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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 52, 2021 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analyses of gut microbiome composition in livestock species have shown its potential to contribute to the regulation of complex phenotypes. However, little is known about the host genetic control over the gut microbial communities. In pigs, previous studies are based on classical "single-gene-single-trait" approaches and have evaluated the role of host genome controlling gut prokaryote and eukaryote communities separately. RESULTS: In order to determine the ability of the host genome to control the diversity and composition of microbial communities in healthy pigs, we undertook genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 39 microbial phenotypes that included 2 diversity indexes, and the relative abundance of 31 bacterial and six commensal protist genera in 390 pigs genotyped for 70 K SNPs. The GWAS results were processed through a 3-step analytical pipeline comprised of (1) association weight matrix; (2) regulatory impact factor; and (3) partial correlation and information theory. The inferred gene regulatory network comprised 3561 genes (within a 5 kb distance from a relevant SNP-P < 0.05) and 738,913 connections (SNP-to-SNP co-associations). Our findings highlight the complexity and polygenic nature of the pig gut microbial ecosystem. Prominent within the network were 5 regulators, PRDM15, STAT1, ssc-mir-371, SOX9 and RUNX2 which gathered 942, 607, 588, 284 and 273 connections, respectively. PRDM15 modulates the transcription of upstream regulators of WNT and MAPK-ERK signaling to safeguard naive pluripotency and regulates the production of Th1- and Th2-type immune response. The signal transducer STAT1 has long been associated with immune processes and was recently identified as a potential regulator of vaccine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. The list of regulators was enriched for immune-related pathways, and the list of predicted targets includes candidate genes previously reported as associated with microbiota profile in pigs, mice and human, such as SLIT3, SLC39A8, NOS1, IL1R2, DAB1, TOX3, SPP1, THSD7B, ELF2, PIANP, A2ML1, and IFNAR1. Moreover, we show the existence of host-genetic variants jointly associated with the relative abundance of butyrate producer bacteria and host performance. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results identified regulators, candidate genes, and mechanisms linked with microbiome modulation by the host. They further highlight the value of the proposed analytical pipeline to exploit pleiotropy and the crosstalk between bacteria and protists as significant contributors to host-microbiome interactions and identify genetic markers and candidate genes that can be incorporated in breeding program to improve host-performance and microbial traits. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Suínos/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Masculino , Suínos/classificação , Simbiose/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471826

RESUMO

Recent findings on Antibiotic Resistance (AR) have brought renewed attention to the comparison of data on AR from human and animal sectors. This is however a major challenge since the data is not harmonized. This study performs a comparative analysis of data on resistance combinations in Escherichia coli (E. coli) from different routine surveillance and monitoring systems for human and different animal populations in Germany. Data on E. coli isolates were collected between 2014 and 2017 from human clinical isolates, non-clinical animal isolates from food-producing animals and food, and clinical animal isolates from food-producing and companion animals from national routine surveillance and monitoring for AR in Germany. Sixteen possible resistance combinations to four antibiotics-ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin-for these populations were used for hierarchical clustering (Euclidian and average distance). All analyses were performed with the software R 3.5.1 (Rstudio 1.1.442). Data of 333,496 E. coli isolates and forty-one different human and animal populations were included in the cluster analysis. Three main clusters were detected. Within these three clusters, all human populations (intensive care unit (ICU), general ward and outpatient care) showed similar relative frequencies of the resistance combinations and clustered together. They demonstrated similarities with clinical isolates from different animal populations and most isolates from pigs from both non-clinical and clinical isolates. Isolates from healthy poultry demonstrated similarities in relative frequencies of resistance combinations and clustered together. However, they clustered separately from the human isolates. All isolates from different animal populations with low relative frequencies of resistance combinations clustered together. They also clustered separately from the human populations. Cluster analysis has been able to demonstrate the linkage among human isolates and isolates from various animal populations based on the resistance combinations. Further analyses based on these findings might support a better one-health approach for AR in Germany.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
3.
Gene ; 773: 145415, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444678

