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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 511-519, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394172

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, species Betaarterivirus suid 1 or 2) is a major pathogen affecting pigs on farms throughout the world. miR-296-3p is a multifunctional microRNA involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response in mice and humans. However, little is known about the biological functions of miR-296-3p in pigs. In this study, we used a highly pathogenic PRRSV-2 (species Betaarterivirus suid 2) strain to show that PRRSV infection robustly downregulates the expression of miR-296-3p in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-296-3p increases the replication of highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV in PAMs. Notably, the overexpression of miR-296-3p inhibited the induction of TNF-α, even with increased viral replication, compared with that in the HP-PRRSV-infected control group. We also demonstrated that miR-296-3p targets IRF1-facilitated viral infection and modulates the expression of TNF-α in PAMs during HP-PRRSV infection and that IRF1 regulates the expression of TNF-α by activating the TNF promoter via IRF1 response elements. In summary, these findings show that HP-PRRSV infection activates the IRF1/TNF-α signaling axis in PAMs by downregulating host miR-296-3p. This extends our understanding of the inflammatory response induced by HP-PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Suínos/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
2.
Gene ; 773: 145384, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383119

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 4 (PCV4), a novel circovirus, was identified in pigs with serious symptoms, including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)-like signs, in China in 2019. This study investigated the prevalence and genome diversity of PCV4 in pigs from Guangxi Province, China, between 2015 and 2019. Thirteen of 257 (5.1%) samples were positive for PCV4, 9 of these (69.2%) PCV4-positive samples were coinfected with PCV2 or PCV3, and one PCV4-positive sample was coinfected with both PCV2 and PCV3. Three complete PCV4 genomes shared 36.9-73.8% nucleotide similarity with other representative circovirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PCV4 was most closely related to bat-associated circovirus and mink circovirus. In summary, this is the first epidemiological investigation and evolutionary analysis of PCV4 in Guangxi Province, China, and the results provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of PCV4.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/genética , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
3.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMO

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Suínos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351847

RESUMO

Coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 regularly infect host tissues that express antiviral proteins (AVPs) in abundance. Understanding how they evolve to adapt or evade host immune responses is important in the effort to control the spread of infection. Two AVPs that may shape viral genomes are the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) and the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3). The former binds to CpG dinucleotides to facilitate the degradation of viral transcripts while the latter frequently deaminates C into U residues which could generate notable viral sequence variations. We tested the hypothesis that both APOBEC3 and ZAP impose selective pressures that shape the genome of an infecting coronavirus. Our investigation considered a comprehensive number of publicly available genomes for seven coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS infecting Homo sapiens, Bovine CoV infecting Bos taurus, MHV infecting Mus musculus, HEV infecting Sus scrofa, and CRCoV infecting Canis lupus familiaris). We show that coronaviruses that regularly infect tissues with abundant AVPs have CpG-deficient and U-rich genomes; whereas those that do not infect tissues with abundant AVPs do not share these sequence hallmarks. Among the coronaviruses surveyed herein, CpG is most deficient in SARS-CoV-2 and a temporal analysis showed a marked increase in C to U mutations over four months of SARS-CoV-2 genome evolution. Furthermore, the preferred motifs in which these C to U mutations occur are the same as those subjected to APOBEC3 editing in HIV-1. These results suggest that both ZAP and APOBEC3 shape the SARS-CoV-2 genome: ZAP imposes a strong CpG avoidance, and APOBEC3 constantly edits C to U. Evolutionary pressures exerted by host immune systems onto viral genomes may motivate novel strategies for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development.


