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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(20): 3015-3018, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048648

RESUMO

The uncapped tripeptide DPhe-Phe-Leu acts as self-assembly template to yield supramolecular hydrogel biomaterials. As an example, self-assembling DPhe-Phe-Leu-Asp-Val contains the LDV bioadhesive motif for ß1 integrin activation. Hydrogels made of the two peptides successfully mimic fibronectin of the extracellular matrix and lead to high cell viability, adhesion, and spreading.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Imagem Óptica , Peptídeos/química , Adesão Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Fibroblastos/química , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(14): 2143-2146, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970346

RESUMO

In Nature, numerous proteins have evolved to perform similar roles, such as mechanical energy dispersion in different tissues. These biological macromolecules obtain their function from their tertiary structure, but proteins with similar roles can be quite different from each other, making it hard to define what structural features could be mimicked in synthetic materials in order to improve their performance. Here, we introduce an important protein feature - disulphide loops - into synthetic polymers and study the role of the loop size on mechanical energy dispersion. By stressing these polymers in solution, we were able to show, experimentally, that the loop size, up to a certain level, has a significant effect on the chain mechanochemical fragmentation rate, indicating it is affecting the polymer unfolding in solution prior to mechanochemical scission of the polymer backbone. Importantly, this experimental study uses homopolymers, providing information on an individual parameter - loop size - which cannot be obtained from comparing different proteins. This research emphasises the use of tailor-designed polymer-peptide hybrids to study fundamental questions on protein tertiary structures.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111876, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761384

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a negative immune checkpoint pathway that inhibit immune responses, and upregulation of this pathway has implications in many malignancies. The search for effective PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has been at the forefront of academic and industrial medicinal chemistry, leading to 16 clinical candidates and the launch of six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) drugs. Despite the unprecedented success achieved, the limitations of mAbs, including poor tissue and tumor penetration, long half-life time, poor oral bioavailability, and expensive production costs, impelled researchers to turn their attention to the development of peptide-based and non-peptide small-molecule inhibitors as potential alternatives or supplements to mAbs. However, no small-molecule inhibitors have been approved so far, indicating a challenging process of developing marketable small-molecule PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapeutics. This review will summarize and provide insight into recent advances in the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, including its structural basis and biology, along with the crystal structures with mAbs, peptides and small molecules. We place great emphasis on design strategies underlying reported small-molecule inhibitors and attempt to provide an outlook at the future of small-molecule PD-1/PD-L1inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Chemistry ; 26(1): 198-205, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643112

RESUMO

A 2D supramolecular organic framework (SOF) based on synthetic macrocycles has been constructed in water by a self-assembly strategy. Two new organic monomers of this SOF, possessing viologen and azobenzene functional groups, form a stimuli-responsive host-guest system upon cooperatively binding with cucurbit[8]uril rings. The reversible formation and dissociation of 2D SOF can be realized by the isomerization of azobenzene under ultraviolet and visible light. The light-responsive property of the SOF is highly reversible and stable for up to four cycles. Moreover, azoreductase produced by Escherichia coli can reduce the N=N double bond of azobenzene entities, resulting in fluorescence recovery of the system. As an excellent and effective fluorescent probe, the SOF can detect azoreductase activity for real-time monitoring of the growth process of Escherichia coli. The dual-stimuli responsive 2D SOF is envisioned to drive the development of responsive devices with complex functions.


Assuntos
Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imidazóis/química , Isomerismo , Luz , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(4): 539-542, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829317

RESUMO

The first example of supramolecular recognition of phosphocholine by a cavitand receptor has been reported here. The chemical structure of the receptor has been optimized by DFT calculations. The recognition mechanism is based on a "multi-topic approach", which leads to highly efficient (K value up to 107 M-1), selective and sensitive (ppb level) sensing of phosphocholine. The recognition mechanism proposed here is similar to those exploited by Nature, and paves the way for the realization of new sensors with important applications in medicine and security fields.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Fosforilcolina/análise , Zinco/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Estrutura Molecular
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 451-460, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834791