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) plays an important role in protecting cells from various stress factors. This study aimed to investigate the function of HSP27 gene and its regulatory mechanism as infected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the tissue and cellular levels. Real-time PCR was used to detect the differential expression of HSP27 gene in F18 resistant and sensitive Sutai pigs and the differential expression upon E. coli F18ab, F18ac, K88ac bacterial supernatant, thallus infection and LPS induction in IPEC-J2. In addition, the HSP27 gene overexpression vector was constructed to detect the effect of the HSP27 gene overexpression on the adhesion of E. coli F18 to IPEC-J2, secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, and the expression of the upstream key genes in Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK2) is an important protein in the MAPK pathway. Therefore, the RSK2 gene overexpression vector was constructed and the number of colonies was counted after co-transfection of HSP27 and RSK2 gene. Results revealed that the expression level of HSP27 gene in resistant individuals in 11 tissues was higher than sensitive type. At the cellular level, the relative expression levels of HSP27 gene were increased after F18ab, F18ac bacterial supernatant, F18ab thallus infection, and LPS induction for 4 h (P < 0.01). The adhesion ability of E. coli F18ab to IPEC-J2 was significantly reduced after HSP27 gene overexpression (P < 0.01), and the concentration of pro-inflammatory factors in the HSP27 gene overexpression group was significantly reduced compared with the control group after F18ab infection (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of RSK2 was significantly increased in HSP27 overexpression group upon F18ab infection (P < 0.01). The colonies quantitative results also showed that the number of colonies was significantly reduced after co-transfection of HSP27 and RSK2 gene. We indicated that the high expression of HSP27 gene may resist the inflammatory response caused by exogenous stress and enhance the ability of IPEC-J2 to resist E. coli F18 infection. RSK2 gene in the MAPK pathway may cooperate with HSP27 gene to participate in the immune response of the organism, which provides a theoretical basis for the study of the mechanism of anti-E. coli infection in piglets.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355527

RESUMO

The occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in different hosts and their implication as obligate or opportunistic pathogens remain mainly unclear. Mycobacteriosis in pigs is usually associated with members of the Mycobacterium avium complex and, in particular, with 'Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis'. Here we describe a novel slow-growing mycobacterial species isolated from lymph nodes obtained from two sows housed in different Swiss farms. The animals presented chronic inappetence and mild diarrhoea. Gross pathology revealed focal caseous lymphadenopathy of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Complete genome sequencing of the two isolates from the two sows was performed. The genomes comprised 5.76 Mb and an average nucleotide identity score of 99.97 %. Whole genome sequence, mycolic acid and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the two isolates were not related to any previously described Mycobacterium species. The closest related species was Mycobacterium parmense, a slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium first isolated from a cervical lymph node of a 3-year-old child. The name proposed for the new species is Mycobacterium helveticum sp. nov. and 16-83T (=DSM 109965T= LMG 2019-02457T) is the type strain.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Ácidos Micólicos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suíça
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 970-976, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155033

RESUMO

Several pathogens and antibodies derived from serum or produced in tissues associated with the oral cavity are present in the oral fluid (OF). Considering the applicability of this alternative sample, recent studies in veterinary medicine have tested OF as a replacement for serum in diagnostic assays. The aim of this study was to standardize the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) to detect anti-Lawsonia intracellularis immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in OF samples from experimentally infected pigs. Sixty-two pigs were divided into two groups: control (T1, n=30) and inoculated with L. intracellularis (T2, n=32). Blood, OF and fecal samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-inoculation (dpi). Some adaptations of the standard technique for serum were made to IPMA for the detection of IgA and IgG in OF. The IPMA showed high specificity and sensitivity for serum samples and high specificity and moderate sensitivity for the detection of IgA and IgG in OF. There was high agreement between the results of serum IgG and OF IgA and IgG. Based on our results, oral fluid samples may be used for the evaluation and determination of anti-L. intracellularis antibodies in pigs, but not for individual diagnosis of swine proliferative enteropathy.(AU)


Vários patógenos e anticorpos derivados do soro ou produzidos em tecidos associados a cavidade oral estão presentes no fluido oral (FO). Considerando a aplicabilidade dessa amostra alternativa, estudos recentes em medicina veterinária têm testado o FO como substituto do soro para testes diagnósticos. O objetivo desse estudo foi padronizar a imunoperoxidase em monocamada de célula (IPMC) para a detecção de imunoglobulina A e imunoglobulina G anti-Lawsonia intracellularis em amostras de FO de suínos experimentalmente infectados. Um total de 62 suínos foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (T1, n=30) e inoculados com L. intracellularis (T2, n=32). Sangue, FO e amostras de fezes foram coletados aos 0, 7,14, 21, 28 e 42 dias após a inoculação (dpi). Algumas adaptações da técnica foram realizadas na técnica padrão da IPMC para a detecção de IgA e IgG. A IPMC demostrou alta especificidade e sensibilidade para amostras de soro e alta especificidade de moderada sensibilidade para a detecção de IgA e IgG em FO. Houve alta concordância entre resultados de detecção de IgG em soro com a IgA e IgG em amostras de FO. Baseado em nossos resultados, amostras de fluido oral podem ser usadas em avaliações e detecção de anticorpos anti-L. intracellularis em suínos, porém não de forma individual.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Suínos/microbiologia , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/imunologia , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Sorologia , Anticorpos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370950

