mucosa, and ZO-1 in the jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). Similarly, UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) expression of solute carriers SLC28A1 and SLC29A1 in the duodenum mucosa. Conversely, claudin-1 expression in the duodenum mucosa was inhibited (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation with UMP or UR. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data indicated that dietary supplementation with UMP or UR was conducive to stimulating intestinal development and promoting nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
19.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4081-4089, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231750

RESUMO

Uridine monophosphate (UMP) is a major nucleotide analogue in mammalian milk and uridine (UR) is its gastro-intestinal metabolite in vivo. This study aims to investigate the functional effects of UMP and UR on the gut in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one piglets were randomly allotted into three groups, the control group, UMP group and UR group, and orally administered UMP or UR for 10 days. Results showed that UMP and UR supplements improved the ADG of piglets, and decreased the diarrhea rate. UR increased the jejunum villus length/crypt depth ratio, Claudin-3 and E-cadherin expression, and the pyrimidine nucleotide metabolic enzymes including CMPK1, RRM2, UPRT, CTPS1 and CTPS2 in the duodenal mucosa. Both the UMP and UR decreased the expression of CAD and RRM2 at the jejunal mucosa. Moreover, UMP and UR increased the apoptosis ratio of intestinal epithelial cells in in vivo and in vitro experiments. Taken together, oral administration of UR and UMP could improve the small intestinal morphology, promote epithelial cell apoptosis and renewal of intestinal villus tips, and benefit intestinal development and health thus improving the growth performance and reducing the risk of diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas , Claudina-3 , Diarreia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestinos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
20.
Anim Sci J ; 90(8): 990-998, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251457

RESUMO

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary leucine on antioxidant activity and expression of antioxidant- and mitochondrial-related genes in longissimus dorsi muscle and liver of piglets. Three diets were formulated with different levels of supplemented leucine (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%). Results showed that supplementation of 0.25% leucine significantly increased antisuperoxide anion (ASA) and antihydroxyl radical (AHR) levels and activities of total superoxide dismutade (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum, longissimus dorsi muscle and liver of piglets as compared with the control group. The SOD2, catalase (CAT), GPx, GST, glutathione reductase (GR), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels in longissimus dorsi muscle and liver were significantly increased by 0.25% leucine supplementation. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the mRNA level of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) exhibited an opposite tendency. Additionally, supplementation of 0.25% leucine significantly increased the mRNA levels of mitochondrial-related genes in longissimus dorsi muscle and liver of piglets. Results suggested that supplementation of 0.25% leucine improved antioxidant activity and mitochondrial biogenesis and function of piglets, which was related to the increase in antioxidant enzymes activities and upregulation of expression of antioxidant- and mitochondrial-related genes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Leucina/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
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