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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8469-8481, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695375

RESUMO

Background: A pandemic influenza viral strain, influenza A/California/07/2009 (pdmH1N1), has been considered to be a potential issue that needs to be controlled to avoid the seasonal emergence of mutated strains. Materials and methods: In this study, aptamer-antibody complementation was implemented on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold conjugated sensing surface with a dielectrode to detect pandemic pdmH1N1. Preliminary biomolecular and dielectrode surface analyses were performed by molecular and microscopic methods. A stable anti-pdmH1N1 aptamer sequence interacted with hemagglutinin (HA) and was compared with the antibody interaction. Both aptamer and antibody attachments on the surface as the basic molecule attained the saturation at nanomolar levels. Results: Aptamers were found to have higher affinity and electric response than antibodies against HA of pdmH1N1. Linear regression with aptamer-HA interaction displays sensitivity in the range of 10 fM, whereas antibody-HA interaction shows a 100-fold lower level (1 pM). When sandwich-based detection of aptamer-HA-antibody and antibody-HA-aptamer was performed, a higher response of current was observed in both cases. Moreover, the detection strategy with aptamer clearly discriminated the closely related HA of influenza B/Tokyo/53/99 and influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2). Conclusion: The high performance of the abovementioned detection methods was supported by the apparent specificity and reproducibility by the demonstrated sensing system.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Ouro/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Pandemias , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução Genética
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108406, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585654

RESUMO

There is a need to develop cost effective approaches to sample large populations in particular to determine the disease status of pigs prior to weaning. In this study we assessed the presence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the environment (surfaces and air) of farrowing rooms, and udder skin of lactating sows as an indirect measure of piglet PRRSV status. Samples were collected at processing and weaning every three weeks for 23 weeks after a PRRSV outbreak was diagnosed in a swine breeding herd. PRRSV was detected at processing in udder skin wipes, environmental wipes and airborne deposited particle samples up to 14 weeks post outbreak and at weaning in udder skin wipes up to 17 weeks post outbreak. Similar sensitivities were observed for udder skin wipes (43% [95% CI: 23%-66%]) and surface wipes (57% [95% CI: 34%-77%]) when compared to serum at the litter level from piglets at processing. PRRSV was detected in the environment and the udder skin of lactating sows, which indicates that aggregate samples of the environment or lactating sows may be used to evaluate the PRRSV status of the herd in pigs prior to weaning. However, the use of environmental samples to detect PRRSV by RT-PCR should not be used as the single method to assess the PRRSV status at the litter level. Furthermore, our findings also highlight potential sources of PRRSV infection for piglets in breeding herds.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Abrigo para Animais , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/transmissão , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Suínos/virologia , Envelhecimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Cultura de Vírus , Desmame
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 53, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to human health because of their wide host range and ability to reassort into novel viruses that can cause serious disease and pandemics. Since transmission of these viruses between humans and pigs can be associated with occupational and environmental exposures, we investigated the association between occupational exposure to pigs, occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), and influenza A virus infection. METHODS: The study was conducted in Kiambu County, the county with the highest level of intensive small-scale pig farming in Kenya. Up to 3 participants (> 2 years old) per household from pig-keeping and non-pig-keeping households were randomly recruited and followed up in 2013 (Sept-Dec) and 2014 (Apr-Aug). Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from participants with ARI at the time of study visit. For the animal study, nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, and serum samples were collected from pigs and poultry present in enrolled households. The human and animal swab samples were tested for viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR and sera by ELISA for antibodies. A Poisson generalized linear mixed-effects model was developed to assess the association between pig exposure and occurrence of ARI. RESULTS: Of 1137 human participants enrolled, 625 (55%) completed follow-up visits including 172 (27.5%) pig workers and 453 (72.5%) non-pig workers. Of 130 human NP/OP swabs tested, four (3.1%) were positive for influenza A virus, one pig worker, and three among non-pig workers. Whereas none of the 4462 swabs collected from pig and poultry tested positive for influenza A virus by RT-PCR, 265 of 4273 (6.2%) of the sera tested positive for virus antibodies by ELISA, including 11.6% (230/1990) of the pigs and 1.5% (35/2,283) of poultry. The cumulative incidence of ARI was 16.9% among pig workers and 26.9% among the non-pig workers. The adjusted risk ratio for the association between being a pig worker and experiencing an episode of ARI was 0.56 (95% CI [0.33, 0.93]), after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate moderate seropositivity for influenza A virus among pigs, suggesting the circulation of swine influenza virus and a potential for interspecies transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Faringe/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 305, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is an emerging circovirus species, that has been reported in major pig-raising countries including the United States, China, South Korea, Brazil, Spain, and Poland. RESULTS: A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid detection of porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3). The method had a detection limit of 1 × 101 copies/µL with no cross-reactions with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C strain, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) LG vaccine strain, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), or pseudorabies virus (PRV). The PCV3 positive detection rate of 203 clinical samples for the real-time LAMP assay was 89.66% (182/203). CONCLUSIONS: The real-time LAMP assay is highly sensitive, and specific for use in epidemiological investigations of PCV3.