RESUMO

Although uncommon, Brucella infection can occur outside the areas of high endemicity, such as the USA. In the southern USA, hunters of wild swine are at risk for brucellosis. We present a case of a patient with fever, headache and constitutional symptoms that were ongoing for 11 months. He was diagnosed with neurobrucellosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous ceftriaxone, oral doxycycline and oral rifampin therapy. He had persistent neurological sequelae after completing treatment. This case illustrates the high index of suspicion needed to diagnose neurobrucellosis in a non-endemic country because initial symptoms can be subtle. The disease can be treated successfully, but long-lasting neurological sequelae are common.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Transtornos da Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/microbiologia , Meninges/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningites Bacterianas/complicações , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008982, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370309

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging and globally spread zoonosis caused by pathogenic genomospecies of Leptospira. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are an important Leptospira host and are increasing in population all over Europe. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate Leptospira spp. infection in the reproductive systems of wild boar hunted in two Italian regions: Tuscany and Sardinia. From 231 animals, reproductive system tissue samples (testicles, epididymides, uteri) as well as placentas and fetuses were collected. Bacteriological examination and Real-Time PCR were performed to detect pathogenic Leptospira (lipL32 gene). Leptospires were isolated from the testicles and epididymides of one adult and two subadult wild boar. Four isolates from the two subadult males were identified as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis by MLST, whereas Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Grippotyphosa was identified from the adult testicles and epididymis. Using Real-Time PCR, 70 samples were positive: 22 testicles (23.16%) and 22 epididymides (23.16%), 10 uteri (7.35%), 3 placentas (6.66%), and 13 fetuses (28.88%). Amplification of the rrs2 gene identified L. interrogans and L. kirschneri species. The results from this investigation confirmed that wild boar represent a potential source of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Isolation of Leptospira serogroups Australis and Grippotyphosa from the male reproductive system and the positive Real-Time PCR results from both male and female samples could suggest venereal transmission, as already demonstrated in pigs. Furthermore, placentas and fetuses were positive for the lipL32 target, and this finding may be related to a possible vertical transmission of pathogenic Leptospira.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Epididimo/microbiologia , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/microbiologia , Testículo/microbiologia , Útero/microbiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6389, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319778

RESUMO

Our knowledge about the gut microbiota of pigs is still scarce, despite the importance of these animals for biomedical research and agriculture. Here, we present a collection of cultured bacteria from the pig gut, including 110 species across 40 families and nine phyla. We provide taxonomic descriptions for 22 novel species and 16 genera. Meta-analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequence data and metagenome-assembled genomes reveal prevalent and pig-specific species within Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, and several new genera described in this study. Potentially interesting functions discovered in these organisms include a fucosyltransferase encoded in the genome of the novel species Clostridium porci, and prevalent gene clusters for biosynthesis of sactipeptide-like peptides. Many strains deconjugate primary bile acids in in vitro assays, and a Clostridium scindens strain produces secondary bile acids via dehydroxylation. In addition, cells of the novel species Bullifex porci are coccoidal or spherical under the culture conditions tested, in contrast with the usual helical shape of other members of the family Spirochaetaceae. The strain collection, called 'Pig intestinal bacterial collection' (PiBAC), is publicly available at www.dsmz.de/pibac and opens new avenues for functional studies of the pig gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Família Multigênica , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997676