RESUMO

Atmospheric low-temperature plasma has emerged as a promising pretreatment for lignocellulose to improve bio-refining. Herein, we investigated plasma-induced changes in the chemical structure of lignin to obtain a fundamental understanding of the plasma-lignocellulose interaction. Based on the results, plasma possesses a strong capacity to cleave C-C covalent bonds in the aliphatic region of lignin, accompanied by oxidation. Plasma treatment leads to the degradation and fragmentation of lignin. Pronounced deconstruction of ß-O-4 aryl ether is observed in plasma. The relative content of ß-O-4 aryl ether was reduced from the initial value of 65.1/100Ar to 58.7/100Ar for lignin from corncob and from the initial value of 72.5/100Ar to 63.8/100Ar for lignin from poplar after plasma treatment, respectively. According to the density functional theory analysis, the oxygen atom of ß-O-4 aryl ether is the most likely potential reaction site and the Cß-O covalent bond exhibits the lowest decomposition free energy (50.5 kcal mol-1), which will easily be cleaved in plasma. The dominant reaction pathway of lignin degradation is the cleavage of the Cß-O covalent bond followed by the cleavage of the Cß-Cα bond. We propose that this investigation is beneficial to optimize and expand the applications of plasma treatment in pretreatment of lignocellulose.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Gases em Plasma/química , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química
7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(24): 7937-7941, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809050

RESUMO

Electrostatic interactions via ion pairs are vital for biological macromolecules. Regarding the free energy of each ion pair as a function of the interionic distance, continuum electrostatic models predict a single energy minimum corresponding to the contact ion-pair (CIP) state, whereas atomically detailed theoretical hydration studies predict multiple energy minima corresponding to the CIP and solvent-separated ion-pair (SIP) states. Through a statistical analysis of high-resolution crystal structures, we present experimental evidence of the SIP as a metastable state. The histogram of interionic distances between protein side-chain NH3+ and DNA phosphate groups clearly shows two major peaks corresponding to the CIP and SIP states. The statistical data are consistent with the probability distribution of the CIP-SIP equilibria previously obtained with molecular dynamics simulations. Spatial distributions of NH3+ ions and water molecules around phosphates reveal preferential sites for CIP and SIP formations and show how the ions compete with water molecules.


Assuntos
Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Solventes/química , Aminas/química , DNA/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Íons/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosfatos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica , Água
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5682, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831739

RESUMO

Acidic macromolecules are traditionally considered key to calcium carbonate biomineralisation and have long been first choice in the bio-inspired synthesis of crystalline materials. Here, we challenge this view and demonstrate that low-charge macromolecules can vastly outperform their acidic counterparts in the synthesis of nanocomposites. Using gold nanoparticles functionalised with low charge, hydroxyl-rich proteins and homopolymers as growth additives, we show that extremely high concentrations of nanoparticles can be incorporated within calcite single crystals, while maintaining the continuity of the lattice and the original rhombohedral morphologies of the crystals. The nanoparticles are perfectly dispersed within the host crystal and at high concentrations are so closely apposed that they exhibit plasmon coupling and induce an unexpected contraction of the crystal lattice. The versatility of this strategy is then demonstrated by extension to alternative host crystals. This simple and scalable occlusion approach opens the door to a novel class of single crystal nanocomposites.


Assuntos
Biomineralização , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Nanocompostos/química , Biomimética , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cristalização , Glicoproteínas , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Minerais/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14119-14122, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687686

RESUMO

A new strategy to construct a transient supramolecular peptide amphiphile (SPA) and its vesicular aggregates is displayed. The construction of the amphiphile is assisted by the ternary complexation of cucurbit[8]uril and pH responsive imine bond formation. The transient assembly follows a pH clock set by urea/urease and hydrolysis of glucono delta-lactone (GdL). The transient assembly can be repeated for several cycles through feeding the system with the fuel (urea).


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Tensoativos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Tensoativos/síntese química , Ureia/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Urease/química , Urease/metabolismo
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14387-14390, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723950

RESUMO

We designed a tandem stimuli-responsive assembly based on a guanidinium-modified calix[5]arene (GC5A-6C) and eosin Y modified hyaluronic acid (EY-HA), which showed hyaluronidase-triggered disassembly and ATP-activated release of EY. Both hyaluronidase and ATP are tumor biomarkers, and therefore, the present system shows potential in precision delivery with respect to tumor phototheranostics.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Calixarenos/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/metabolismo , Guanidina/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Calixarenos/química , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/química , Guanidina/química , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/metabolismo , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 75(Pt 10): 861-877, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588918

RESUMO

Diffraction (X-ray, neutron and electron) and electron cryo-microscopy are powerful methods to determine three-dimensional macromolecular structures, which are required to understand biological processes and to develop new therapeutics against diseases. The overall structure-solution workflow is similar for these techniques, but nuances exist because the properties of the reduced experimental data are different. Software tools for structure determination should therefore be tailored for each method. Phenix is a comprehensive software package for macromolecular structure determination that handles data from any of these techniques. Tasks performed with Phenix include data-quality assessment, map improvement, model building, the validation/rebuilding/refinement cycle and deposition. Each tool caters to the type of experimental data. The design of Phenix emphasizes the automation of procedures, where possible, to minimize repetitive and time-consuming manual tasks, while default parameters are chosen to encourage best practice. A graphical user interface provides access to many command-line features of Phenix and streamlines the transition between programs, project tracking and re-running of previous tasks.