Assuntos
/genética , Coronavirus/genética , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , /virologia , Bovinos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , /patogenicidade , Suínos/virologia
5.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 119-130, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926266

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to infect both humans and animals. However, the evidence of inter-transmission of coronavirus between humans and companion animals is still a debatable issue. There is substantial evidence that the virus outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission because this new virus belongs to the same family of viruses as SARS-CoV associated with civet cats, and MERS-CoV associated with dromedary camels. While the whole world is investigating the possibility about the transmission of this virus, the transmission among humans is established, but the interface between humans and animals is not much evident. Not only are the lives of human beings at risk, but there is an equal potential threat to the animal world. With multiple reports claiming about much possibility of transmission of COVID-19 from humans to animals, there has been a significant increase in the number of pets being abandoned by their owners. Additionally, the risk of reverse transmission of COVID-19 virus from companion pets like cats and dogs at home is yet another area of concern. The present article highlights different evidence of human-animal interface and necessitates the precautionary measures required to combat with the consequences of this interface. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested various ways to promote awareness and corroborate practices for helping people as well as animals to stay secure and healthy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Gatos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2487-2493, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772250

RESUMO

Since late 2018, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has reemerged and rapidly swept through pig farms in North and Central Vietnam, despite widespread use of commercial FMD vaccines. To investigate the FMD virus (FMDV) strains responsible for the current epidemics, 40 FMDV samples were collected from 17 provinces during November-December 2018, and the VP1 coding genes were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed that all of the reemerging Vietnamese FMDVs belonged to the Mya-98 lineage of the O/Southeast Asia topotype (O/SEA/Mya-98) and shared high nucleotide (99.06-100% identity) and amino acid (97.65-100% identity) sequence similarity with each other. The study results suggested that the reemerging FMDVs originated from local Vietnamese strains. Field viruses had different amino acids in the antigenic sites of VP1 when compared to the strains used in the vaccines. The present study provides an important basis for vaccine selection in the battle against FMD in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108785, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768229

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in nursing piglets. Type III interferons (IFN-λs) are the major antiviral cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, the target cells in vivo for PDCoV. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection remarkably inhibited Sendai virus-induced IFN-λ1 production by suppressing transcription factors IRF and NF-κB in IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. We also confirmed that PDCoV infection impeded the activation of IFN-λ1 promoter stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5 and MAVS, but not by TBK1 and IRF1. Although the expression levels of IRF1 and MAVS were not changed, PDCoV infection resulted in reduction of the number of peroxisomes, the platform for MAVS to activate IRF1, and subsequent type III IFN production. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV suppresses type III IFN responses to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2323-2333, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715325

RESUMO

To investigate the epidemic characteristics of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), 135 clinical samples (including intestinal tissues and feces) were collected from diseased piglets during outbreaks of diarrhea from 2015 to 2019 on farms in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China where swine had been immunized with attenuated PEDV (CV777). A total of 86 clinical samples (86/135, 63.7%) were positive for PEDV by RT-PCR, and subsequently, the complete spike (S) and ORF3 genes of 32 PEDV samples were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 PEDV strains obtained in this study belonged to group 2 (pandemic variant strains) and had a close relationship to 17 Chinese strains after 2010, two South Korean strains (KNU-1305 and KNU-1807), three American strains (PC22A-P140.BI, USA/Colorado/2013, and USA/OK10240-6/2017) and a Mexican strain (PEDV/MEX/QRO/02/2017), but differed genetically from a South Korean strain (SM98), a European strain (Br1/87), a Chinese strain (LZC), and a vaccine strain (CV777). G2-a subgroup strains were the dominant pandemic variant strains circulating in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China. Furthermore, a cross-recombination event was identified in the S region of the SX/TY2/2017 strain, and the putative parental strains were the epidemic strains CH/GDGZ/2012 and CH/YZ1/2015, identified in China in 2012 and 2015, respectively. These results provide further information about PEDV evolution, which could improve our understanding of the circulation of PEDV in Henan and Shanxi provinces. This information will also be helpful for developing new strategies for prevention and control of variant strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Intestinos/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , Recombinação Genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
9.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 101-110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651761

RESUMO

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 in mainland China with subsequent human to human transmission worldwide had taken up the shape of a devastating pandemic. The ability of the virus to infect multiple species other than humans has currently been reported in experimental conditions. Non-human primates, felines, ferrets, rodents and host of other animals could previously be infected in experimental conditions with SARS-CoV and recently with SARS-CoV-2, both virus using Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 receptor for cellular entry. The variations in sequence homology of ACE2 receptor across species is identified as one of the factors determining virulence and pathogenicity in animals. The infection in experimental animals with SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 on most occasions are asymptomatic, however, the virus could multiply within the respiratory tract and extra-pulmonary organs in most of the species. Here, we discuss about the pathogenicity, transmission, variations in angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 receptor-binding across species and host pathogen interactions of SARS and SARS-CoV-2 in laboratory animals used in research.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Callithrix/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae/virologia , Furões/virologia , Macaca fascicularis/virologia , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Suínos/virologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235832, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706778

