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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17525, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593126

RESUMO

To assess the intra-individual and inter-individuals biological variation and the effect of aging on lymphocyte T-cells subsets.We assessed lymphocyte phenotypes (CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells) in 89 HIV-1-infected and 88 uninfected white non-Hispanic men every 6 months, to examine the biological variation for those measurements, and the average change in lymphocyte phenotype over 34 years.The markers showed significant intra-individuality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals with index of individuality of <1.4. No mean changes were seen over the 34 years, with the exception of percentage CD4T-cells in HIV-uninfected individuals.In the pre-HAART era, HIV-infected individuals experienced an increase in mean absolute CD3 T-cell numbers (11.21 cells/µL, P = 0.02) and absolute CD8 T-cell numbers (34.57 cell/µl, P < .001), and in the percentage of CD8 T-cells (1.45%, P < .001) per year and a significant decrease in mean absolute CD4 T-cell numbers (23.68 cells/µl, P < .001) and in the percentage of CD4 T-cells (1.49%, P < .001) per year.In the post-HAART era, no changes in mean levels were observed in absolute CD3 T-cell count (P = .15) or percentage (P = .99). Significant decreases were seen in mean count (8.56 cells/µl, P < .001) and percentage (0.59%, P < .001) of CD8 T-cells, and increases in mean absolute count (10.72 cells/µl, P < .001) and percentage (0.47%, P < .001) of CD4 T-cells.With the exception of CD4 (%), no average changes per year were seen in lymphocyte phenotype of HIV-uninfected men. The results of coefficients of variation of intra and inter-individuals of this study can be useful for HIV-1 infection monitoring and in addition the observation could be a useful guide for intra- and inter-individual coefficient variations, and establishing quality goal studies of different blood biomarkers in healthy and other diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Variação Biológica da População/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Variação Biológica da População/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo CD3/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4643-4652, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adenoviral-mediated expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) on dendritic cells (DCs) activates immune check point CD40/CD40L, enhancing the immunostimulation of DCs and effector cells against human renal carcinoma cells (RCC) and inducing tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCs, isolated from buffy coats from healthy donors, were transduced with adenoviruses carrying human CD40L (Ad-hCD40L). Subsequently maturation marker and cytokine expression were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Adenoviral transduction induced high expression of soluble CD40L and membrane-bound CD40L, leading to a strong CD40-CD40L interaction in DCs. Interestingly, a T-helper cell type 1 shift of expressed cytokines/chemokines was observed due to the expression of membrane-bound CD40L rather than due to soIuble CD40L alone, which significantly reduced immunoactivation of DCs. However, supernatants of Ad-hCD40L-transduced DCs induced apoptosis of RCC cells. Co-culture of Ad-hCD40L DCs with cytokine-induced killer cells led to a significant stimulation of tumor-specific cytokine-induced killer cells, with increased proliferation and cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Use of Ad-hCD40L-transduced DCs is a promising approach to treating RCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/genética , Biomarcadores , Ligante de CD40/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
3.
Immunogenetics ; 71(8-9): 513-518, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418051

RESUMO

Demonstration that immature CD4 + 8+ thymocytes contain T cell precursors that are subjected to positive and negative selection was the major step towards understanding how the adaptive immune system acquires the ability to distinguish foreign or abnormal (mutated or infected) self-cells from normal (healthy) cells. In the present review, the roles of TCR, CD4, CD8, and MHC molecules in intrathymic selection and some of the crucial experiments that contributed to the solution of the great immunological puzzle of self/nonself discrimination are described in an historical perspective. Recently, these experiments were highlighted by the immunological community by awarding the 2016 Novartis Prize for Immunology to Philippa Marrack, John Kappler, and Harald von Boehmer.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Timo/citologia
4.
Life Sci ; 231: 116536, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176785