RESUMO

This study aimed to detect Salmonella from retail meat collected from nine wet markets in Metro Manila, and identify the subtypes of Salmonella isolates using molecular serotyping assays from previously developed primers. Of the 720 collected meat samples, 57.64% were found to be Salmonella-contaminated. The most predominant serogroup was Salmonella O:3, and Salmonella serogroups O:4, O:6,7, O:8, O:9, and undetermined serogroups were also found. Most frequently detected isolates in bovine meat were S. 3:e,h:1,6 (putative identity: S. Anatum) and S: 4:e,h:1,2 (putative identity: S. Saintpaul), in porcine meat was S. 3:e,h:1,6 (putative identity: S. Anatum), and S. 8:i:z6 (putative identity: S. Kentucky) was common in poultry products. This study also demonstrated retail meat samples were contaminated with multiple Salmonella serogroups and serovars. This is the first Philippine study that utilized PCR-based assays to characterize Salmonella isolates down to a serovar level and provides baseline information regarding Salmonella prevalence and serovar distribution in retail meat. Molecular serotyping performed in this study can be used as an alternative approach to traditional serotyping in surveillance of Salmonella in the Philippines since the latter is expensive, time-consuming, and requires skilled technicians.


Assuntos
Carne/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Filipinas , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem/métodos , Suínos/microbiologia
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1571-1575, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131505

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a caracterização genética de Staphylococcus spp. resistentes a meticilina isolados de suínos. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de swab nasal de suínos, abatidos em um frigorífico com Serviço de Inspeção Federal. Os isolados foram submetidos a análises macro e microscópicas que, em seguida, para detectar a resistência bacteriana, foram submetidos a ensaios fenotípicos da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Posteriormente, as amostras resistentes a oxacilina, foram submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) para verificar a presença do gene mecA. Das 30 amostras analisadas, foram isolados 12 (40%) Staphylococcus spp. coagulase positiva, e 18 (60%) coagulase negativa, e, dentre os isolados, 26 (86,66%) foram resistentes a oxacilina sendo possível detectar o gene mecA em seis (23%) amostras. Este estudo evidencia a presença de genes de resistência em microrganismos comuns a microbiota de animais de produção que podem ser transmitidos ao homem. Além de chamar a atenção para a frequência e quantidade de antimicrobianos aos quais estes animais são expostos durante toda sua vida, podendo ser considerado um problema para a saúde única.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Suínos/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Refrigeração/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Dados Preliminares
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648357

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal microbiota impact host's biological activities, including digestion of indigestible feed components, energy harvest, and immunity. In this study, fecal microbiota of high body weight (HW) and low body weight (LW) growing pigs at 103 days of age were compared. Principal coordinates analysis separated the HW and LW groups into two clusters, indicating their potential differences between microbial community composition. Although the abundances of two major phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, did not significantly differ between the HW and LW groups, some genera showed significant differences. Among them, Peptococcus and Eubacterium exhibited strong positive correlations with body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) (Rho > 0.40), whereas Treponema, Desulfovibrio, Parabacteroides, and Ruminococcaceae_unclassified exhibited strong negative correlations with BW and ADG (Rho < -0.40). Based on these results, the structure of intestinal microbiota may affect growth traits in pigs through host-microbe interactions. Further in-depth studies will provide insights into how best to reshape host-microbe interactions in pigs and other animals as well.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Eubacterium , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Peptococcus , Ganho de Peso
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479635

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a maternal antibiotic administration during the last week of gestation on the early life intestinal development in neonatal piglets. Colonization of the gut with bacteria starts during birth and plays a major role in the intestinal and immunological development of the intestine. We demonstrate that maternal interventions induced changes in the sows (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) fecal microbiota diversity around birth (P < 0.001, day 1). Whole-genome microarray analysis in small intestinal samples of 1-d old piglets (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) showed significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) which were involved in processes of tight junction formation and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, when performing morphometry analysis, the number of goblet cells in jejunum was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in piglets from amoxicillin administered sows compared with the respective control piglets. Both significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) and significant morphometry data (jejunum P < 0.05 and ileum P < 0.01) indicate that the crypts of piglets from amoxicillin administered sows deepen around weaning (day 26) as an effect of the amoxicillin administration in sows. The latter might imply that the intestinal development of piglets was delayed by maternal antibiotic administration. Taken together, these results show that maternally oral antibiotic administration changes in early life can affect intestinal development of the offspring piglets for a period of at least 5 wk after the maternal antibiotic administration was finished. These results show that modulation of the neonatal intestine is possible by maternal interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 369-376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452042

