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1.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 624-628, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878396

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the altered brain volume of the patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: One hundred forty-six TMD patients ï¼»age (36.8±15.8) years, male/female=44/102ï¼½ and 193 normal controls (NC) ï¼»age (43.3±15.6) years, male/female = 92/101ï¼½ were performed with 3 dimensional brain structural images at 3.0 T MR scanner from November 2011 to December 2019 in Department of Radiology, Hainan Hospital and General Hospital of Chinese PLA. The brain structural images were segmented into gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid, and the gray matter images were performed with two-samples t-test with total intracranial volume, age and gender as covariates. Results: The gray matter volume (GMV) presented significantly higher in TMD group ï¼»(632.4±65.4) mlï¼½ than that in NC group ï¼»(596.1±76.3) mlï¼½ (t=4.70, P<0.05). The brain regions with increased GMV for TMD located in left inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right lingual gyrus compared with NC. Conclusions: The temporal lobe was the targeting brain region for TMD patients with increased GMV, which should further be investigated to elucidate the neuromechanism.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca , Encéfalo , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21499, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies using a variety of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques in vivo have demonstrated that chronic pain (CP) is associated with brain alterations. Cortical thickness (CTh) via surface-based morphometry (SBM) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data is a valid and sensitive method to investigate the structure of brain gray matter. Many studies have employed SBM to measure CTh difference between patients with CP and pain-free controls and provided important insights into the brain basis of CP. However, the findings from these studies were inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. METHODS: Three major electronic medical databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for eligible studies published in English on April 3, 2020. This protocol was prepared based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. The Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software package will be employed to conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) to identify consistent CTh differences between patients with CP and pain-free controls. Several complementary analyses, including sensitivity analysis, heterogeneity analysis, publication bias, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression analysis, will be further conducted to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: This CBMA will tell us whether CP with different subtypes shares common CTh alterations and what the pattern of its characterized alterations is. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first CBMA of SBM studies that characterizes brain CTh alterations in CP. The CBMA will provide the quantitative evidence of common brain cortical morphometry of CP. The findings will help us to understand the neural basis underlying CP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202050069.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neuroimagem/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21374, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an objective structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which allows researchers to investigate group-level differences in regional gray matter (GM) volume or density over the whole brain. In the last decade, VBM studies in restless leg syndrome (RLS) have exhibited inconsistent and conflicting findings. METHODS: Studies will be identified through a computerized literature search of the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase until October 1, 2018 and updated on March 1, 2020. This protocol will be performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). In addition, we will follow the recent guidelines and recommendations for coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA). This CBMA will be performed with the seed-based d mapping with permutation of subject images (SDM-PSI) software. RESULTS: This CBMA will offer the latest evidence of GM alterations in RLS. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this will be the first CBMA that pooled VBM findings in RLS. This quantitative evidence of GM alterations will characterize brain morphometry of RLS. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018117014.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 533-539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of gray matter volume (GMV) alteration patterns between hemodialysis with restless legs syndrome (HD-RLS) and hemodialysis without restless legs syndrome (HD-nRLS) patients using voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: Twenty-three HD-RLS patients, 27 HD-nRLS patients, and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. One-way analysis of covariance and post hoc analyses were used to assess differences in GMV, demographics, and clinical data among the 3 groups. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted between altered GMV in the HD-RLS group and clinical data. RESULTS: Compared with HD-nRLS patients, HD-RLS patients showed decreased GMV in the left primary motor cortex (false discovery rate corrected, P < 0.05). Compared with the healthy controls, both HD subgroups (ie, those with and without RLS) exhibited consistent GMV changes, including decreased GMV in the bilateral anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus (false discovery rate corrected, P < 0.05). The GMV values in the left precentral gyrus were negatively correlated with the RLS rating scores (r = 0.2138, P = 0.0263). CONCLUSIONS: This abnormal decreased GMV in the sensorimotor cortex provides evidence for a sensory processing disorder in RLS that may be involved in the pathogenesis of RLS in HD patients.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/complicações
5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) and the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) are distinct neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical features of parkinsonism. The morphological alterations of these diseases have yet to be understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter atrophy in PD and MSA-P using regions of interest (ROI)-based measurements and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). METHODS: We studied 41 patients with PD, 20 patients with MSA-P, and 39 controls matched for age, sex, and handedness using an improved T1-weighted sequence that eased gray matter segmentation. The gray matter volumes were measured using ROI and VBM. RESULTS: ROI volumetric measurements showed significantly reduced bilateral putamen volumes in MSA-P patients compared with those in PD patients and controls (p<0.05), and the volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly reduced in both MSA-P and PD patients compared with those in the controls (p<0.05). VBM analysis revealed multifocal cortical and subcortical atrophy in both MSA-P and PD patients, and the volumes of the cerebellum and temporal lobes were remarkably reduced in MSA-P patients compared with the volumes in PD patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both PD and MSA-P are associated with gray matter atrophy, which mainly involves the bilateral putamen, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. ROI and VBM can be used to identify these morphological alterations, and VBM is more sensitive and repeatable and less time-consuming, which may have potential diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Atrofia/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Curva ROC
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008841, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544203