RESUMO

AIMS: TL1A was reported to contribute to the susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the molecular mechanisms of TL1A in UC development are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the role of TL1A in colitis, and reveal the regulatory mechanism of TL1A in chronic colitis development. MAIN METHODS: Wild-type mice and transgenic mice with overexpressing TL1A in lymphocytes were used to construct chronic DSS colitis models. To investigate the molecular mechanism in vitro, CD4+ T cells were sorted from spleens and mesenteric lymph node cells to induce Th9 cells. Biopsy specimens from ulcerative colitis patients were collected for in vivo validation. KEY FINDINGS: The elevated TL1A expression in chronic DSS colitis models exacerbated intestinal inflammation. The differentiation of Th9 cells, IL-9 secretion and production of TGF-ß, IL-4 and PU.1 was significantly enhanced in transgenic mice with TL1A overexpression. In vitro results showed that TL1A enhanced the Th9 cells, IL-9 and PU.1 production, while TL1A antibodies inhibited their production. In human translational studies, patients with ulcerative colitis with elevated TL1A expression also exhibited more serious inflammation with higher levels of Th9 cells, IL-9 and PU.1 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: We presented a possible mechanism of TL1A in UC development that TL1A may promote the differentiation of Th9 cells and enhanced IL-9 secretion by up-regulating the expression of TGF-ß, IL-4 and PU.1, which provided a novel perspective to study the UC pathogenesis, and indicated that targeting of TL1A signal pathway may by a likely strategy for the treatment of chronic colitis.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Interleucina-9/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Membro 15 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Membro 15 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200465

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We examined whether IPC modulates the early inflammatory response after IRI. Nineteen healthy males participated in a randomised crossover trial with and without IPC before IRI. IPC and IRI were performed by cuff inflation on the forearm. IPC consisted of four cycles of five minutes followed by five minutes of reperfusion. IRI consisted of twenty minutes followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Blood was collected at baseline, 0 min, 85 min and 24 h after IRI. Circulating monocytes, T-cells subsets and dendritic cells together with intracellular activation markers were quantified by flow cytometry. Luminex measured a panel of inflammation-related cytokines in plasma. IRI resulted in dynamic regulations of the measured immune cells and their intracellular activation markers, however IPC did not significantly alter these patterns. Neither IRI nor the IPC protocol significantly affected the levels of inflammatory-related cytokines. In healthy volunteers, it was not possible to detect an effect of the investigated IPC-protocol on early IRI-induced inflammatory responses. This study indicates that protective effects of IPC on IRI is not explained by direct modulation of early inflammatory events.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159348

RESUMO

During the last few years, the gut microbiota has gained increasing attention as a consequence of its emerging role as a modulator of the immune system. With the advent of the era of checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in oncology, these findings became of primary relevance in light of experimental data that suggested the microbiota involvement as a plausible predictor of a good or poor response. These remarks justify the efforts to pinpoint the specific actions of the microbiota and to identify new strategies to favorably edit its composition.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Microbiota , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Microbiota/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216735

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, mucus production, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Although Th2 cell-mediated eosinophilic inflammation is an important disease mechanism in the majority of patients with bronchial asthma, recent studies suggest the possible development of Th2-independent airway inflammation and BHR. These non-Th2 endotype patients seem to consist of multiple subgroups, and often do not respond to inhaled corticosteroids. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of asthma, it is important to characterize these non-Th2 subgroups. Recently, we demonstrated that Th9 cells induce eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil-independent BHR, and Th9 cells-mediated BHR may be resistant to glucocorticoid. In this review, we summarize the contribution of several T cell subsets in the development of bronchial asthma and introduce our recent study demonstrating Th9 cell-mediated and eosinophil-independent BHR.