Assuntos
Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Virol J ; 16(1): 85, 2019 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type A influenza viruses (IAVs) cause significant infections in humans and multiple species of animals including pigs, horses, birds, dogs and some marine animals. They are of complicated phylogenetic diversity and distribution, and analysis of their phylogenetic diversity and distribution from a panorama view has not been updated for multiple years. METHODS: 139,872 protein sequences of IAVs from GenBank were selected, and they were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed using the software tool MEGA 7.0. Lineages and subordinate lineages were classified according to the topology of the phylogenetic trees and the host, temporal and spatial distribution of the viruses, and designated using a novel universal nomenclature system. RESULTS: Large phylogenetic trees of the two external viral genes (HA and NA) and six internal genes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, MP and NS) were constructed, and the diversity and the host, temporal and spatial distribution of these genes were calculated and statistically analyzed. Various features regarding the diversity and distribution of IAVs were confirmed, revised or added through this study, as compared with previous reports. Lineages and subordinate lineages were classified and designated for each of the genes based on the updated panorama views. CONCLUSIONS: The panorama views of phylogenetic diversity and distribution of IAVs and their nomenclature system were updated and assumed to be of significance for studies and communication of IAVs.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Aves/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Cães/virologia , Genes Virais , Cavalos/virologia , Humanos , Suínos/virologia
6.
Virol J ; 16(1): 56, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046791

RESUMO

Tetraparvovirus, formerly known as Partetravirus, is a newly discovered genus in the family Parvoviridae that is considered phylogenetically distinct from other parvoviruses. However, nothing is known about the prevalence of Tetraparvovirus in special livestock living on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, such as Tibetan pigs and Tibetan sheep. A pair of special primers was designed based on the conserved regions in the genome of ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (P-PARV4) and ungulate tetraparvovirus 4 (O-PARV4) and was used to detect P-PARV4 in domestic pigs and Tibetan pigs and O-PARV4 in ovines and Tibetan sheep. The results showed a 15.59 and 9.38% prevalence of P-PARV4 in domestic pigs (18.96% in Gansu Province and 11.76% in Qinghai Province) and Tibetan pigs (14.28% in Gansu Province and 4.44% in Qinghai Province), respectively, and a 7.31 and 5.20% prevalence of O-PARV4 in ovines (6.61% in Gansu Province and 8.00% in Qinghai Province) and Tibetan sheep (4.55% in Gansu Province and 5.50% in Qinghai Province), respectively. The prevalence of P-PARV4 was 14.76% (31/210) for ≤1-month-old pigs and 10.58% (20/189) for > 1-month-old pigs, and the positive rates of O-PARV4 were 7.65% (18/235) for ≤1-month-old sheep and 5.05% (11/218) for > 1-month-old sheep. The phylogenetic analysis of NS1, VP1, VP2 and the whole PARV4-related provirus genome demonstrated that both P-PARV4 and O-PARV4 sequences in this study were more closely related to the sequences of other strains discovered in the same genus of animals. The identity analyses for the full-length VP2 genomes of O-PARV4 revealed 98.84-100.00% sequence identity among the 7 strains and the previously reported strain, which was 98.60-99.28% for P-PARV4. In the present study, for the first time, we have provided comprehensive information regarding the widespread infection of P-PARV4 and O-PARV4 in special livestock on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Our present findings highlight the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to limit the spread of Tetraparvovirus in livestock at high altitudes in China.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Gado/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Tibet/epidemiologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 244, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Singapore used to report an annual average of 14 cases of Japanese encephalitis, but ever since the abolishment of pig farms in the early 1990s, the local incidence rate for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections has reduced drastically. Studies done in the early 2000s demonstrated the presence of JEV-specific antibodies in animals such as wild boars, dogs, chickens and goats on the offshore island and peripheral parts of the Singapore, indicative of prior JEV exposure. A JEV wildlife and sentinel chicken surveillance system was initiated in 2010 through to 2017 to study the animal host seroprofiles. RESULTS: A total of 12/371 (3.23%) of resident bird samples, 24/254 (9.45%) of migratory bird samples and 10/66 (15.16%) of wild boar samples were positive for the presence of JEV antibodies. Seroconversions in sentinel chickens were observed at two time points. Through this study, two sites with active transmission of JEV amongst avian or porcine hosts were identified. CONCLUSIONS: JEV transmission in animal hosts has continued despite the phasing out of pig farming nearly thirty years ago; however, the public health risk of transmission remains low. Environmental management for mosquito population remains key to keeping this risk low.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Migração Animal , Animais , Aves/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Fazendas , Singapura/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Virus Genes ; 55(4): 520-531, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129785