RESUMO

We evaluated the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in pigs during production cycle on a Czech farm with the history of previous use of ceftiofur. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained from rectal swabs from pigs of different age groups (suckling piglets, weaned piglets, growers and sows). Collected samples were directly cultivated on MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg l-1 ), whereas intestinal swabs of slaughtered pigs and surface swabs from pig carcasses were also pre-enriched in buffered peptone water without antimicrobials before the cultivation. Clonal relationship of selected isolates was determined by XbaI pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing. The transferability of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M genes was tested by conjugation experiments. From all examined samples, 141 (43·7%, n = 323) were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli. All ESBL-producing isolates showed resistance to multiple antimicrobials and were positive for blaCTX-M genes. The blaCTX-M-1 was carried by conjugative IncN/ST1 plasmids (c. 40-45 kb) while the blaCTX-M-15 was located on conjugative F plasmids with F:18:A5:B1 formula (c. 165 kb). This study demonstrated the persistence of CTX-M-positive E. coli isolates 2 months after banner of ceftiofur usage and indicated possible risk of transmission of these isolates to humans via the food chain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , República Tcheca , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353071

RESUMO

Since its emergence in the early 2000s, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) has led to an increasing number of human infections in Denmark and other European countries with industrial pig production. LA-MRSA CC398 is primarily associated with skin infections among pig farm workers but is also increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease among elderly and immunocompromised people. Pig farm workers may serve as vehicles for the spread of LA-MRSA CC398 and other farm-origin bacteria between farms and into the general population. Yet, little is known about the bacterial community dynamics in pig farm workers and other persons with long- and short-term exposure to the pig farm environment. To gain insight into this, we investigated the nasal microbiomes in pig farm workers during a workweek on four LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farms, as well as in short-term visitors two hours before, immediately after, and 48 hours after a 1-hour visit to another LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farm. S. aureus and LA-MRSA CC398 carriage was quantified by means of culture, and the composition of the bacterial communities was investigated through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pig farm workers often carried LA-MRSA CC398 and other bacteria from the pig farm environment, both at work and at home, although at lower levels at home. In contrast, short-term visitors were subject to a less dramatic and rapidly reversible change in the nasal bacterial community composition. These results suggest that pig farm workers may be an important source of LA-MRSA CC398 and perhaps other pathogens of human and veterinary relevance.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Animal ; 14(10): 2042-2053, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436487

RESUMO

Antibiotics are designed to affect gut microbiota and subsequently gut homeostasis. However, limited information exists about short- and long-term effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on gut homeostasis (especially for the small intestine) of pigs following antibiotic withdrawal. We investigated the impact of EAI on specific bacterial communities, microbial metabolites and mucosal immune parameters in the small intestine of later-growth-stage pigs fed with diets differing in CP levels. Eighteen litters of piglets were fed creep feed with or without antibiotics from day 7 to day 42. At day 42, pigs within each group were offered a normal- or low-CP diet. Five pigs per group were slaughtered at days 77 and 120. At day 77, EAI increased Enterobacteriaceae counts in the jejunum and ileum and decreased Bifidobacterium counts in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, tryptamine, putrescine, secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG concentrations in the ileum and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and protein levels in the jejunum and ileum were decreased in pigs with EAI (P < 0.05). At day 120, EAI only suppressed Clostridium cluster XIVa counts in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that EAI has a short-term effect on specific bacterial communities, amino acid decarboxylation and mucosal immune parameters in the small intestine (particularly in the ileum). At days 77 and 120, feeding a low-CP diet affected Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium cluster XIVa and Enterobacteriaceae counts in the jejunum or ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding a low-CP diet increased the concentrations of Igs in the jejunum and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). At day 120, feeding a low-CP diet increased short-chain fatty acid concentrations, reduced ammonia and spermidine concentrations and up-regulated genes related to barrier function in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that feeding a low-CP diet changes specific bacterial communities and intestinal metabolite concentrations and modifies mucosal immune parameters. These findings contribute to our understanding on the duration of the impact of EAI on gut homeostasis and may provide basis data for nutritional modification in young pigs after antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos , Suínos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta , Íleo , Intestino Delgado , Suínos/microbiologia
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3686-3692, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416742