Assuntos
Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/imunologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
8.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 87-94, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048099

RESUMO

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian retrovirus is able to infect a variety of birds and can cause immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of thymic lymphocytes apoptosis, proliferation and T cell subtype with immunosuppression. In this study, a hundred and twenty one-day old SPF chickens were randomly divided into control groups (group C) and a REV infection groups (group I). The chickens of group I received intraperitoneal injections of REV with 104.62/0.1 ml TCID50. On day 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-inoculation, the chickens of C group and I group were sacrificed by cardiac puncture blood collection, and the thymic lymphocytes was sterile collected. The proliferation ability of lymphocytes was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8. Flow cytometry was performed to detect apoptosis, cell cycle stage and the change in T cell subtype. The RNA genome copy numbers of REV virus were detected using real-time PCR. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2. Our results showed that REV genome copy number steadily declined, the proliferation potential of thymic lymphocytes was inhibited, lymphocytes apoptosed, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ decreased and the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 were firstly inhibited, then rapidly recovered. Thus, immunosuppression lead by REV is closely related to the change of T cell subtype, apoptosis, and proliferation of thymic lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Ciclina D1/imunologia , Dosagem de Genes/imunologia , Genoma Viral/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/virologia , Timo/virologia
9.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(5): 321-325, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137163

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in China. The morbidity and mortality are extremely high and there are significant challenges in the treatment of gastric cancer. Recent studies have shown that the expressions of T lymphocyte subsets vary in the immune microenvironment of gastric cancer patients. T lymphocytes are not only the main effector cells of human cellular immunity, but also the important immunoregulatory cells. T lymphocytes not only reflect the state of the tumor microenvironment, but also closely relate with the prognosis of patients. T lymphocytes play a crucial guiding role in the clinical treatment. Currently, clinical trials related to immunological checkpoint inhibitors are still underway, among which PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibody has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer. The applications of tumor vaccines and adoptive cell therapies in gastric cancer are also being explored. How to screen patients suitable to immunotherapy, develop the best combination therapy and evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy need to be studied and solved.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 411-423, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease and a leading cause of progressive neurological disability among young adults. DNA methylation, which intersects genes and environment to control cellular functions on a molecular level, may provide insights into MS pathogenesis. METHODS: We measured DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells (n = 31), CD8+ T cells (n = 28), CD14+ monocytes (n = 35) and CD19+ B cells (n = 27) from relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS) patients and healthy controls (HC) using Infinium HumanMethylation450 arrays. Monocyte (n = 25) and whole blood (n = 275) cohorts were used for validations. FINDINGS: B cells from MS patients displayed most significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs), followed by monocytes, while only few DMPs were detected in T cells. We implemented a non-parametric combination framework (omicsNPC) to increase discovery power by combining evidence from all four cell types. Identified shared DMPs co-localized at MS risk loci and clustered into distinct groups. Functional exploration of changes discriminating RRMS and SPMS from HC implicated lymphocyte signaling, T cell activation and migration. SPMS-specific changes, on the other hand, implicated myeloid cell functions and metabolism. Interestingly, neuronal and neurodegenerative genes and pathways were also specifically enriched in the SPMS cluster. INTERPRETATION: We utilized a statistical framework (omicsNPC) that combines multiple layers of evidence to identify DNA methylation changes that provide new insights into MS pathogenesis in general, and disease progression, in particular. FUND: This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council, Stockholm County Council, AstraZeneca, European Research Council, Karolinska Institutet and Margaretha af Ugglas Foundation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Imunidade , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Ilhas de CpG , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
11.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 587-593, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity and allergy have been associated with decreased number and function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and low interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. We aimed to investigate if the release of IL-2 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with pathogenic airway bacteria was associated with development of allergy-outcomes in early childhood. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated at age 6 months in 331 infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 (COPSAC2000) mother-child cohort, and subsequently stimulated with H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae in in vitro cultures. Levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17A) were determined in the supernatant by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. The immune profiles were analyzed for association with development of total-IgE, allergic sensitization and rhinitis during the first 7 years of life using regression models and principal component analysis (PCA). FINDINGS: An attenuated IL-2 response to stimulation with H. influenzae (p = 0∙011) and M. catarrhalis (p = 0∙027) was associated with elevated total-IgE at age 7, which was confirmed in a multivariate PCA model including all cytokine measurements (PC2, p = 0∙032). An immune profile with both reduced IL-2 and elevated IL-5 was associated with increased risk of allergic rhinitis (PC3, p = 0∙038). We found no associations with development of allergic sensitization. INTERPRETATION: A reduced IL-2 response from PBMCs exposed to common pathogenic airway bacteria at age 6 months was associated with elevated total-IgE and allergic rhinitis during the first 7 years of life. These findings suggest that suppressed Treg activity in early life may herald onset of allergy in early childhood, which could be a target for low-dose IL-2 trials in the future. FUND: COPSAC is funded by private and public research funds all listed on www.copsac.com.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Alérgenos/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 424-434, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The delivery of therapeutic proteins to selected sites within the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma is a major challenge in the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. As brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in the brain of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its administration has shown promising therapeutic effects in mouse model of the disease, we generated a novel platform for T cell-based BDNF delivery into the brain parenchyma. METHODS: We generated amyloid beta-protein (Aß)-specific CD4 T cells (Aß-T cells), genetically engineered to express BDNF, and injected them intracerebroventricularly into the 5XFAD mouse model of AD. FINDINGS: The BDNF-secreting Aß-T cells migrated efficiently to amyloid plaques, where they significantly increased the levels of BDNF, its receptor TrkB, and various synaptic proteins known to be reduced in AD. Furthermore, the injected mice demonstrated reduced levels of beta-secretase 1 (BACE1)-a protease essential in the cleavage process of the amyloid precursor protein-and ameliorated amyloid pathology and inflammation within the brain parenchyma. INTERPRETATION: A T cell-based delivery of proteins into the brain can serve as a platform to modulate neurotoxic inflammation and to promote neuronal repair in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/imunologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Placa Amiloide/genética , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Células Piramidais/imunologia , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 928-942, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061532