RESUMO

Hypomyelination, a neurological condition characterized by decreased production of myelin sheets by glial cells, often has no known etiology. Elucidating the genetic causes of hypomyelination provides a better understanding of myelination, as well as means to diagnose, council, and treat patients. Here, we present evidence that YIPPEE LIKE 3 (YPEL3), a gene whose developmental role was previously unknown, is required for central and peripheral glial cell development. We identified a child with a constellation of clinical features including cerebral hypomyelination, abnormal peripheral nerve conduction, hypotonia, areflexia, and hypertrophic peripheral nerves. Exome and genome sequencing revealed a de novo mutation that creates a frameshift in the open reading frame of YPEL3, leading to an early stop codon. We used zebrafish as a model system to validate that YPEL3 mutations are causative of neuropathy. We found that ypel3 is expressed in the zebrafish central and peripheral nervous system. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created zebrafish mutants carrying a genomic lesion similar to that of the patient. Our analysis revealed that Ypel3 is required for development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, timely exit of the perineurial glial precursors from the central nervous system (CNS), formation of the perineurium, and Schwann cell maturation. Consistent with these observations, zebrafish ypel3 mutants have metabolomic signatures characteristic of oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell differentiation defects, show decreased levels of Myelin basic protein in the central and peripheral nervous system, and develop defasciculated peripheral nerves. Locomotion defects were observed in adult zebrafish ypel3 mutants. These studies demonstrate that Ypel3 is a novel gene required for perineurial cell development and glial myelination.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroglia/patologia , Oligodendroglia , Nervo Isquiático/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(5): e3000605, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453728

RESUMO

One of the most influential accounts of central orbitofrontal cortex-that it mediates behavioral flexibility-has been challenged by the finding that discrimination reversal in macaques, the classic test of behavioral flexibility, is unaffected when lesions are made by excitotoxin injection rather than aspiration. This suggests that the critical brain circuit mediating behavioral flexibility in reversal tasks lies beyond the central orbitofrontal cortex. To determine its identity, a group of nine macaques were taught discrimination reversal learning tasks, and its impact on gray matter was measured. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were taken before and after learning and compared with scans from two control groups, each comprising 10 animals. One control group learned discrimination tasks that were similar but lacked any reversal component, and the other control group engaged in no learning. Gray matter changes were prominent in posterior orbitofrontal cortex/anterior insula but were also found in three other frontal cortical regions: lateral orbitofrontal cortex (orbital part of area 12 [12o]), cingulate cortex, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In a second analysis, neural activity in posterior orbitofrontal cortex/anterior insula was measured at rest, and its pattern of coupling with the other frontal cortical regions was assessed. Activity coupling increased significantly in the reversal learning group in comparison with controls. In a final set of experiments, we used similar structural imaging procedures and analyses to demonstrate that aspiration lesion of central orbitofrontal cortex, of the type known to affect discrimination learning, affected structure and activity in the same frontal cortical circuit. The results identify a distributed frontal cortical circuit associated with behavioral flexibility.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Macaca , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(6): e9275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428131

