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1.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 349-355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072207

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a multifactorial disease characterized by gene-gene interaction as well as environmental effects. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is proved to be higher in the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than in the case of its absence. We aimed to study the genotypes of MDR1 (C3435T) gene polymorphism and its relationship with clinical, instrumental, and laboratory parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 53 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the second group included 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus. The COPD assessment test (CAT), 6-minute walk test, BODE integral index, spirometry, and bioimpedansometry were used for examination. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, endothelial functional status, leptin, adiponectin, and serum levels were also determined by means of enzyme immunoassay. Our study results showed no significant difference between the genotypes of the control group of healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus. Though, a certain association of this gene polymorphism with clinical findings by CAT-test, specific parameters of carbohydrate (fasting glucose) and lipid metabolism (total cholesterol and low-density cholesterol lipoproteins), endothelial functional state (nitrate/nitrite level) with the minor allele T available was found.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Impedância Elétrica , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Teste de Caminhada
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 334: 87-93, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002526

RESUMO

The interplays between the metabolic products of intestinal microbiota and the host signaling through xenobiotic receptors, including pregnane X receptor (PXR), are of growing interest, in the context of intestinal health and disease. A distinct class of microbial catabolites is formed from dietary tryptophan, having the indole scaffold in their core structure, which is a biologically active entity. In the current study, we examined a series of ten tryptophan microbial catabolites for their interactions with PXR signaling. Utilizing a reporter gene assay, we identified indole (IND) and indole-3-acetamide (IAD) as PXR agonists. IND and IAD induced PXR-regulated genes CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human intestinal cancer cells. Using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that IND (IC50 292 µM) and IAD (IC50 10 µM) are orthosteric ligands of PXR. Binding of PXR in its DNA response elements was enhanced by IND and IAD, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We demonstrate that tryptophan microbial intestinal metabolites IND and IAD are ligands and agonists of human PXR. These findings are of particular importance in understanding the roles of microbial catabolites in human physiology and pathophysiology. Furthermore, these results are seminal in expanding potential drug repertoire through microbial metabolic mimicry.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal , Receptor de Pregnano X/agonistas , Triptofano/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Ligação Proteica , Transfecção
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21704, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871888

RESUMO

To explore the relationship between C3435T polymorphism of multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) gene and susceptibility, clinicopathological characteristics, curative effect and hematological toxicity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in XinJiang.The peripheral venous blood samples of 54 patients with DLBCL and 60 healthy controls were collected. The alleles and genotypes of MDR1 gene C3435T were detected by DNA direct extraction with PCR technique, and the frequency of C3435T allele and genotypes were detected by the chi-square test. The relationship between the allele and genotype distribution of C3435T locus and the susceptibility, clinicopathological characteristics, curative effect and hematological toxicity of DLBCL were analyzed.1 the frequency of CT heterozygote and CC homozygote mutation was significantly higher in the case group (46.3% in CT genotype and 42.6% in CC genotype) compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The frequency of CC genotype mutation in the case group was 42.6%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05, OR 3.209, 95% CI: 1.288-7.997). 2 the genotypes of C3435T locus of MDR1 gene were distributed in age, sex, nationality, pathological characteristics, clinical-stage, IPI index, B symptoms, infection with EB virus, clinicopathological characteristics and clinical efficacy of hepatitis B in patients with DLBCL. There was no significant difference in myelosuppression (P > 0.05).The homozygous mutation genotype of CC is the risk genotype of DLBCL. The alleles and genotypes are not associated with the clinicopathological characteristics, efficacy and myelosuppression toxicity of DLBCL.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Pharm Res ; 37(10): 194, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We characterized three canine P-gp (cP-gp) deficient MDCKII cell lines. Their relevance for identifying efflux transporter substrates and predicting limitation of brain penetration were evaluated. In addition, we discuss how compound selection can be done in drug discovery by using these cell systems. METHOD: hMDR1, hBCRP-transfected, and non-transfected MDCKII ZFN cells (all with knock-down of endogenous cP-gp) were used for measuring permeability and efflux ratios for substrates. The compounds were also tested in MDR1_Caco-2 and BCRP_Caco-2, each with a double knock-out of BCRP/MRP2 or MDR1/MRP2 transporters respectively. Efflux results were compared between the MDCK and Caco-2 models. Furthermore, in vitro MDR1_ZFN efflux data were correlated with in vivo unbound drug brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp,uu). RESULTS: MDR1 and BCRP substrates are correctly classified and robust transporter affinities with control substrates are shown. Cell passage mildly influenced mRNA levels of transfected transporters, but the transporter activity was proven stable for several years. The MDCK and Caco-2 models were in high consensus classifying same efflux substrates. Approx. 80% of enlisted substances were correctly predicted with the MDR1_ZFN model for brain penetration. CONCLUSION: cP-gp deficient MDCKII ZFN models are reliable tools to identify MDR1 and BCRP substrates and useful for predicting efflux liability for brain penetration.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/deficiência , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Dibenzocicloeptenos/farmacologia , Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Cães , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Prazosina/farmacocinética , Quinidina/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Transfecção
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22084, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899083