RESUMO

To define the cell populations that drive joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), mass cytometry, bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometry to T cells, B cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts from 51 samples of synovial tissue from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Utilizing an integrated strategy based on canonical correlation analysis of 5,265 scRNA-seq profiles, we identified 18 unique cell populations. Combining mass cytometry and transcriptomics revealed cell states expanded in RA synovia: THY1(CD90)+HLA-DRAhi sublining fibroblasts, IL1B+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, ITGAX+TBX21+ autoimmune-associated B cells and PDCD1+ peripheral helper T (TPH) cells and follicular helper T (TFH) cells. We defined distinct subsets of CD8+ T cells characterized by GZMK+, GZMB+, and GNLY+ phenotypes. We mapped inflammatory mediators to their source cell populations; for example, we attributed IL6 expression to THY1+HLA-DRAhi fibroblasts and IL1B production to pro-inflammatory monocytes. These populations are potentially key mediators of RA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 165-174, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099649

RESUMO

Emerging immunotherapeutic approaches have revolutionized the treatment of multiple malignancies. Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have enabled never-before-seen success rates in durable tumor control and enhanced survival benefit in patients with advanced cancers. However, this effect is not universal, resulting in responder and nonresponder populations not only between, but also within solid tumor types. Although ICBs are thought to be most effective against tumors with more genetic mutations and higher antigen loads, this is not always the case for all cancers or for all patients within a cancer subtype. Furthermore, debilitating and sometimes deadly immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have resulted from aberrant activation of T-cell responses following immunotherapy. Thus, we must identify new ways to overcome resistance to ICB-based immunotherapies and limit irAEs. In fact, preclinical and clinical data have identified abnormalities in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can thwart the efficacy of immunotherapies such as ICBs. Here, we will discuss how reprogramming various facets of the TME (blood vessels, myeloid cells, and regulatory T cells [Tregs]) may overcome TME-instigated resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy. We will discuss clinical applications of this strategic approach, including the recent successful phase III trial combining bevacizumab with atezolizumab and chemotherapy for metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer that led to rapid approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of this regimen for first-line treatment. Given the accelerated testing and approval of ICBs combined with various targeted therapies in larger numbers of patients with cancer, we will discuss how these concepts and approaches can be incorporated into clinical practice to improve immunotherapy outcomes.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1498-1512.e5, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097342

