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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110151, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148257

RESUMO

A disconnect between community perceptions and officially documented Superfund remedial actions and health outcomes may hinder the essential community engagement at Superfund sites. This study evaluates the extent of one such potential disconnect in Butte, Montana, which is part of the largest U.S. Superfund site in the U.S. Since the 1860s, when mining began in Butte, mine waste disposal practices in Butte and surrounding areas have left behind massive deposits that have contaminated the area's soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water with arsenic and heavy metals. Over the last four decades, a substantial amount of remediation work has been completed along with requisite community engagement and health studies at this Superfund site. The potential disconnect was evaluated using a new survey instrument that covered: (a) general environmental health perceptions, (b) mine-waste specific environmental health perceptions, (c) effectiveness of community engagement, (d) knowledge of health outcomes, and (e) demographics. The survey results demonstrated a disconnect in many instances where objective remedial improvements may not have resulted in improved environmental health perceptions in the community. The disconnect was most pronounced in the case of drinking water protection from mine waste and knowledge of health outcomes (cancer incidence rates and children's blood levels). The use of similar environmental health perception measurements may aid responsible agencies in monitoring for and addressing environmental health perception disconnects through better community engagement for the benefit of the impacted communities.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Mineração , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Montana , Solo
2.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(1): 21-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023212

RESUMO

United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <800>, which became effective on December 1, 2019, addresses handling of hazardous drugs in facilities that make compounded preparations. The Chapter includes minimum facility, engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and other requirements under which all hazardous drugs must be handled. For certain hazardous drugs, an assessment of risk may be performed to determine alternative containment strategies or work practices. This article addresses the legal enforceability of Unites States Pharmacopeia Chapter <800>, how to determine whether a drug is eligible for an assessment of risk, and details important considerations when performing assessments of risk.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Substâncias Perigosas/normas , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Estados Unidos
3.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(1): 30-36, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023214

RESUMO

United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <800>, concerned with the handling of hazardous drugs in healthcare settings, requires that any entity handling such drugs maintain a hazardous drug list. While this list must include any drug found on the latest NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Settings, entities are expected to include other drugs and substances of concern. The intent of this article is to provide concrete information concerning articles of personal protective equipment, as well as guidance as to where and how they should be donned, used, and removed. This information will cover every aspect of handling hazardous drugs from receipt to disposal, most certainly including both sterile and nonsterile compounding.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/química , Segurança Química/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/química , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Controle de Qualidade
4.
Waste Manag ; 104: 104-118, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978829

RESUMO

Cigarette butts, one of the most abundant forms of waste in the world, contain more than 4000 toxic chemicals and pose serious risks to the health of wildlife, humans, and marine and freshwater organisms. Although trivial in size, trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in the accumulation of tonnes of toxic waste litter. In 2016, a world production of over 5.7 trillion cigarettes was reported with the majority comprising cellulose acetate filters - a polymer with poor biodegradability. Depending on the environmental conditions, cellulose acetate filters can take up to 10 years to decompose during which time they leach heavy metals and toxic chemicals into the environment. Although possible disposal methods for collected cigarette butt waste include incineration and landfilling, both techniques may result in the release of hazardous fumes and can be costly. However, recycling CBs in different materials could be a possible solution for this concurrent environmental pollution. A number of novel studies have been publicized on recycling cigarette butts with encouraging results, and several methods have been studied, including recycling of cigarette butts in asphalt concrete and fired clay bricks, as a carbon source, sound absorbing material, corrosion inhibitor, biofilm carrier, and many more. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review and discussion of various studies that have been carried out on the toxicity and valorization of cigarette butt waste and investigates the feasibility and sustainability of recycling methods adopted. Further research and developments are essential for the widespread application of recycling cigarette butts.