Assuntos
Automação/métodos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Validação de Programas de Computador , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4708, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624265

RESUMO

Self-assembling peptides have the ability to spontaneously aggregate into large ordered structures. The reversibility of the peptide hydrogen bonded supramolecular assembly make them tunable to a host of different applications, although it leaves them highly dynamic and prone to disassembly at the low concentration needed for biological applications. Here we demonstrate that a secondary hydrophobic interaction, near the peptide core, can stabilise the highly dynamic peptide bonds, without losing the vital solubility of the systems in aqueous conditions. This hierarchical self-assembly process can be used to stabilise a range of different ß-sheet hydrogen bonded architectures.


Assuntos
Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Nanotubos de Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Água/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Células PC-3 , Solubilidade , Termodinâmica
13.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561479

RESUMO

Crystallography has long been the unrivaled method that can provide the atomistic structural models of macromolecules, using either X-rays or electrons as probes. The methodology has gone through several revolutionary periods, driven by the development of new sources, detectors, and other instrumentation. Novel sources of both X-ray and electrons are constantly emerging. The increase in brightness of these sources, complemented by the advanced detection techniques, has relaxed the traditionally strict need for large, high quality, crystals. Recent reports suggest high-quality diffraction datasets from crystals as small as a few hundreds of nanometers can be routinely obtained. This has resulted in the genesis of a new field of macromolecular nanocrystal crystallography. Here we will make a brief comparative review of this growing field focusing on the use of X-rays and electrons sources.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/química , Raios X , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 225: 115226, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521299

RESUMO

ß-carotene and chitooligosaccharides are bioactive compounds that find their application in the food industry as well in biomedical fields. However, the application of ß-carotene is limited due to its very low water solubility, as well as its air, light and temperature sensitivity. The preparation of ß-carotene-chitooligosaccharides complexes by mechanochemical methods was presented. Their physical and chemical properties including solubility, size, zeta potential and radical scavenging activity were investigated. The interaction of the two components was shown by NMR, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The complexes were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Chitooligosaccharides could serve as a carrier for ß-carotene delivery. The complexation did not cause the loss of the radical scavenging activity of ß-carotene and guaranteed its water solubility.


Assuntos
Quitina/análogos & derivados , Substâncias Macromoleculares , beta Caroteno , Antioxidantes/química , Quitina/química , Quitina/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/isolamento & purificação
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554177

RESUMO

The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid (HA), also called as hyaluronan, and its formulations on tissue regeneration and epidermal disease is well-documented. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HHA) is an efficient space filler that maintains hydration, serves as a substrate for proteoglycan assembly, and is involved in wound healing. Recently, an innovative hybrid cooperative complex (HCC) of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronan was developed that is effective in wound healing and bioremodeling. The HCC proposed here consisted of a new formulation and contained 1.6 ± 0.1 kDa HHA and 250 ± 7 kDa LHA (low molecular weight hyaluronic acid). We investigated the performance of this HCC in a novel in vitro HaCaT (immortalized human keratinocytes)/HDF (human dermal fibroblast) co-culture model to assess its ability to repair skin tissue lesions. Compared to linear HA samples, HCC reduced the biomarkers of inflammation (Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGF-ß), Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8)), and accelerated the healing process. These data were confirmed by the modulation of metalloproteases (MMPs) and elastin, and were compatible with a prospectively reduced risk of scar formation. We also examined the expression of defensin-2, an antimicrobial peptide, in the presence of hyaluronan, showing a higher expression in the HCC-treated samples and suggesting a potential increase in antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions. Based on these in vitro data, the presence of HCC in creams or dressings would be expected to enhance the resolution of inflammation and accelerate the skin wound healing process.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Cicatrização , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Teste de Materiais , Reologia , Análise Espectral
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4347, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554812

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal control over engineered tissues is highly desirable for various biomedical applications as it emulates the dynamic behavior of natural tissues. Current spatiotemporal biomaterial functionalization approaches are based on cytotoxic, technically challenging, or non-scalable chemistries, which has hampered their widespread usage. Here we report a strategy to spatiotemporally functionalize (bio)materials based on competitive supramolecular complexation of avidin and biotin analogs. Specifically, an injectable hydrogel is orthogonally post-functionalized with desthiobiotinylated moieties using multivalent neutravidin. In situ exchange of desthiobiotin by biotin enables spatiotemporal material functionalization as demonstrated by the formation of long-range, conformal, and contra-directional biochemical gradients within complex-shaped 3D hydrogels. Temporal control over engineered tissue biochemistry is further demonstrated by timed presentation and sequestration of growth factors using desthiobiotinylated antibodies. The method's universality is confirmed by modifying hydrogels with biotinylated fluorophores, peptides, nanoparticles, enzymes, and antibodies. Overall, this work provides a facile, cytocompatible, and universal strategy to spatiotemporally functionalize materials.