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor that is widely used to prevent the formation of thrombus formation. Amiodarone can increase the plasma concentration of dabigatran. CES1 (carboxylesterase 1) and ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1) genetic polymorphisms associate with the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 62-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital due to chest tightness, fatigue, and discomfort despite long-term anticoagulation with dabigatran 110 mg twice daily for 6 months, with concomitant use of amiodarone. DIAGNOSES: Left atrial appendage thrombus formation with a history of atrial fibrillation. INTERVENTIONS: The clinician changed dabigatran to warfarin. To explore the causes of insufficient anticoagulation using dabigatran in this patient, we examined the ABCB1 and CES1 genes. Results showed that she carried ABCB1 variant alleles with 3 heterozygote single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs4148738, rs1045642, rs2032582) and CES1 variant alleles with 2 heterozygote SNPs (rs2244613, rs4580160). OUTCOMES: The left atrial appendage thrombus disappeared. LESSONS: Multiple mutations in the ABCB1 and CES1 genes may influence the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran and could have contributed to the thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Trombose/etiologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/farmacocinética , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/prevenção & controle
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4921-4928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phenothiazines constitute a versatile family of compounds in terms of biological activity, which have also gained a considerable attention in cancer research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three phenothiazines (promethazine, chlorpromazine and thioridazine) have been tested in combination with 11 active selenocompounds against MDR (ABCB1-overexpressing) mouse T-lymphoma cells to investigate their activity as combination chemotherapy and as antitumor adjuvants in vitro with a checkerboard combination assay. RESULTS: Seven selenocompounds showed toxicity on mouse embryonic fibroblasts, while three showed selectivity towards tumor cells. Two compounds showed synergism with all tested phenothiazines in low concentration ranges (1.46-11.25 µM). Thioridazine was the most potent among the three phenothiazines. CONCLUSION: Phenothiazines belonging to different generations showed different levels of adjuvant activities. All the tested phenothiazines are already approved medicines with known pharmacological and toxicity profiles, therefore, their use as adjuvants in cancer may be considered as a potential drug repurposing strategy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organosselênicos/síntese química , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Fenotiazinas/síntese química , Fenotiazinas/química
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118212, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768581