RESUMO

Evidence from previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies indicates that widespread brain regions are involved in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). However, the spatial localization reported for gray matter (GM) abnormalities is heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively integrate studies on GM abnormalities observed in PD-MCI in order to determine whether a pattern exists. Eligible whole-brain VBM studies were identified by a systematic search of articles in PubMed and EMBASE databases spanning from 1995 to January 1, 2019. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate regional GM abnormalities in PD-MCI. The anisotropic effect size version of seed-based d mapping (AES-SDM) meta-analysis was conducted to explore the GMV differences of PD-MCI compared with PD patients with normal cognitive function (PD-NC). A total of 12 studies comprising 243 PD-MCI patients and 326 PD-NC were included in the meta-analysis. PD-MCI patients showed a robust GM decrease in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, meta-regression analysis demonstrated that age, PD duration and stage, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III and Mini-Mental State Examination scores might be partly correlated with the GM abnormalities observed in PD-MCI patients. The convergent findings of this quantitative meta-analysis revealed a characteristic neuroanatomical pattern in PD-MCI. The findings provide some evidence that MCI in PD may result in the breakdown of the insula and temporal gyrus, which may serve as specific regions of interest for further investigations.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multi-system illness characterised by a diverse range of debilitating symptoms including autonomic and cognitive dysfunction. The pathomechanism remains elusive, however, neurological and cognitive aberrations are consistently described. This systematic review is the first to collect and appraise the literature related to the structural and functional neurological changes in ME/CFS patients as measured by neuroimaging techniques and to investigate how these changes may influence onset, symptom presentation and severity of the illness. METHODS: A systematic search of databases Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE (via EBSCOhost) and Web of Science (via Clarivate Analytics) was performed for articles dating between December 1994 and August 2019. Included publications report on neurological differences in ME/CFS patients compared with healthy controls identified using neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electroencephalography. Article selection was further refined based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. A quality assessment of included publications was completed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. RESULTS: A total of 55 studies were included in this review. All papers assessed neurological or cognitive differences in adult ME/CFS patients compared with healthy controls using neuroimaging techniques. The outcomes from the articles include changes in gray and white matter volumes, cerebral blood flow, brain structure, sleep, EEG activity, functional connectivity and cognitive function. Secondary measures including symptom severity were also reported in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest widespread disruption of the autonomic nervous system network including morphological changes, white matter abnormalities and aberrations in functional connectivity. However, these findings are not consistent across studies and the origins of these anomalies remain unknown. Future studies are required confirm the potential neurological contribution to the pathology of ME/CFS.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/diagnóstico , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407389

RESUMO

Simulating transcranial electric stimulation is actively researched as knowledge about the distribution of the electrical field is decisive for understanding the variability in the elicited stimulation effect. Several software pipelines comprehensively solve this task in an automated manner for standard use-cases. However, simulations for non-standard applications such as uncommon electrode shapes or the creation of head models from non-optimized T1-weighted imaging data and the inclusion of irregular structures are more difficult to accomplish. We address these limitations and suggest a comprehensive workflow to simulate transcranial electric stimulation based on open-source tools. The workflow covers the head model creation from MRI data, the electrode modeling, the modeling of anisotropic conductivity behavior of the white matter, the numerical simulation and visualization. Skin, skull, air cavities, cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, and gray matter are segmented semi-automatically from T1-weighted MR images. Electrodes of arbitrary number and shape can be modeled. The meshing of the head model is implemented in a way to preserve the feature edges of the electrodes and is free of topological restrictions of the considered structures of the head model. White matter anisotropy can be computed from diffusion-tensor imaging data. Our solver application was verified analytically and by contrasting the tDCS simulation results with that of other simulation pipelines (SimNIBS 3.0, ROAST 3.0). An agreement in both cases underlines the validity of our workflow. Our suggested solutions facilitate investigations of irregular structures in patients (e.g. lesions, implants) or new electrode types. For a coupled use of the described workflow, we provide documentation and disclose the full source code of the developed tools.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Algoritmos , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos da radiação , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/efeitos da radiação , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Teóricos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/efeitos da radiação , Fluxo de Trabalho
11.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1750-1757, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397933