Assuntos
Avidina/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biotina/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Avidina/metabolismo , Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Biotina/análogos & derivados , Biotina/metabolismo , Biotinilação/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(82): 12388-12391, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559988

RESUMO

Antibodies are widely used both in clinical practice and in research. However, the development of methods to increase the ratio of antibodies to recognize phosphorylated proteins remains challenging. In this study, we report a novel and useful method for the efficient production of antibodies for phosphorylated proteins. Based on our previously developed vaccine adjuvant Nap-GDFDFDY, we prepared hydrogels by the Ca2+-induced self-assembly of a phosphorylated peptide gelator Nap-GDFDFpDY. The hydrogel could protect phosphorylated antigens from being dephosphorylated by endogenous phosphatase, thus selectively increasing the ratio of the antibodies for phosphorylated proteins. Our study provides a useful strategy for the production of antibodies to recognize proteins with specific posttranslational modifications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/análise , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/imunologia , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fosforilação
18.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480572

RESUMO

A simple and straightforward synthesis of diporphyrins and pentaporphyrins is reported here. The supramolecular interactions of the new porphyrin derivatives with C60 and PyC60 (a pyridyl [60]fulleropyrrolidine) were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence titrations in toluene. While no measurable modifications of the absorption and fluorescence spectra were observed upon addition of C60 to the porphyrin derivatives, the addition of PyC60 to the corresponding mono-Zn(II) porphyrins resulted in the formation of Zn(porphyrin)-PyC60 coordination complexes and the binding constants were calculated. Results show that the four free-base porphyrin units in pentaporphyrin 6 have a significant contribution in the stabilization of the 6-PyC60 complex. The crystal and molecular features of the pentaporphyrin Zn5 were unveiled using single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Porfirinas/síntese química , Cinética , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Porfirinas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Tolueno/química
19.
Soft Matter ; 15(36): 7108-7116, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482930

RESUMO

In biological systems, it is well-known that the activities and functions of biomacromolecules are dictated not only by their primary chemistries, but also by their secondary, tertiary, and quaternary hierarchical structures. Achieving control of similar levels in synthetic macromolecules is yet to be demonstrated. Most of the critical molecular parameters associated with molecular and hierarchical structures, such as size, composition, topology, sequence, and stereochemistry, are heterogenous, which impedes the exploration and understanding of structure formation and manipulation. Alternatively, in the past few years we have developed a unique giant molecule system based on molecular nanoparticles, in which the above-mentioned molecular parameters, as well as interactions, are precisely defined and controlled. These molecules could self-assemble into a myriad of unconventional and unique structures in the bulk, thin films, and solution. Giant molecules thus offer a robust platform to manipulate the hierarchical structures via precise and modular assemblies of building blocks in an amplified size level compared with small molecules. It has been found that they are not only scientifically intriguing, but also technologically relevant.


Assuntos
Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Nanopartículas/química , Dimerização , Estrutura Molecular , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Adv Virus Res ; 105: 189-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522705

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, mass spectrometry (MS), with its ability to analyze small sample amounts with high speed and sensitivity, has more and more entered the field of structural virology, aiming to investigate the structure and dynamics of viral proteins as close to their native environment as possible. The use of non-perturbing labels in hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS allows for the analysis of interactions between viral proteins and host cell factors as well as their dynamic responses to the environment. Cross-linking MS, on the other hand, can analyze interactions in viral protein complexes and identify virus-host interactions in cells. Native MS allows transferring viral proteins, complexes and capsids into the gas phase and has broken boundaries to overcome size limitations, so that now even the analysis of intact virions is possible. Different MS approaches not only inform about size, stability, interactions and dynamics of virus assemblies, but also bridge the gap to other biophysical techniques, providing valuable constraints for integrative structural modeling of viral complex assemblies that are often inaccessible by single technique approaches. In this review, recent advances are highlighted, clearly showing that structural MS approaches in virology are moving towards systems biology and ever more experiments are performed on cellular level.


Assuntos
Capsídeo/química , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo
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