RESUMO

AIMS: Autophagy plays a complex role in breast cancer by suppressing or improving the efficiency of treatment. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line (MDA-MB-231) is associated with aggressive response and developing therapy resistance. MDA-MB-231 cells depend on autophagy for survival. Also, the potential benefits of autophagy inhibition in ameliorating developed chemotherapy resistance towards MDA-MB-231 remains to be elucidated. Despite showing anti-tumorigenic activities, the use of lovastatin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for treating different types of cancers is still limited. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of autophagy inhibition by chloroquine (CQ) in MDA-MB-231 cells resistance treated with lovastatin or DHA. MAIN METHODS: MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 30 µM lovastatin and/or 100 µM DHA for 48 h plus 20 µM CQ. Autophagic flux was assessed in association with the expression of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene (TGF-ß1), and autophagy-related 7 gene (ATG7). KEY FINDINGS: Both drugs exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity, enhanced the autophagic flux represented by increased LC3BII protein concentration and decreased p62 protein concentration, and up-regulated the expression of MDR1, TGF-ß1, and ATG7 genes. CQ addition enhanced the cytotoxicity of drugs and inhibited the autophagic flux which is detected by higher levels of LC3BII and p62 correlated with the reverted MDR1, TGF-ß1 and ATG7 genes expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Autophagy inhibition by CQ showed an ameliorative effect on lovastatin- and DHA-induced resistance and enhanced their cytotoxicity, providing a promising strategy in breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/fisiopatologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20582, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702814

RESUMO

The morbidity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Uygur population of Xinjiang was much higher than the national average. Clopidogrel is the most commonly used medication worldwide in dual antiplatelet therapy for CAD, and the response of clopidogrel is affected by CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The distribution of CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, and PON1 genetic polymorphisms in Han and Uygur populations with CAD of Xinjiang has not been investigated.This study aimed to investigate the frequencies of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms, and to identify the metabolizer phenotype of CYP2C19 in Han and Uygur populations with CAD in Northwestern Xinjiang, China. We identified 602 Han and 527 Uygur patients from 2014 through 2019 and studied genotypes for selected allele polymorphisms using sequencing by hybridization.There were significantly different allele frequencies and genotype frequencies between the 2 ethnic groups in terms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, ABCB1 and PON1, (P < .05). For CYP2C19*17, the frequency of TT genotype was 2.5% in Uygur patients, but it was undetectable in Han patients. In both the intermediate and poor metabolizer groups, the genotypes polymorphisms CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 were significantly less common in Uygur patients than in Han patients (P < .001). By contrast, the proportion of ultra-metabolizers as defined by CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 polymorphisms significantly higher in Uygur patients (18.6%) than in Han patients (1.7%, P < .001). The CYP2C19*2 frequency was significantly different between Han patients and Han healthy groups (P < .001), while the CYP2C19*3 frequency was significantly different between Uygur patients and Uygur healthy groups (P < .001).Our study supports the notion of interethnic differences in terms of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 polymorphisms and CYP2C19 genotype-defined clopidogrel metabolic groups. These finding could provide valuable data and insights into personalized CAD treatment for the Uygur and Han populations in Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Idoso , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , China/etnologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
10.
Cancer Res ; 80(14): 2996-3008, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536602

RESUMO

Tumor endothelial cells (TEC) lining tumor blood vessels actively contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. In addition to tumor cells, TEC may develop drug resistance during cancer treatment, allowing the tumor cells to survive chemotherapy and metastasize. We previously reported that TECs resist paclitaxel treatment via upregulation of ABCB1. However, whether TEC phenotypes are altered by anticancer drugs remains to be clarified. Here, we show that ABCB1 expression increases after chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma cases. The ratio of ABCB1-positive TEC before and after first-line chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma tissues (n = 66) was analyzed by ABCB1 and CD31 immunostaining. In 42 cases (64%), this ratio increased after first-line chemotherapy. Chemotherapy elevated ABCB1 expression in endothelial cells by increasing tumor IL8 secretion. In clinical cases, ABCB1 expression in TEC correlated with IL8 expression in tumor cells after first-line chemotherapy, leading to poor prognosis. In vivo, the ABCB1 inhibitor combined with paclitaxel reduced tumor growth and metastasis compared with paclitaxel alone. Chemotherapy is suggested to cause inflammatory changes in tumors, inducing ABCB1 expression in TEC and conferring drug resistance. Overall, these findings indicate that TEC can survive during chemotherapy and provide a gateway for cancer metastasis. Targeting ABCB1 in TEC represents a novel strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that inhibition of ABCB1 in tumor endothelial cells may improve clinical outcome, where ABCB1 expression contributes to drug resistance and metastasis following first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Interleucina-8/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 16009-16018, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571913