Assuntos
Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Reciclagem
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(6): 3437-3446, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958948

RESUMO

Breathing air is a fundamental human need, yet its safety, when challenged by various harmful or lethal substances, is often not properly guarded. For example, air toxicity is currently monitored only for a single or a limited number of known toxicants, thus failing to warn against possible hazardous air fully. Here, we discovered that, within minutes, living rats emitted distinctive profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via breath when exposed to various airborne toxicants such as endotoxin, O3, ricin, and CO2. Compared to background indoor air, when exposed to ricin or endotoxin aerosols, breath-borne VOC levels, especially that of carbon disulfide, were shown to decrease, while their elevated levels were observed for exposure to O3 and CO2. A clear contrast in breath-borne VOC profiles of rats exposed to different toxicants was observed with a statistical significance. Differences in microRNA regulations such as miR-33, miR-146a, and miR-155 from rats' blood samples revealed different mechanisms used by rats in combating different air toxicant challenges. Similar to dogs, rats were found here to be able to sniff off toxic air by releasing a specific breath-borne VOC profile. The discovered science opens a new arena for online monitoring of air toxicity and health effects of pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Cães , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Ratos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113430, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685329

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are inevitably released into the environment owing to their widespread applications in industry and medicine. The potential of their toxicity has aroused a great concern. Previous studies have shown that AgNPs exposure in HepG2 cells is primarily related to the damage of mitochondria, which includes induction of mitochondrial swelling and increase of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway. In this study, the effects of AgNPs exposure in HepG2 cells on mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis were investigated. AgNPs were found to induce mitochondrial morphological and structural alterations. The expressions of key proteins (Drp1, Fis1, OPA1, Mff, Mfn1, and Mfn2) related to mitochondrial fission/fusion event were changed. Especially the expression of fission-related protein 1 (p-Drp1) (Ser616) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis protein (PGC-1α) was reduced in AgNP-treated cells. Concomitantly, the expression of autophagy marker proteins (LC3B and p62) was increased. The results suggested that AgNPs could trigger cytotoxicity by targeting the mitochondria, resulting in the disruption of mitochondrial function, damage to the mitochondrial structure and morphology, interfering in mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis. The mitochondria could be a critical target of AgNPs in cells. The functions of mitochondria could be used for assessing the cytotoxic effects associated with AgNPs in cells.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Substâncias Perigosas , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113505, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706759

RESUMO

Southwestern China contains the largest and most well-developed karst region in the world, and the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) content in the soils of the region is remarkably high. To explore the internal and external control factors and sources of soil PTEs enrichment in this area and to provide a basis for the treatment of PTE pollution, 113 soil samples were collected from Hengxian County, a karst region in Guangxi Province, southwestern China. The importance of eighteen influencing factors including parent material, weathering, physicochemical properties, topography and human activities were quantitatively analyzed by (partial) redundancy analysis. The sources of PTEs were identified using the Pb isotope ratio and absolute principal component score/multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model. The contents of all soil PTEs were higher than the corresponding background values of Guangxi soils. The contents in Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were the highest in the soil from carbonate rock. The factor group of geological background and weathering explained 26.5% for the accumulation and distribution of soil PTEs and the influence of physicochemical properties was less than 2% but increased to 25.6% through interaction with weathering. Fe (47.1%), Al (42.1%), Mn (22%), chemical index of alteration (12.8%) and clay (11.9%) were the key factors affecting the soil PTEs, while the influence of human activities was weak. Pb isotope ratio and APCS-MLR classified 62.8-74% of soil PTEs as derived from natural sources, whereas 18.23% and 18.95% were derived from industrial activities and agricultural practice/traffic emissions, respectively. The Pb isotope ratio showed that the natural sources account for up to 90% of the Pb in the soil from carbonate rock, the highest contribution among the studied soils. The results of the study can provide background information on the soil PTEs contamination in the karst areas of China and other areas worldwide.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113550, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706782

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been used for decades within industrial processes and consumer products, resulting in frequent detection within the environment. Using zebrafish embryos, we screened 38 PFASs for developmental toxicity and revealed that perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was the most potent developmental toxicant, resulting in elevated mortality and developmental abnormalities following exposure from 6 to 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and 6 to 72 hpf. PFOSA resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in mortality and abnormalities, with surviving embryos exhibiting a >12-h delay in development at 24 hpf. Exposures initiated at 0.75 hpf also resulted in a concentration-dependent delay in epiboly, although these effects were not driven by a specific sensitive window of development. We relied on mRNA-sequencing to identify the potential association of PFOSA-induced developmental delays with impacts on the embryonic transcriptome. Relative to stage-matched vehicle controls, these data revealed that pathways related to hepatotoxicity and lipid transport were disrupted in embryos exposed to PFOSA from 0.75 to 14 hpf and 0.75 to 24 hpf. Therefore, we measured liver area as well as neutral lipids in 128-hpf embryos exposed to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PFOSA from 0.75 to 24 hpf and clean water from 24 to 128 hpf, and showed that PFOSA exposure from 0.75 to 24 hpf resulted in a decrease in liver area and increase in yolk sac neutral lipids at 128 hpf. Overall, our findings show that early exposure to PFOSA adversely impacts embryogenesis, an effect that may lead to altered lipid transport and liver development.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Substâncias Perigosas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(1): 84-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807795