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Distribution patterns of iron deposition in deep gray matter and their association with clinical characteristics in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate iron deposition in deep gray matter in patients with CADASIL using 7.0-T susceptibility-weighted imaging and mapping and to explore its correlations with clinical characteristics. Methods- Thirty-nine patients with CADASIL, confirmed via genetic analysis or skin biopsy, were enrolled. We examined patients using the Mini-Mental State Examination, modified Rankin Scale, and brain 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging and obtained magnetic resonance imaging lesion loads, small vessel disease scores, and susceptibility mapping. The following regions of interest were selected: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus. The quantitative differences in the susceptibility of deep gray matter between the CADASIL and control groups and the correlations between deep gray matter susceptibility and clinical characteristics were identified. Results- Compared with the control group, the CADASIL group showed significantly increased susceptibility of caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus. The susceptibility of deep gray matter in basal ganglia region, including caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus, significantly increased with age or disease duration and positively correlated with small vessel disease scores in patients with CADASIL. Moreover, the susceptibility of thalamus positively correlated with modified Rankin Scale scores after adjusting for age and disease duration and that of putamen negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with CADASIL after adjusting for age. Conclusions- Our findings indicate an association between abnormal iron deposition in deep gray matter of patients with CADASIL and their clinical characteristics. Therefore, excess iron deposition in deep gray matter, as indicated by 7.0-T susceptibility-weighted imaging and mapping, might not only be a novel magnetic resonance imaging feature but also a potential biomarker for CADASIL severity.


Assuntos
Alopecia/diagnóstico por imagem , Alopecia/metabolismo , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta , Ferro/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Adulto , Alopecia/genética , Infarto Cerebral/genética , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/genética
12.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2592-e2604, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the progressive nature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by investigating differential brain patterns of gray and white matter involvement in clinically or genetically defined subgroups of patients using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and multimodal MRI. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and white matter connectivity from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI in 292 patients with ALS (follow-up: n = 150) and 156 controls (follow-up: n = 72). Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in structural brain measurements over time in patients compared to controls. RESULTS: Patients with a C9orf72 mutation (n = 24) showed widespread gray and white matter involvement at baseline, and extensive loss of white matter integrity in the connectome over time. In C9orf72-negative patients, we detected cortical thinning of motor and frontotemporal regions, and loss of white matter integrity of connections linked to the motor cortex. Patients with spinal onset displayed widespread white matter involvement at baseline and gray matter atrophy over time, whereas patients with bulbar onset started out with prominent gray matter involvement. Patients with unaffected cognition or behavior displayed predominantly motor system involvement, while widespread cerebral changes, including frontotemporal regions with progressive white matter involvement over time, were associated with impaired behavior or cognition. Progressive loss of gray and white matter integrity typically occurred in patients with shorter disease durations (<13 months), independent of progression rate. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of phenotype and C9orf72 genotype relates to distinct patterns of cerebral degeneration. We demonstrate that imaging studies have the potential to monitor disease progression and early intervention may be required to limit cerebral degeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Comportamento , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
13.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 185, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the feasibility of the metrics of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for investigations of the microstructural changes of spinal cord injury in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) and the correlation between Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and DKI metrics. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with DCM and 38 healthy volunteers underwent 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine MRI sequences and DKI from echo-planar imaging sequence. Based on the JOA score, DCM patients were divided into four subgroups. DKI metrics of the DCM group and control group were obtained and compared, separately for the white matter (WM) and the gray matter (GM). RESULTS: The FA values in WM were significantly lower (P = 0.020) in the DCM group than in the control group. The MK values in GM were lower (P = 0.011) in the DCM group than in the control group. The MD values in WM were significantly higher (P = 0.010) in the DCM group than in the control group. In GM, the JOA score was positively correlated with the MK values (r = 0.768, P < 0.05). In the WM, the JOA score was positively correlated with the FA values (r = 0.612, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: DKI provides quantitive evaluation to the characters of microstructure of the spinal cord damage in patients with DCM compared to conventional MR. MK values can reflect microstructural abnormalities of gray matter of the cervical spinal cord and provide more information beyond that obtained with routine diffusion metrics. In addition, MK values of GM and FA values of WM may as a be highly sensitive biomarker for the degree of cervical spinal cord damage.