RESUMO

Food and drug products contain diverse and abundant small-molecule additives (excipients) with unclear impacts on human physiology, drug safety, and response. Here, we evaluate their potential impact on intestinal drug absorption. By screening 136 unique compounds for inhibition of the key intestinal transporter OATP2B1 we identified and validated 24 potent OATP2B1 inhibitors, characterized by higher molecular weight and hydrophobicity compared to poor or noninhibitors. OATP2B1 inhibitors were also enriched for dyes, including 8 azo (R-N=N-R') dyes. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice confirmed that FD&C Red No. 40, a common azo dye excipient and a potent inhibitor of OATP2B1, decreased the plasma level of the OATP2B1 substrate fexofenadine, suggesting that FD&C Red No. 40 has the potential to block drug absorption through OATP2B1 inhibition in vivo. However, the gut microbiomes of multiple unrelated healthy individuals as well as diverse human gut bacterial isolates were capable of inactivating the identified azo dye excipients, producing metabolites that no longer inhibit OATP2B1 transport. These results support a beneficial role for the microbiome in limiting the unintended effects of food and drug additives in the intestine and provide a framework for the data-driven selection of excipients. Furthermore, the ubiquity and genetic diversity of gut bacterial azoreductases coupled to experiments in conventionally raised and gnotobiotic mice suggest that variations in gut microbial community structure may be less important to consider relative to the high concentrations of azo dyes in food products, which have the potential to saturate gut bacterial enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Excipientes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Antialérgicos/metabolismo , Antialérgicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Azo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Excipientes/farmacocinética , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacocinética , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(21): 12228-12238, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432253

RESUMO

Light activated photosensitizers generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interfere with cellular components and can induce cell death, e.g., in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effect of cellular components and especially proteins on the photochemistry and photophysics of the sensitizers is a key aspect in drug design and the correlating cellular response with the generation of specific ROS species. Here, we show the complex range of effects of binding of photosensitizer to a multidrug resistance protein, produced by bacteria, on the formers reactivity. We show that recruitment of drug like molecules by LmrR (Lactococcal multidrug resistance Regulator) modifies their photophysical properties and their capacity to induce oxidative stress especially in 1O2 generation, including rose bengal (RB), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), bodipy, eosin Y (EY), riboflavin (RBF), and rhodamine 6G (Rh6G). The range of neutral and charged dyes with different exited redox potentials, are broadly representative of the dyes used in PDT.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Corantes/metabolismo , Corantes/efeitos da radiação , Lactococcus/química , Luz , Mutação , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos da radiação , Ligação Proteica , Oxigênio Singlete/química
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0227844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470043