RESUMO

Element concentrations were measured in multifloral honeys sampled from Central and Eastern Croatia. The mean levels of elements ranged from (µg/kg): Al 323-7228, Cu 103-1033, Cr 14.4-139, Fe 295-2336, Ni 122-523, Pb 9.65-154, Zn 442-2025. In all samples, As and Cd content were below the LOD values. Significant differences in the concentrations of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn (p < 0.01) were found in honeys from different locations within regions and within locations of each region. Also, significant differences in total element contents between the two regions were determined for Cr and Cu (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in total Al, Fe, Pb and Zn levels between regions. The highest Al, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn concentrations were measured in Central Croatia, while Ni and Pb in Eastern Croatia. The results confirm the decisive influence of collection location on the composition of toxic and trace elements in honey.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Mel/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Croácia
10.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125074, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627108

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is ubiquitously present in the environment and may detrimentally affect male reproductive health. In this study, mature human sperm were in vitro exposed to different concentrations of PFOA (0.25, 2.5 or 25 µg/ml) alone or in combination with progesterone (P4) to evaluate the toxicity and the potential mechanism of action. Exposure to high-dose PFOA (25 µg/ml) alone for 4 h caused a decline in capacity of human spermatozoa to penetrate synthetic mucus, with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, PFOA treatment (2.5 and 25 µg/ml) evoked a transient rise in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i by activating the sperm-specific CatSper channel. However, preincubation with PFOA (2.5-25 µg/ml) for 4 h significantly suppressed P4-stimulated extracellular Ca2+ influx in human spermatozoa. Moreover, PFOA pretreatment at all concentrations evaluated markedly compromised P4-induced acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into viscous medium. Taken together, these results suggest that PFOA exposure may impair human sperm function through inducing oxidative stress and disturbing P4-induced Ca2+ signaling.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Reação Acrossômica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134492, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627046

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is a carbon-based engineered nanomaterial (ENM). Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model, we investigated the effect of GO exposure on protein-protein interactions. In nematodes, NLG-1/Neuroligin, a postsynaptic protein, acted only in the neurons to regulate the GO toxicity. In the neurons, DLG-1, a PSD-95 protein, and MAGI-1, a S-SCAM protein, were identified as the downstream targets of NLG-1 in the regulation of GO toxicity. PKC-1, a serine/threonine protein kinase C, further acted downstream of neuronal DLG-1 and MAGI-1 to regulate the GO toxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the protein-protein interaction between NLG-1 and DLG-1 or MAGI-1. After GO expression, this protein-protein interaction between NLG-1 and DLG-1 or MAGI-1 was significantly inhibited. Therefore, our data raised the evidence to suggest the potential of GO exposure in disrupting protein-protein interactions in organisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Grafite/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Guanilato Quinases
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134622, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693951

RESUMO

Serpentinitic ultramafic geological environments (SUGEs) contain toxic geogenic contaminants (TGCs). Yet comprehensive reviews on the medical geology of SUGEs are still lacking. The current paper posits that TGCs occur widely in SUGEs, and pose human health risks. The objectives of the review are to: (1) highlight the nature, occurrence and behaviour of TGCs associated with SUGEs; (2) discuss the human intake pathways and health risks of TGCs; (4) identify the key risk factors predisposing human health to TGCs particularly in Africa; and (5) highlight key knowledge gaps and future research directions. TGCs of human health concern in SUGEs include chrysotile asbestos, toxic metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Co), and rare earth elements. Human intake of TGCs occur via inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated drinking water, wild foods, medicinal plants, animal foods, and geophagic earths. Occupational exposure may occur in the mining, milling, sculpturing, engraving, and carving industries. African populations are particularly at high risk due to: (1) widespread consumption of wild foods, medicinal plants, untreated drinking water, and geophagic earths; (2) weak and poorly enforced environmental, occupational, and public health regulations; and (3) lack of human health surveillance systems. Human health risks of chrysotile include asbestosis, cancers, and mesothelioma. Toxic metals are redox active, thus generate reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress. Dietary intake of iron and geophagy may increase the iron overload among native Africans who are genetically predisposed to such health risks. Synergistic interactions among TGCs particularly chrysotile and toxic metals may have adverse human health effects. The occurrence of SUGEs, coupled with the several risk factors in Africa, provides a unique and ideal setting for investigating the relationships between TGCs and human health risks. A conceptual framework for human health risk assessment and mitigation, and future research direction are highlighted.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Medição de Risco , África , Animais , Asbestos Serpentinas , Asbestose , Exposição Ambiental , Geologia , Humanos , Ferro , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Metais Pesados , Metais Terras Raras , Mineração
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115392, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635740