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in newborn piglets. Previous studies have suggested that PDCoV infection antagonizes RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated IFN-ß production to evade host innate immune defense, and PDCoV-encoded nonstructural protein nsp5 and accessory protein NS6 are associated with this process. However, whether the structural protein(s) of PDCoV also antagonize IFN-ß production remains unclear. In this study, we found that PDCoV nucleocapsid (N) protein, the most abundant viral structural protein, suppressed Sendai virus (SEV)-induced IFN-ß production and transcription factor IRF3 activation, but did not block IFN-ß production induced by overexpressing RIG-I/MDA5. Furthermore, study revealed that PDCoV N protein interacted with RIG-I and MDA5 in an in vitro overexpression system and evident interactions between N protein and RIG-I could be detected in the context of PDCoV infection, which interfered with the binding of dsRNA and protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT) to RIG-I. Together, our results demonstrate that PDCoV N protein is an IFN antagonist and utilizes diverse strategies to attenuate RIG-I recognition and activation.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/imunologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon beta/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 105-113, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030833

RESUMO

Rotaviruses of group A (RVAs) commonly occur in farm animals. In pigs, they cause acute gastrointestinal disease which is considered as significant factor of economic losses in pig farming. The aim of the study was an assessment of the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) infections in farmed pigs in Poland, genotype identification of the virus strains in conjunction with their age-related occurrence and regional (province) distribution pattern in pig herds. In total, 920 pig faecal samples were collected from pigs between the ages of one week and two years old from 131 farms. RVAs were detected using ELISA and molecular methods followed by a sequence-based identification of G (VP7) and P (VP4) virus genotypes. RV antigen was found in 377 (41%) of pig faecal samples. The correlation between pig age and frequency of RV infections was shown. In the Polish pig population, 145 RVA strains representing 33 GP genotypes were identified. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed an age-dependent and regional diversity in distribution of genotypes and virus strains. Besides typical pig RVA strains, novel strains such as G5P [34], G9P[34], and human G1P[8] were identified in this animal host. Findings from this study showed a change over time in the genotype occurrence of circulating pig RVAs in Poland. The high genetic variability of RV strains and acquisition of new virus genotypes have led to the emergence of novel, genetically distinct RVAs. The changes in the genotype occurrence of RVA strains in pigs indicate the need for their continuous epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 13-21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030837