RESUMO

Morroniside is a biologically active polyphenol found in Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) that exhibits a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as protecting nerves, and preventing diabetic liver damage and renal damage. However, little data are available regarding the mechanism of its intestinal absorption. Here, an in vitro human intestinal epithelial cell model of cultured Caco-2 cells was applied to study the absorption and transport of morroniside. The effects of donor concentration, pH and inhibitors were investigated. The bidirectional permeability of morroniside from the apical (AP) to the basolateral (BL) side and in the reverse direction was studied. When administered at three tested concentrations (5, 25 and 100 µM), the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values in the AP-to-BL direction ranged from 1.59 × 10-6 to 2.66 × 10-6 cm/s. In the reverse direction, BL-to-AP, the value was ranged from 2.67 × 10-6 to 4.10 × 10-6 cm/s. The data indicated that morroniside transport was pH-dependent. The permeability of morroniside was affected by treatment with various inhibitors, such as multidrug resistance protein inhibitors MK571 and indomethacin, as well as the breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor apigenin. The mechanisms of the intestinal absorption of morroniside may involve multiple transport pathways, such as the passive diffusion and efflux protein-mediated active transport especially involving multidrug resistance protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein. After the addition of CO, the Papp values in the AP-to-BL direction increased significantly, therefore, it can be assumed that some ingredients in the CO promote morroniside absorption in the small intestine.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia
14.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153239, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains the main obstacle in cancer treatment and overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the most common causes of chemoresistance. The development of novel P-gp inhibitors from natural products is a prospective strategy to combat MDR cancers. Among the natural sesquiterpene compounds, sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids exhibit various biological properties. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the modulatory effects of wilforine on P-gp expression and function. The molecular mechanisms and kinetic models of wilforine-mediated P-gp inhibition were further investigated. METHODS: The human P-gp stable expression cells (ABCB1/Flp-InTM-293) and human cervical cancer cells (sensitive: HeLaS3; MDR: KBvin) were used. The cell viability was assessed by SRB assay. The inhibitory effect of wilforine on P-gp efflux and the underlying mechanism were evaluated by assays for calcein-AM uptake, rhodamine123 and doxorubicin efflux, ATPase activity, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis. Molecular docking was performed by the docking software CDOCKER with BIOVIA Discovery Studio 4.5 (D.S. 4.5). RESULTS: We found that wilforine significantly inhibited the efflux activity of P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner. Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that wilforine significantly inhibited P-gp efflux function by competitive inhibition and stimulated the basal P-gp ATPase activity. In addition, wilforine re-sensitized MDR cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. The docking model indicated that wilforine was bound to residues of P-gp such as LEU884, LYS887, THR176 and ASN172. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a novel future therapeutic strategy for MDR cancer using wilforine as an adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinética , Lactonas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/química
15.
Clin Drug Investig ; 40(7): 617-628, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validated genomic biomarkers for oncological drugs are expanding to improve targeted therapies. Pharmacogenetics research focusing on the mechanisms underlying imatinib suboptimal response might help to explain the different treatment outcomes and drug safety profiles. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether polymorphisms in genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and ABCB1 transporter affect imatinib pharmacokinetic parameters. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, pharmacogenetic pilot study was performed in the context of two separate oral imatinib bioequivalence clinical trials, which included 26 healthy volunteers. DNA was extracted in order to analyze polymorphisms in genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCB1. Imatinib plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods using WinNonlin software. RESULTS: Volunteers (n = 26; aged 24 ± 3 years; 69% male) presented regular pharmacokinetic imatinib data (concentration at 24 h, 436 ± 140 ng/mL and at 72 h, 40 ± 26 ng/mL; AUC0-72 32,868 ± 10,713 ng/mL⋅h; and Cmax 2074 ± 604 ng/mL). CYP2B6 516GT carriers showed a significant reduction of imatinib concentration at 24 h (23%, 391 ng/dL vs 511 ng/dL in 516GG carriers, p = 0.005) and elimination half-life (11%, 12.6 h vs 14.1 h in 516GG carriers, p = 0.041). Carriers for CYP3A4 (*22/*22, *1/*20 and *1/*22 variants) showed a reduced frequency of adverse events compared to *1/*1 carriers (0 vs 64%, p = 0.033). The other polymorphisms analyzed did not influence pharmacokinetics or drug toxicity. CONCLUSION: CYP2B6 G516T and CYP3A4 *20,*22 polymorphisms could influence imatinib plasma concentrations and safety profile, after single-dose administration to healthy subjects. This finding needs to be confirmed before it is implemented in clinical practice in oncological patients under treatment with imatinib.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacocinética , Polimorfismo Genético , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Farmacogenética , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(7): 375-386, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated different influences of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and demographic factors leading to individual differences in the antihypertensive efficacy of felodipine in healthy Chinese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 subjects were sequenced for candidate SNPs. Plasma samples were obtained as clinical trial protocol, and were determined by a HPLC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by WinNonlin 6.0. Statistical analysis was mainly performed by SPSS 22.0. A multiple linear regression model provided different weight coefficients of different demographic and genetic factors. RESULTS: The trend of Cmax is almost consistent with AUCss increase, but tmax of individuals is different; the antihypertensive effect of felodipine is individually different. A significant association was observed between systolic blood pressure decrease (ΔSBP) and SNPs of CACNA1C, CACNA1D, GNB3 respectively, while CACNA1C and CACNA1 were associated with diastolic blood pressure decrease (ΔDBP). CYP3A5 rs766746 and CYP3A4 rs2242480 were linked with Cmax and AUCss, and ABCB1 rs1045642 was associated with T1/2. Significant relationships were shown between AUCss and ΔSBP (p = 0.022) as well as Cmax and ΔSBP (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of felodipine is individually different, influenced especially by CACNA1C rs1051375 and ABCB1 rs1045642. ΔDBP is associated with ΔSBP in multiple-dosing of felodipine in healthy Chinese subjects.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Felodipino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Felodipino/farmacologia , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(5): 881-897, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is widely used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the pharmacokinetic properties of HD-MTX in Chinese adult patients with NHL have not yet been established through an approach that integrates genetic covariates. The purposes of this study were to identify both physiological and pharmacogenomic covariates that can explain the inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability of MTX in Chinese adult patients with NHL and to explore a new sampling strategy for predicting delayed MTX elimination. METHODS: A total of 852 MTX concentrations from 91 adult patients with NHL were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling method. FPGS, GGH, SLCO1B1, ABCB1 and MTHFR were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY technology platform and were screened as covariates. The ability of different sampling strategies to predict the MTX concentration at 72 h was assessed through maximum a posteriori Bayesian forecasting using a validation dataset (18 patients). RESULTS: A two-compartment model adequately described the data, and the estimated mean MTX clearance (CL) was 6.03 L/h (9%). Creatinine clearance (CrCL) was identified as a covariate for CL, whereas the intercompartmental clearance (Q) was significantly affected by the body surface area (BSA). However, none of the genotypes exerted a significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of MTX. The percentage of patients with concentrations below 0.2 µmol/L at 72 h decreased from 65.6 to 42.6% when the CrCL decreased from 90 to 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with a scheduled dosing of 3 g/m2, and the same trend was observed with dose regimens of 1 g/m2 and 2 g/m2. Bayesian forecasting using the MTX concentrations at 24 and 42 h provided the best predictive performance for estimating the MTX concentration at 72 h after dosing. CONCLUSIONS: The MTX population pharmacokinetic model developed in this study might provide useful information for establishing personalized therapy involving MTX for the treatment of adult patients with NHL.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/genética , Metotrexato/farmacocinética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Teorema de Bayes , Superfície Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/métodos
18.
Am J Pathol ; 190(6): 1284-1297, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240619