RESUMO

Despite compelling rates of durable clinical responses to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade, advances are needed to extend these benefits to resistant tumors. We found that tumor-bearing mice deficient in the chemokine receptor CXCR3 responded poorly to anti-PD-1 treatment. CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 were critical for a productive CD8+ T cell response in tumor-bearing mice treated with anti-PD-1 but were not required for the infiltration of CD8+ T cells into tumors. The anti-PD-1-induced anti-tumor response was facilitated by CXCL9 production from intratumoral CD103+ dendritic cells, suggesting that CXCR3 facilitates dendritic cell-T cell interactions within the tumor microenvironment. CXCR3 ligands in murine tumors and in plasma of melanoma patients were an indicator of clinical response to anti-PD-1, and their induction in non-responsive murine tumors promoted responsiveness to anti-PD-1. Our data suggest that the CXCR3 chemokine system is a biomarker for sensitivity to PD-1 blockade and that augmenting the intratumoral function of this chemokine system could improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Future Oncol ; 15(14): 1655-1666, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044617

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common type of malignant cancer worldwide. Recent studies have identified the gut microbiota as the origin of CRC, and T lymphocyte-mediated immune functions have been shown to play an important role in this disease. By summarizing previous literature, we found that Fusobacterium nucleatum may protect CRC from immune cell attack by inhibiting T cells and influencing the production of many chemokines and cytokines. Some bacterial metabolites and probiotics have been shown to participate in the regulation of CRC through T cell-mediated molecular pathways. To visualize the relevant data, an association network of intestinal microorganisms and T lymphocytes associated with CRC was constructed. This work may provide direction for - and insight into - further research on the relationship between intestinal microorganisms and T lymphocytes in CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(3): e12794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141185

RESUMO

Natural killer T (NKT) cells are αß T cell receptor (TCR) expressing innate-like T cells that display natural killer (NK) cell markers. Based on TCR characteristics, they are divided into two groups restricted to the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Type I NKT cells, most extensively studied, are identified by a semi-invariant Vα14-Jα18 (mouse, Vα24-Jα18 in humans) TCR reactive to the prototypic ligand α-galactosylceramide presented on CD1d. In contrast, type II NKT cells display diverse TCR reacting to different CD1d-presented ligands. There are no reagents that identify all type II NKT cells, limiting their exploration. Here, we searched for novel type II NKT cells by comparing Jα18-/- MHCII-/- mice that harbour type II but not type I NKT cells, and CD1d-/- MHCII-/- mice, lacking all NKT cells. We identified significantly larger populations of CD4+ and CD4- CD8- (double negative, DN) TCRß+ cells expressing NKG2D or NKG2A/C/E in Jα18-/- MHCII-/- mice compared with CD1d-/- MHCII-/- mice, suggesting that 30%-50% of these cells were type II NKT cells. They expressed CD122, NK1.1, CXCR3 and intermediate/low levels of CD45RB. Further, the CD4+ subset was CD69+ , while the DN cells were CD49b+ and CD62L+ . Both subsets expressed the NKT cell-associated promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor and Tbet, while fewer cells expressed RORγt. NKG2D+ CD4+ and DN populations were producers of IFN-γ, but rarely IL-4 and IL-17. Taken together, we identify a novel subset of primary CD4+ and DN type II NKT cells that expresses NKG2 receptors have typical NKT cell phenotypes and a TH1-like cytokine production.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1d/imunologia , Antígenos CD1d/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Galactosilceramidas/imunologia , Galactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/imunologia , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
18.
Transplant Proc ; 51(4): 1215-1225, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accelerated antibody-mediated rejection is a major challenge after kidney transplantation. While the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment of cell-mediated acute rejection is agreed upon and has been successfully performed, the antibody-mediated rejection remains a problem. Biopsies cannot be repeated several times, are not always representative, and are refused by many patients. Analysis of T-cell subsets and donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) might be an additive diagnostic tool in the case of kidney transplantation. METHOD: Between 2015 and 2017, 50 kidney transplant patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 clinical groups: primary transplants and regrafted patients. Serum samples were collected right before the operation, then in 1 week; 30, 60, and 180 days; and yearly. Besides routine laboratory, multicolor flow cytometry was performed for T cell subsets, and Luminex Single Antigen Bead assay for the detection on donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. Medical data were also fixed. RESULTS: The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells (the CD4+/CD8+ rate) did not change much over time in either group. The percentage of CD19+ cells increased until week 1, then decreased back to its original level by day 180. CD56+/3-% was high in both groups and had no characteristic kinetics by the time. The CD4+ naïve absolute cell count increased in first-time transplants and did not decreased back to its original value until the end of year 1. This is in contrast to retransplants, where CD4+ naïve cell count rapidly dropped below its original value and remained low throughout the first year after transplantation. The CD8+ effector memory absolute cell-count was higher in first-time transplants compared to retransplanted patients in all time points. By the end of month 1, the CD19+ naïve absolute cell-count increased in first-time transplants to 170% of its original value; however, it remained or decreased in second transplants. By the end of the first year, the CD19+ naïve absolute cell count diminished to 70% in first-time transplants and 38% in second transplants. DSA was detected in 9 out of the 38 first-time transplants (23.7%) compared to 7 out of 12 (58.3%) in regrafted patients during the observational period (P = .001). It was typical for regrafted patients for DSAs to appear earlier after transplantation, and that more simultaneously different antibodies were detected against more antigens at the first time point compared to first-time transplants. DISCUSSION: The 2 groups were similar in demographics and there were no differences regarding the clinical course, complications, or output data. However, we found statistical differences regarding the dynamics of T cell subsets and DSAs. The parallel measurement of CD subsets and DSAs might be a sensitive and useful additive tool in diagnosing subclinical immunologic changes after transplantation.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Transplante de Rim , Reoperação , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantes/imunologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1943-1952, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069533