RESUMO

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of acute diarrhoea, respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and polioencephalomyelitis in swine. Here, we report the isolation, genomic sequence, and biological characterization of PSV isolated from pig diarrhoeal samples. In our study, two PSV strains were identified with a diameter of approximately 25 nm, and their full genomes were 7564 nucleotides in length. We named the strains PSV-JXXY-a2 and PSV-JXXY-c. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two virus isolates were classified into the China cluster. Moreover, the PSV-JXXY-a2 strain could be inactivated quickly at 54℃ and adapted to grow on different cell lines of porcine, human, and baby hamster origin. Pathogenicity investigation showed that the isolated PSV could infect neonatal piglets efficiently and caused diarrhoea in piglets. Further epidemiological investigation revealed a high prevalence of PSV in pig herds, and the PSV-positive rates in pigs with diarrhoea were much higher than in asymptomatic samples in China. Together, our findings demonstrate that PSV-JXXY-a2 is pathogenic to neonatal piglets and advance knowledge on the prevalence of PSV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Linhagem Celular , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 415-425, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947641

RESUMO

Advances in molecular testing and microfluidic technologies have opened new avenues for rapid detection of animal viruses. We used a centrifugal microfluidic disk (CMFD) to detect 6 important swine viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory swine virus-North American genotype, porcine circovirus 2, pseudorabies virus, and porcine parvovirus. Through integrating the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and microfluidic chip technology, the CMFD could be successfully performed at 62℃ in 60 min. The detection limit of the CMFD was 3.2 × 102 copies per reaction, close to the sensitivity of tube-type LAMP turbidity methods (1 × 102 copies per reaction). In addition, the CMFD was highly specific in detecting the targeted viruses with no cross-reaction with other viruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine rotavirus. The coincidence rate of CMFD and conventional PCR was ~94%; the CMFD was more sensitive than conventional PCR for detecting mixed viral infections. The positive detection rate of 6 viruses in clinical samples by CMFD was 44.0% (102 of 232), whereas PCR was 40.1% (93 of 232). Thirty-six clinical samples were determined to be coinfected with 2 or more viruses. CMFD can be used for rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection of 6 swine viruses, offering a reliable assay for monitoring these pathogens, especially for detecting viruses in widespread mixed-infection clinical samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Suínos/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vírus/genética
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(7): 1203-1209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888550