RESUMO

The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; TNFSF10) receptor (TR) is a pro-apoptotic receptor whose contribution to chronic cholestatic liver disease is unclear. Herein, we examined TRAIL receptor signaling in a mouse model of cholestatic liver injury. TRAIL receptor-deficient (Tnsf10 or Tr-/-) mice were crossbred with ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4-deficient (Abcb4-/-, alias Mdr2-/-) mice. Male and female wild-type, Tr-/-, Mdr2-/-, and Tr-/-Mdr2-/- mice were assessed for liver injury, fibrosis, and ductular reactive (DR) cells. Macrophage subsets were examined by high-dimensional mass cytometry (time-of-flight mass cytometry). Mdr2-/- and Tr-/-Mdr2-/- mice had elevated liver weights and serum alanine transferase values. However, fibrosis was primarily periductular in Mdr2-/- mice, compared with extensive bridging fibrosis in Tr-/-Mdr2-/- mice. DR cell population was greatly expanded in the Tr-/-Mdr2-/- versus Mdr2-/- mice. The expanded DR cell population in Tr-/-Mdr2-/- mice was due to decreased cell loss by apoptosis and not enhanced proliferation. As assessed by time-of-flight mass cytometry, total macrophages were more abundant in Tr-/-Mdr2-/- versus Mdr2-/- mice, suggesting the DR cell population promotes macrophage-associated hepatic inflammation. Inhibition of monocyte-derived recruited macrophages using the CCR2/CCR5 antagonist cenicriviroc in the Mdr2-/- mice resulted in further expansion of the DR cell population. In conclusion, genetic deletion of TRAIL receptor increased the DR cell population, macrophage accumulation, and hepatic fibrosis in the Mdr2-/- model of cholestasis.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/genética , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(13): 1428-1437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186270

RESUMO

P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that works as an efflux pump and confers multidrug resistance (MDR) in normal tissues and tumors, including nervous tissues and brain tumors. In the developing telencephalon, the endothelial expression of P-gp, and the subcellular localization of the transporter at the luminal endothelial cell (EC) plasma membrane are early hallmarks of blood-brain barrier (BBB) differentiation and suggest a functional BBB activity that may complement the placental barrier function and the expression of P-gp at the blood-placental interface. In early fetal ages, P-gp has also been immunolocalized on radial glia cells (RGCs), located in the proliferative ventricular zone (VZ) of the dorsal telencephalon and now considered to be neural progenitor cells (NPCs). RG-like NPCs have been found in many regions of the developing brain and have been suggested to give rise to neural stem cells (NSCs) of adult subventricular (SVZ) neurogenic niches. The P-gp immunosignal, associated with RG-like NPCs during cortical histogenesis, progressively decreases in parallel with the last waves of neuroblast migrations, while 'outer' RGCs and the deriving astrocytes do not stain for the efflux transporter. These data suggest that in human glioblastoma (GBM), P-gp expressed by ECs may be a negligible component of tumor MDR. Instead, tumor perivascular astrocytes may dedifferentiate and resume a progenitor-like P-gp activity, becoming MDR cells and contribute, together with perivascular P-gpexpressing glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), to the MDR profile of GBM vessels. In conclusion, the analysis of Pgp immunolocalization during brain development may contribute to identify the multiple cellular sources in the GBM vessels that may be involved in P-gp-mediated chemoresistance and can be responsible for GBM therapy failure and tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Gravidez
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131547

RESUMO

Tumor cell resistance to anti-cancer drugs is a major obstacle in tumor therapy. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cordycepin-mediated resensitization to cisplatin in T24R2 cells, a T24-derived cell line. Treatment with cordycepin or cisplatin (2 µg/mL) alone failed to induce cell death in T24R2 cells, but combination treatment with these drugs significantly induced apoptosis through mitochondrial pathways, including depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, and increase in pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax. High expression levels of MDR1 were the cause of cisplatin resistance in T24R2 cells, and cordycepin significantly reduced MDR1 expression through inhibition of MDR1 promoter activity. MDR1 promoter activity was dependent on transcription factor Ets-1 in T24R2 cells. Although correlation exists between MDR1 and Ets-1 expression in bladder cancer patients, active Ets-1, Thr38 phosphorylated form (pThr38), was critical to induce MDR1 expression. Cordycepin decreased pThr-38 Ets-1 levels and reduced MDR1 transcription, probably through its effects on PI3K signaling, inducing the resensitization of T24R2 cells to cisplatin. The results suggest that cordycepin effectively resensitizes cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells to cisplatin, thus serving as a potential strategy for treatment of cancer in patients with resistance to anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-ets-1/metabolismo
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