RESUMO

Twenty-nine isolates of an unknown haemophilic organism were isolated from the lungs of pigs from 14 farms in Australia. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene, recN and rpoA showed a monophyletic group that was most closely related to Glaesserella parasuis and [Actinobacillus] indolicus. Whole genome sequence analysis indicated that the Glaesserella parasuis and this group, using the type strain HS4635T for comparison, showed a similarity of 30.9 % DNA-DNA renaturation. The isolates were Gram-stain-negative, NAD-dependent, CAMP-negative and were oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and produced indole but not urease. The isolates could be separated from all currently recognized haemophilic and non-haemophilic members of the family Pastuerellaceae. Key phenotypic properties were the production of indole, the lack of urease activity, production of ß-galactosidase but not α-fucosidase, acid formation from (-)-d-arabinose, (+)-d-galactose, maltose and trehalose and a failure to produce acid from (-)-d-mannitol. Taken together, these data indicate that the isolates belong to a novel species for which the name Glaesserella australis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HS4635T (=CCUG 71931T and LMG 30645T).


Assuntos
Pulmão/microbiologia , Pasteurellaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Austrália , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0216914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterise antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from the formal meat sector (FMS) and informal meat sectors (INMS). METHOD: A total of 162 and 102 E. coli isolates from the FMS, and INMS respectively were isolated by standard culture-based, and biochemical reactions. The isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 19 different antibiotics. The presence of class 1-2 integrons in each E. coli isolates was assessed using 3'-CS and 5'-CS regions specific primers. RESULT: Among the 19 antimicrobials, resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and nitrofurans were found to be more frequent than carbapenems and chloramphenicol. The number of multi-drug resistance ranged from three to ten antimicrobials. The resistant determinants with the highest prevalence in the FMS and INMS were; [aminoglycosides: aadA (40.6%; 31.9%), and strA (6.5%; 9.4%)], [ß-lactams: ampC (20%; 45%),], [Chloramphenicol: catI (1.7%; 1.7%), and [tetracyclines: tetB (11.5%; 24%),], and [sulfonamides: sul1 (22.2%; 26.7%),]. CONCLUSION: Higher phenotypic resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems were found in the FMS than in INMS. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexes for FMS and INMS ranged from 0.2-0.5. The results reveal a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants, suggesting that consumers and handlers of such meat are at risk of contracting antibiotic-resistant E. coli-related foodborne disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , África do Sul , Suínos/microbiologia
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277238

RESUMO

A 42-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn source and Cu level on pig performance, mineral status, bacterial modulation, and the presence of antimicrobial-resistant genes in isolates of Enterococcus spp. At weaning, 528 pigs (5.9 ± 0.50 kg) were allotted to 48 pens of a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two Cu and Zn sources (SF: sulfate and HCl: hydroxychloride) and two Cu levels (15 and 160 mg/kg). As a challenge, the pigs were reared in dirty pens used by a previous commercial batch. Two-phase diets were offered: the pre-starter (PS) phase from day 1 to 14 and the starter phase (ST) from day 14 to 42. At days 14 and 42, pigs were individually weighed and blood samples from one pig per pen were taken. At the end of the experiment, one pig per pen was euthanized to collect the samples. Feeding high levels of Cu increased body weight (BW) from 16.6 to 17.7 kg (P < 0.001). Furthermore, average daily gain, gain to feed (G:F) ratio, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and mineral status were enhanced with Cu at 160 mg/kg (P < 0.05) compared with Cu at 15 mg/kg. There was no effect of the interaction between source × level on any of the growth performance responses except for ADFI (P = 0.004) and G:F (P = 0.029) at the end of the ST period and for G:F (P = 0.006) for entire nursery period (day 0 to 42). At the end of the ST period, pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl had not only higher ADFI but also lower G:F than those fed Cu as SF at 160 mg/kg. Meanwhile, for the entire nursery period, G:F did not differ between pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl or SF. In colonic digesta, the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, among others, decreased (P-adjust < 0.05), while Lachnospira and Roseburia tended (P-adjust < 0.10) to increase in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg as HCl compared with those fed Cu SF at 160 mg/kg. An increase (P-adjust < 0.05) in Methanosphaera and Roseburia was observed in pigs fed Cu at 160 mg/kg. From colon digesta, Enterococcus spp. was isolated in 40 samples, being E. faecalis the most dominating (65%) regardless of the experimental diet. Genes of ermB (7.5%) and tetM (5%) were identified. No genes for Cu (tcrB) or vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2) were detected. In conclusion, European Union permissible levels of Cu (160 mg/kg), of both sources, were able to increase performance, mineral status, and bacterial modulation compared with nutritional level. Different effects on growth performance, mineral tissue content, and microbial modulation were observed between Cu and Zn sources.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
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