RESUMO

In recent years, the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus immunoglobulins (HEV) has increased in European countries with significant variability among the different geographical areas. HEV infection is spread in a wide range of animal species of which domestic pigs and wild boar represent the main reservoirs of genotype 3 and 4 (the genotypes present also in Europe). European citizens are incidental hosts, mainly infected by direct contact or consumption of foods derived from undercooked or insufficient hygiene handling infected pork products or wild boar meat. Epidemiologically, the HEV incidence is low in humans but serological data show a high proportion of subclinical infection caused by genotypes 3 or 4. In the general population, asymptomatic infection represents a high potential risk in particular subjects such as blood component recipients or occupationally exposed workers. This review offers a landscape of the current epidemiological status of HEV infection (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 7) both in European asymptomatic subjects, patients with chronic diseases, and domestic pig impact on humans. We also underline advantages/disadvantages of high sensitivity and specificity tests using for detecting viral RNA or anti-HEV antibodies.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Animais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Carne Vermelha/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos/virologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 269, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To fulfill epidemiological data and investigate possible interspecies transmission, this study shall attempt to sequence representative HEV strains of human, swine and wild boar origin collected from 2010 to 2017 in Croatia. METHODS: In total, 174 anti-HEV antibody positive human sera samples; 1419 blood or faeces samples of swine, as well as 720 tissue and/or blood samples of wild boar originating from different counties (18 in total) in Croatia were tested for the presence of HEV RNA. RESULTS: HEV RNA was detected in 26 human sera samples (14.9%; 95% CI 10.4-21.0%). HEV RNA was detected in 216 tested swine (15.2%; 95% CI 13.5-17.1%), regardless of age, farm breeding system or geographical origin. Viral RNA was also detectable in faeces samples which prove that swine actively participate in shedding HEV into the environment. Of the total of 720 tested wild boar samples, 83 were HEV RNA positive (11.5, 95% CI 9.4-14.1%) originating from six counties. According to the sequence analysis all strains have shown to be members of Orthohepevirus A genotype HEV-3, regardless of host. The genotyping results confirm grouping of sequences into four subtypes of HEV strains of which subtypes 3a and 3c belong to the general cluster 3abchij, and were predominately detected during the study, while subtypes 3e and 3f fall within cluster 3efg. Strains within subtypes 3a and 3e were found in humans, swine and wild boars; subtype 3c strains were derived from humans and swine, whereas subtype 3f strains were found only in humans. Strains belonging to subtypes 3a and 3c were derived during the entire investigated period and may be considered endemic in Croatia, whereas strains within subtypes 3e and 3f were detected sporadically indicating the possibility of newly imported infections. CONCLUSIONS: All detected strains show to be genetically highly related to strains found in humans and/or animals from other European Countries, indicating that trade of live animals or wild boar movement increases the risk of HEV infection spread. Furthermore, homologous strains found in different investigated species within this study indicate interspecies transmission of HEV and/or an existence of an accessible mutual source of infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Croácia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(4): 415-425, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on the seroprevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H9N2) virus and the incidence of these infections in the northern China and among swine workers. METHODS: We conducted a serological cohort study among people working with poultry or swine or the general population in Beijing, China. It comprised four cross-sectional serological surveys in November 2013, April 2014, April 2015, and April 2016. Blood samples collected from the participants were tested for anti-H9N2 antibodies using a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Multivariable Poisson regression model was then used to compare the person-month incidence rates for H9N2 viral infections among the three groups, assessed by incidence rate ratio (IRR). RESULTS: In the four cross-sectional surveys, the highest seroprevalence of anti-H9N2 antibodies (HI titer ≥ 80) was recorded in the poultry workers (2.77%, 19/685) in April 2016, while the lowest was recorded in the general population (0.09%, 1/1135) in April 2015. The highest incidence density rate for H9N2 infections across the whole study period was recorded among the poultry workers (3.75/1000 person-months), followed by the swine workers (1.94/1000 person-months) and the general population (1.78/1000 person-months). Multivariable analysis showed that the poultry workers were at higher risk (IRR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.07-5.48; P = 0.034) of contracting H9N2 virus than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Although the seroprevalence of H9N2 antibodies was low in Beijing, the poultry workers were at higher risk of contracting H9N2 viral infections than the general population. Closer monitoring and strengthened protection measures for poultry workers are warranted.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(4): 401-405, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843347

RESUMO

Since 2011, there have been 468 cases of variant influenza A virus (IAV) reported in the United States, many of which were associated with youth swine exhibition. In an effort to mitigate risk associated with exposure to IAV in swine, the "Measures to Minimize Influenza Transmission at Swine Exhibitions" (MtM) was developed for show organizers, volunteers and exhibitors. These recommendations are updated annually; however, it is not clear if youth swine exhibitors are aware of the recommendations; support the recommendations; and would be willing to practise recommended behaviours. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey method was used to assess swine exhibitor perceptions and their adoption of swine production practices aimed at reducing the transmission of IAV at the human-animal interface. In addition, the survey asked participants their state of residence and the number of shows they would attend in 2017. In all, 155 participants who showed swine on a regular basis (x̅ = 11 shows per year), from at least 18 states within the US, completed the survey. At least, 67% of participants believed each statement was a good recommendation, with 6 of 11 recommendations being supported by >90% of participants. When asked if recommendations could be implemented, 65%-94% of respondents agreed, and 21%-89% of participants had already implemented each recommendation, respectively. Although significant efforts have been made to increase signage at swine exhibitions (warning of risks associated with eating/drinking in animal areas), a majority of respondents report eating/drinking in the barn and are unwilling to change their behaviours. This study provides evidence that developing and disseminating static recommendations to reduce zoonotic disease transmission is not enough to change human behaviour to prevent future variant IAV infections associated with swine exhibitions.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estados Unidos , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832429