RESUMO

The recombinant heavy chain myosin of Brugia malayi (Bm-Myo) has earlier been reported as a potent vaccine candidate in our lab. Subsequently, we further enhanced its efficacy employing heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo) immunization approach that produced superior immune-protection than protein or DNA vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of heterologous prime boost vaccination in combination with CpG, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) adjuvant in BALB/c mice. The results showed that CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo conferred 84.5 ± 0.62% protection against B. malayi infective larval challenge which was considerably higher than Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo (75.6 ± 1.10%) following immunization. Although, both the formulations of immunization elicited robust production of specific IgG antibody and their isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3); however, CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo predominantly enhanced the level of IgG2a suggesting Th1 biased immune response in presence of CpG. Furthermore, spleen isolated from mice that immunized with CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo had greater accumulation of CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ B cells and there was an augmented expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD86 on host dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast to Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo group, the splenocytes of CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo immunized mice developed comparatively higher pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ leaving anti-inflammatory cytokine levels unchanged. Moreover, CpG formulation also upregulated the RNA expression of IL-12 and TNF-α in spleenocytes. The current findings suggest that the use of CpG would be more advantageous as an adjuvant predominantly in DNA/protein prime boost vaccine against Bm-Myo and presumably also for filarial infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Brugia Malayi/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Brugia Malayi/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
20.
Nat Immunol ; 20(6): 747-755, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061531

RESUMO

Despite gathering evidence that ubiquitylation can direct non-degradative outcomes, most investigations of ubiquitylation in T cells have focused on degradation. Here, we integrated proteomic and transcriptomic datasets from primary mouse CD4+ T cells to establish a framework for predicting degradative or non-degradative outcomes of ubiquitylation. Di-glycine remnant profiling was used to reveal ubiquitylated proteins, which in combination with whole-cell proteomic and transcriptomic data allowed prediction of protein degradation. Analysis of ubiquitylated proteins identified by di-glycine remnant profiling indicated that activation of CD4+ T cells led to an increase in non-degradative ubiquitylation. This correlated with an increase in non-proteasome-targeted K29, K33 and K63 polyubiquitin chains. This study revealed over 1,200 proteins that were ubiquitylated in primary mouse CD4+ T cells and highlighted the relevance of non-proteasomally targeted ubiquitin chains in T cell signaling.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteoma , Proteômica , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitinação
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