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging virus in the swine industry, first reported recently in 2016. PCV3 assembles into a 2000 bp circular genome; slightly larger than PCV1 (1758-1760 bp), PCV2 (1766-1769 bp) and PCV4 (1770 bp). Apart from being associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), PCV3 has been isolated from pigs with clinical signs of reproductive failures, myocarditis, porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and neurologic disease. Given that PCV3 is increasingly reported in countries including Thailand and U.S. with whom Malaysia shares trade and geographical relationship; and that PCV3 is associated with several clinical presentations that affect productivity, there is a need to study the presence and molecular characteristics of PCV3 in Malaysian swine farms. Twenty-four commercial swine farms, three abattoirs and retail shops in Peninsular Malaysia were sampled using convenience sampling method. A total of 281 samples from 141 pigs, including 49 lung archive samples were tested for PCV3 by conventional PCR. Twenty-eight lung samples from wild boar population in Peninsular Malaysia were also included. Nucleotide sequences were analyzed for maximum likelihood phylogeny relationship and pairwise distances. Results revealed that PCV3 is present in Peninsular Malaysia at a molecular prevalence of 17.02%, with inguinal lymph nodes and lungs showing the highest molecular detection rates of 81.82% and 71.43% respectively. Despite wide reports of PCV3 in healthy animals and wild boars, no positive samples were detected in clinically healthy finishers and wild boar population of this study. PCV3 strain A1 and A2 were present in Malaysia, and Malaysian PCV3 strains were found to be phylogenetically related to Spanish, U.S. and Mexico strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , Dermatite/veterinária , Dermatite/virologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Nefropatias/virologia
13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(9): 2641-2654, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407507

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown once again that coronavirus (CoV) in animals are potential sources for epidemics in humans. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen of swine with a worldwide distribution. Here, we implemented and described an approach to analyze the epidemiology of PDCoV following its emergence in the pig population. We performed an integrated analysis of full genome sequence data from 21 newly sequenced viruses, along with comprehensive epidemiological surveillance data collected globally over the last 15 years. We found four distinct phylogenetic lineages of PDCoV, which differ in their geographic circulation patterns. Interestingly, we identified more frequent intra- and interlineage recombination and higher virus genetic diversity in the Chinese lineages compared with the USA lineage where pigs are raised in different farming systems and ecological environments. Most recombination breakpoints are located in the ORF1ab gene rather than in genes encoding structural proteins. We also identified five amino acids under positive selection in the spike protein suggesting a role for adaptive evolution. According to structural mapping, three positively selected sites are located in the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit, which is the most likely involved in binding to a carbohydrate receptor, whereas the other two are located in or near the fusion peptide of the S2 subunit and thus might affect membrane fusion. Finally, our phylogeographic investigations highlighted notable South-North transmission as well as frequent long-distance dispersal events in China that could implicate human-mediated transmission. Our findings provide new insights into the evolution and dispersal of PDCoV that contribute to our understanding of the critical factors involved in CoVs emergence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Variação Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Recombinação Genética , Seleção Genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
15.
J Virol ; 94(14)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350072