Assuntos
Medula Cervical/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Medula Cervical/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
14.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 844-854, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The dual-pathway model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity in symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by two independent psychological pathways based on distinct brain circuits. The authors sought to test whether the hypothesized cognitive and motivational pathways have separable neural correlates. METHODS: In a longitudinal community-based cohort of 1,963 adolescents, the neuroanatomical correlates of ADHD were identified by a voxel-wise association analysis and then validated using an independent clinical sample (99 never-medicated patients with ADHD, 56 medicated patients with ADHD, and 267 healthy control subjects). The cognitive and motivational pathways were assessed by neuropsychological tests of working memory, intrasubject variability, stop-signal reaction time, and delay discounting. The associations were tested between the identified neuroanatomical correlates and both ADHD symptoms 2 years later and the polygenic risk score for ADHD. RESULTS: Gray matter volumes of both a prefrontal cluster and a posterior occipital cluster were negatively associated with inattention. Compared with healthy control subjects, never-medicated patients, but not medicated patients, had significantly lower gray matter volumes in these two clusters. Working memory and intrasubject variability were associated with the posterior occipital cluster, and delay discounting was independently associated with both clusters. The baseline gray matter volume of the posterior occipital cluster predicted the inattention symptoms in a 2-year follow-up and was associated with the genetic risk for ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: The dual-pathway model has both shared and separable neuroanatomical correlates, and the shared correlate in the occipital cortex has the potential to serve as an imaging trait marker of ADHD, especially the inattention symptom domain.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Sintomas Comportamentais , Cognição/fisiologia , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Lobo Occipital , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231868, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive functions dependent upon the integrity of the prefrontal cortex have been described in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In a series of studies we have shown that fluid intelligence (g) is a substantial contributor to frontal deficits and that, for some classical "executive" tasks, frontal deficits were entirely explained by g. However, for another group of frontal tasks deficits remained once g was introduced as a covariate. This second set of tests included multitasking and theory of mind tasks. In the present study, we aimed at determining the role of fluid intelligence in frontal deficits seen in patients with MS. METHODS: A group of patients with Relapsing Remitting MS (n = 36) and a group of control subjects (n = 42) were assessed with a battery of classical executive tests (which included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Verbal Fluency, and Trail Making Test B), a multitasking test, a theory of mind test and a fluid intelligence test. RESULTS: MS patients showed significant deficits in the fluid intelligence task. We found differences between patients and control subjects in all tests except for the multitasking test. The differences in the classical executive tests became non-significant once fluid intelligence was introduced as a covariate, but differences in theory of mind remained. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that fluid intelligence can be affected in MS and that this impairment can play a role in the executive deficits described in MS.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Inteligência , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19151, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243357