RESUMO

DiNap [(E)-1-(2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one], an analog of a natural product (the chalcone flavokawain), was synthesized and characterized in this study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most challenging threat to the swine industry worldwide. Currently, commercially available vaccines are ineffective for controlling porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs. Therefore, a pharmacological intervention may represent an alternative control measure for PRRSV infection. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of DiNap on the replication of VR2332 (a prototype strain of type 2 PRRSV). Initially, in vitro antiviral assays against VR2332 were performed in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Following this, a pilot study was conducted in a pig model to demonstrate the effects of DiNap following VR2332 infection. DiNap inhibited VR2332 replication in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and viral growth was completely suppressed at concentrations ≥0.06 mM, without significant cytotoxicity. Consistent with these findings, in the pig study, DiNap also reduced viral loads in the serum and lungs and enhanced the weight gain of pigs following VR2332 infection, as indicated by comparison of the DiNap-treated groups to the untreated control (NC) group. In addition, DiNap-treated pigs had fewer gross and microscopic lesions in their lungs than NC pigs. Notably, virus transmission was also delayed by approximately 1 week in uninfected contact pigs within the same group after treatment with DiNap. Taken together, these results suggest that DiNap has potential anti-PRRSV activity and could be useful as a prophylactic or post-exposure treatment drug to control PRRSV infection in pigs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Flavonoides/química , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Chalcona/administração & dosagem , Chalcona/síntese química , Chalcona/química , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/síntese química , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos/virologia , Carga Viral
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 73, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thailand's Central Plain is identified as a contact zone between pigs and flying foxes, representing a potential zoonotic risk. Nipah virus (NiV) has been reported in flying foxes in Thailand, but it has never been found in pigs or humans. An assessment of the suitability of NiV transmission at the spatial and farm level would be useful for disease surveillance and prevention. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), a knowledge-driven model, was used to map contact zones between local epizootic risk factors as well as to quantify the suitability of NiV transmission at the pixel and farm level. RESULTS: Spatial risk factors of NiV transmission in pigs were identified by experts as being of three types, including i) natural host factors (bat preferred areas and distance to the nearest bat colony), ii) intermediate host factors (pig population density), and iii) environmental factors (distance to the nearest forest, distance to the nearest orchard, distance to the nearest water body, and human population density). The resulting high suitable areas were concentrated around the bat colonies in three provinces in the East of Thailand, including Chacheongsao, Chonburi, and Nakhonnayok. The suitability of NiV transmission in pig farms in the study area was quantified as ranging from very low to medium suitability. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that risk-based surveillance in the identified priority areas may increase the chances of finding out NiV and other bat-borne pathogens and thereby optimize the allocation of financial resources for disease surveillance. In the long run, improvements of biosecurity in those priority areas may also contribute to preventing the spread of potential emergence of NiV and other bat-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 117-122, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827376

RESUMO

Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal Gram-negative bacterial pathogen in the upper respiratory tract of pigs, which causes Glässer's disease. More than 15 serotypes of H. parasuis have been identified with apparent differences in virulence. In this research, we surveyed the prevalence and distribution of serotypes and known virulence genes of the H. parasuis isolates collected from sick and healthy pigs in Quang Binh and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Central Vietnam. By using bacterial isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56 out of 814 (6.9%) samples were positive for H. parasuis. The most prevalent serotypes were serotype 5 (15/56, 26.8%), followed by serotype 2 (13/56, 23.2%) and serotype 4 (10/56, 17.9%). The vta1 was the most frequently detected virulence gene which was present in 62.5% of the strains, followed by vta3 (42.9%), vta2 (39.3%), HPM-1371 (35.7%), capD (30.4%), HPM-1372 (12.5%), lsgB and HPM-1373 (both shared 8.9%). Strong correlations between some serotypes and known virulence genes were observed, in which virulence genes HPM-1371, HPM-1372, vta3, vta2 and capD were mainly clustered in serotypes 5/12, and vta2 clustered in serotype 2. This study presents the first baseline information on the epidemiological characteristics of H. parasuis isolates from Central Vietnam.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus parasuis/genética , Haemophilus parasuis/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Fazendas , Haemophilus parasuis/isolamento & purificação , Gado/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Vietnã , Virulência/genética
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