RESUMO

To assess the current status of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) throughout Japan and to investigate how these viruses persisted and evolve on pig farms, we genetically characterized IAVs-S isolated during 2015 to 2019. Nasal swab samples collected through active surveillance and lung tissue samples collected for diagnosis yielded 424 IAVs-S, comprising 78 H1N1, 331 H1N2, and 15 H3N2 viruses, from farms in 21 sampled prefectures in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of surface genes revealed that the 1A.1 classical swine H1 lineage has evolved uniquely since the late 1970s among pig populations in Japan. During 2015 to 2019, A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses repeatedly became introduced into farms and reassorted with endemic H1N2 and H3N2 IAVs-S. H3N2 IAVs-S isolated during 2015 to 2019 formed a clade that originated from 1999-2000 human seasonal influenza viruses; this situation differs from previous reports, in which H3N2 IAVs-S derived from human seasonal influenza viruses were transmitted sporadically from humans to swine but then disappeared without becoming established within the pig population. At farms where IAVs-S were frequently isolated for at least 3 years, multiple introductions of IAVs-S with phylogenetically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) genes occurred. In addition, at one farm, IAVs-S derived from a single introduction persisted for at least 3 years and carried no mutations at the deduced antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin protein, except for one at the antigenic site (Sa). Our results extend our understanding regarding the status of IAVs-S currently circulating in Japan and how they genetically evolve at the farm level.IMPORTANCE Understanding the current status of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) and their evolution at the farm level is important for controlling these pathogens. Efforts to monitor IAVs-S during 2015 to 2019 yielded H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses. H1 genes in Japanese swine formed a unique clade in the classical swine H1 lineage of 1A.1, and H3 genes originating from 1999-2000 human seasonal influenza viruses appear to have become established among Japanese swine. A(H1N1)pdm09-derived H1 genes became introduced repeatedly and reassorted with endemic IAVs-S, resulting in various combinations of surface and internal genes among pig populations in Japan. At the farm level, multiple introductions of IAVs-S with phylogenetically distinct HA sequences occurred, or IAVs-S derived from a single introduction have persisted for at least 3 years with only a single mutation at the antigenic site of the HA protein. Continued monitoring of IAVs-S is necessary to update and maximize control strategies.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Japão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369529

RESUMO

The efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) inactivated vaccines is mainly dependent on the integrity of the whole (146S) viral particles. If the intact capsids disassemble to 12S subunits, antibodies against internal-not protective epitopes, may be induced. Serological correlates with protection may be hampered if antibodies against internal epitopes are measured. Here we compared the performance of different ELISAs with the virus-neutralization test (VNT) that measures antibodies against exposed epitopes. Sera from pigs immunized with one dose of an expired commercial FMDV vaccine were used. This vaccine contained about 50% of O1/Campos and over 90% of A24/Cruzeiro strains total antigen as whole 146S particles. Specific-total antibodies were measured with the standard liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE). We also developed an indirect ELISA (IE) using sucrose gradient purified 146S particles as capture antigen to titrate total antibodies, IgM, IgG1 and IgG2. A good correlation was found between VNT titers and IgG-ELISAs for A24/Cruzeiro, with the lowest correlation coefficient estimated for IgG2 titers. For O1/Campos, however, the presence of antibodies against epitopes different from those of the whole capsid, elicited by the presence of 12S particles in the vaccine, hampered the correlation between LPBE and VNT, which was improved by using purified O1/Campos 146S-particles for the liquid-phase of the LPBE. Interestingly, 146S particles but not 12S were efficiently bound to the ELISA plates, confirming the efficiency of the IE to detect antibodies against exposed epitopes. Our results indicate that any serological test assessing total antibodies or IgG1 against epitopes exposed in intact 146S-particles correlate with the levels of serum neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated pigs, and might potentially replace the VNT, upon validation. We recommend that antigen used for serological assays aimed to measure protective antibodies against FMDV should be controlled to ensure the preservation of 146S viral particles.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/terapia , Doenças dos Suínos/terapia , Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 94-96, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ross River virus (RRV) is a zoonotic alphavirus transmitted by several mosquito species. Until recently, endemic transmission was only considered possible in the presence of marsupial reservoirs. METHODS: RRV seroprevalence was investigated in placental mammals (including horses, cows, goats, pigs, dogs, rats, and mice) in Fiji, where there are no marsupials. A total of 302 vertebrate serum samples were collected from 86 households from 10 communities in Western Fiji. RESULTS: Neutralizing antibodies against RRV were detected in 28% to 100% of sera depending on the species, and neutralization was strong even at high dilutions. CONCLUSIONS: These results are unlikely to be due to cross-reactions. Chikungunya is the only other alphavirus known to be present in the Pacific Islands, but it rarely spills over into non-humans, even during epidemics. The study findings, together with a recent report of high RRV seroprevalence in humans, strongly suggest that RRV is circulating in Fiji in the absence of marsupial reservoirs. Considering that all non-human vertebrates present in Fiji are pan-global in distribution, RRV has the potential to further expand its geographic range. Further surveillance of RRV and access to RRV diagnostics will be critical for the early detection of emergence and outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Vírus do Rio Ross , Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Cabras/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Humanos , Marsupiais , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ratos , Vírus do Rio Ross/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108613, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122579