RESUMO

Inconsistent results for comparison between insomnia disorder (ID) patients and healthy controls (HC) were obtained from previous neuroimaging studies. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was made for multimodal neuroimaging in ID. ALE analysis indicated that ID patients showed significant gray matter reductions in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), compared to HC. Regarding positron emission tomography studies, ALE analysis showed reduced relative cerebral glucose metabolism in the right amygdala, the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the right posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) in ID patients, compared to HC. Regarding diffusion tensor imaging studies, the present study indicated that ID patients showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the left putamen and the right caudate body, compared to HC. Additionally, ID patients showed reduced amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the right MTG, the right anterior lobe (AL), and the left PCG, compared to HC. ID patients showed increased ALFF in the left MFG, compared to HC. ID patients showed reduced regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left sublobar, the left cuneus, the left precentral gyrus (PCG), the right AL, the right ACC, and the right PCG, compared to HC. ID patients showed increased ReHo in the left FG, the left precuneus, and the right cingulate gyrus, compared to HC. Moreover, the ALE analysis showed hypoactivation relative to HC in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left MTG, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right cuneus, and the right STG in ID patients. Via this ALE meta-analysis, we obtained these key regions suffering from deficits in ID.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 39, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common neurological disorder characterized by a complex physiopathology. We assessed brain morphologic differences in migraine and the possible pathogenetic mechanism underlying this disease. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologic images of migraine patients, 14 with aura (MwA) [the mean (SD) age was 42.36 (2.95) years (range, 37-47)] and 14 without aura (MwoA) [the mean (SD) age was 43.5 (3.25) years (range, 39-50)] during episodic attack compared with health subjects balanced (HS) [the mean (SD) age was 42.5 (5.17) years (range, 34-51)]. All subjects underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination with a scanner operating at 3.0 T and voxel based morphometry (VBM) approach was used to examine the gray matter volume (GMV). The statistical analysis to compare clinicl characteristics was performed using unpaired t-test an one-way Anova. RESULTS: Total cerebral GMV showed a significant difference between MwA and HS (p = 0.02), and between MwoA and HS (p = 0.003). In addition, not significative differences were found between MwA and MwoA groups (p = 0.17). We found three clusters of regions which showed significant GMV reduction in MwA compared with MwoA. MwA subjects showed a less of GMV in 4 clusters if compared with HS, and MwoA subjects showed a less of GMV in 3 clusters if compared with HS. We observed that MwA and MwoA patients had a significant reduction of GMV in the frontal and temporal lobe and the cerebellum, if compared to HS. The bilateral fusiform gyrus and the cingulate gyrus were increase in MwoA patients compared with HS. CONCLUSION: Our findings could provide a approach to understand possible differences in the pathogenesis of two type of migraine.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Enxaqueca com Aura/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anormalidades , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Progressive brain atrophy, development of T1-hypointense areas, and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-hyperintense lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are popular volumetric data that are often utilized as clinical outcomes. However, the exact clinical interpretation of these volumetric data has not yet been fully established. METHODS: We enrolled 42 consecutive patients with MS who fulfilled the revised McDonald criteria of 2010. They were followed-up for more than 3 years from onset, and cross-sectional brain volumetry was performed. Patients with no brain lesions were excluded in advance from this study. For the brain volumetric data, we evaluated several parameters including age-adjusted gray-matter volume atrophy, age-adjusted white-matter volume atrophy, and T2-FLAIR lesion volume. The numbers of T1-hypointense and T2-FLAIR-hyperintense areas were also measured along the same timeline. The clinical data pertaining to disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and MS severity score (MSSS) at the timing of volumetry were collected. RESULTS: Among the 42 patients with MS and brain lesions, the number of T1-hypointensity (rho = 0.51, p<0.001), gray-matter atrophy (rho = 0.40, p<0.01) and white-matter atrophy (rho = 0.49, p<0.001) correlated with the EDSS. T1-hypointensity count divided by FLAIR lesion volume correlated with the MSSS (rho = 0.60, p<0.001). Meanwhile, counts or volumes of FLAIR-hyperintense lesions were associated only with the times of past relapses, and did not correlate with present neurological disability level or ongoing disease activity. These findings were consistent regardless of the presence of spinal cord lesions. CONCLUSION: Numbers of T1-hypointensities and brain atrophy equally indicated the current neurological disability in MS. The number of T1-hypointensities divided by FLAIR lesion volume represented the clinical severity. The size or number of FLAIR lesions reflected earlier relapses but was not a good indicator of neurological disability or clinical severity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(3): 393-398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of diffusion tensor imaging of microstructural changes in gray and white matter in Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I. PATIENT AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 10 patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I and 10 age- and sex-matched children who underwent diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of gray and white matter were measured. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher MD of the gray matter regions including the globus pallidus, thalamus, caudate head, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus in patients versus controls (P = 0.007, 0.001, 0.014, 0.003, and 0.002), respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) of MD of the globus pallidus and thalamus used to differentiate patients from controls were 0.93 and 0.925, respectively. There was a significant difference in MD of the frontal white matter and posterior limb of the internal capsule in patients versus controls (P = 0.001 and 0.02), respectively. The AUCs of MD of these regions used to differentiate patients from controls were 0.82 and 0.8. There was a significant difference in FA of the frontal white matter and posterior limb of the internal capsule in patients versus controls (P = 0.006 and 0.006), respectively. The AUCs of FA of these regions were 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. The MD of the globus pallidus correlated with serum bilirubin (r = 0.87 and P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Diffusion tensor imaging can detect microstructural changes of deep gray matter and some regions of white matter in Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Crigler-Najjar/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
20.
Neurology ; 94(16): e1716-e1725, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that neuroinflammation is a key process in adult Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, we undertook PET scanning utilizing a ligand binding activated microglia on 9 patients and 9 age- and sex-matched controls. METHOD: We scanned all participants with the PET radioligand 11C-(R)-PK-11195 and undertook structural MRI to measure gray matter volume and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA). RESULTS: We found increased binding of 11C-(R)-PK-11195 in total white matter compared to controls (p < 0.01), but not in gray matter regions, and this did not correlate with illness severity or duration. Gray matter was reduced in the thalamus (p < 0.0001) in patients, who also showed widespread reductions in FA across the brain compared to controls (p < 0.001). A significant correlation between 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding and FA was shown (p = 0.002), driven by the NPC patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation-particularly in white matter-may underpin some structural and degenerative changes in patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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