RESUMO

Infections with porcine parvoviruses 1 through 7 (PPV1-PPV7) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are widespread in pig population. PCV2 is involved in a number of disease syndromes collectively called PCV2-associated diseases (PCVD). It is well elucidated, that PPV1 may act as a triggering factor of PCVD through supporting PCV2 replication. Less is known about the PPV2-PPV7 impact on PCV2 viremia, but several authors suggested an association between these viruses. In order to provide a better understanding of PCV2 and PPVs co-infections, 519 serum samples from eight Polish swine farms were tested by real-time PCR to assess the possible impact of PPV1-PPV7 on PCV2 viremia. Among all 519 serum samples, 30.6 % were positive for PCV2 and PPVs detection rates ranged from 2.9 % (PPV1) to 26.6 % (PPV2). Within 159 serum samples categorized as PCV2-positive, the prevalence rates of PPVs ranged from 7.5 % (PPV1) to 37.1 % (PPV6). The level of PCV2 viremia was significantly higher only in serum samples positive for PPV1 and PPV7 compared to samples negative for these PPVs. Moreover, the correlation between Ct values for PPV7 and PCV2 was observed. Thus, our results suggested that apart from PPV1, also PPV7 stimulate the replication of PCV2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/classificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Suíno/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viremia/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Fazendas , Infecções por Parvoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108606, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122609

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), previously called Seneca Valley virus, can cause vesicular lesions in sows and a sharp decline in neonatal piglet production. In this study, a SVA strain was isolated from a pig herd in Shandong Province in China and identified as SVV-CH-SD. The full genome was 7286 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a single open reading frame (ORF) of 6546 nt, encoding a 2182 amino acid (aa). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate shares highest sequence homology (98.52 %) with SVA strain USA-GBI26-2015. A genetic comparison of virulent and weakly virulent SVA strains showed that some amino acid residues may be associated with virulence. Animal challenge experiments showed that 90-100-day-old pigs inoculated with SVV-CH-SD intraorally and intranasally, intranasally, or intramuscularly developed low fever, blisters, and lameness. They had similar levels of neutralizing antibodies against SVA and viral loads in the serum and organs at 28 days post-CHallenge. However, 30-35- and 55-65-day-old pigs challenged with SVV-CH-SD showed no clinical signs, although anti-SVA neutralizing antibodies were detected. Our findings provide useful data for studying the pathogenesis and transmission of SVA in pigs.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Carga Viral , Virulência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13336, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219916

RESUMO

We aimed to clarify the genomic characteristics of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in Vietnamese native pig (VnP) breeds. First, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in ß- and γ-like PERVs, and we then measured the copy numbers of infectious γ-like PERVs (PERV-A, B, and C). We purified genomic DNA from 15 VnP breeds from 12 regions all over the country and three Western pig breeds as controls, and investigated genetic polymorphisms in all known PERVs, including the beta (ß)1-4 and gamma (γ)1-5 groups. PERVs of ß1, ß2, ß3, and γ4 were highly polymorphic with VnP-specific haplotypes. We did not identify genetic polymorphisms in ß4, γ1, or γ2 PERVs. We then applied a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method to estimate copy numbers of the gag, pol, and env genes of γ1 PERVs (defined as A, B, and C). VnP breeds showed significantly lower copy number of the PERV genes compared with the Western pig breeds (on average, 16.2 and 35.7 copies, respectively, p < .05). Two VnP breeds showed significantly higher copy number compared with the other VnPs (p < .05). Our results elucidated that VnPs have specific haplotypes and a low copy number of PERV genes.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Retroviridae/genética , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Dosagem de Genes , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo Genético , Vietnã
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