RESUMO

The main source of nitroaromatic compounds in nature is anthropogenic activities. In the present report, a facile and green method was employed to fabricate highly efficient catalyst to turn toxic nitrophenols to more safe aminophenols. The Fe3O4/Ag@Ca-Al LDH hybrid (FAL hybrid) was synthesized by the Fe3O4 and Ag nanoparticles supported on layer double hydroxide (LDH) and the bionanocomposite (BNC) of this hybrid and starch was prepared via an in situ growth method. The FAL hybrid and BNC were characterized by different techniques. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of these catalysts indicated that both of them have high catalytic activity due to their large numbers of hydroxyl groups as capping agent. The comparison rate kinetics study between 4-nitrophenol and 2-nitrophenol showed that the FALS-BNC has higher potential in the case of the para derivative. Also, catalysts were recovered without difficulty and reused after completion of the reduction reaction.


Assuntos
Catálise , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nitrofenóis/química , Aminofenóis/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Substâncias Perigosas/química , Cinética , Nitrofenóis/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Prata/química , Amido/química
14.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124901, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563713

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) released from plastics into water, soil and air are significant environmental and health problem. Continuous exposure of humans to these substances results not only from the slow biodegradation of plastics but also from their ubiquitous use as industrial materials and everyday products. Exposure to POPs may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, induce inflammation, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, insulin resistance, allergies, metabolic diseases, and carcinogenesis. This has spurred an increasing intense search for natural compounds with protective effects against the harmful components of plastics. In this paper, we discuss the current state of knowledge concerning the protective functions of polyphenols against the toxic effects of POPs: acrylonitrile, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, phthalates and bisphenol A. We review in detail papers from the last two decades, analyzing POPs in terms of their sources of exposure and demonstrate how polyphenols may be used to counteract the harmful environmental effects of POPs. The protective effect of polyphenols results from their impact on the level and activity of the components of the antioxidant system, enzymes involved in the elimination of xenobiotics, and as a consequence - on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols present in daily diet may play a protective role against the harmful effects of POPs derived from plastics, and this interaction is related, among others, to the antioxidant properties of these compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive review of in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the molecular mechanisms of interactions between selected environmental toxins and polyphenols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Dioxinas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110088, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865204

RESUMO

Environmental xenoestrogen, Bisphenol A (BPA), is a vitally important industrial raw chemical which can bring about a wide variety of adverse impacts on our health and environment. Therefore, it is imperative to develop efficacious systems to measure BPA and improve the life quality. Herein, a mixture of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (GA-CS) loaded into a carbon nanotubes paste matrix to construct a novel electrochemical sensor (TiO2NPs/GA-CS/CNTPE) with a synergetic intensified current signal for the quantitative analysis of BPA. The surface morphology of the modified sensor was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared TiO2NPs/GA-CS/CNTPE displayed increased electrocatalytic activity toward BPA. The calibration curve of BPA shows linear response in the BPA concentration range of 0.01-6 µM with the lowest limit of detection of 9.58 nM (S/N = 3). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good reproducibility, desirable stability and excellent performance in detection of BPA in real samples, which prove that TiO2NPs/GA-CS/CNTPE is quite applicable for food, medical and environmental analyses.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Quitosana/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Fenóis/toxicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Titânio
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 779, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784811

RESUMO

This work aims to evaluate the different water sources available in Mahayel Aseer, KSA, chemically, toxicology and microbiologically. Several water samples, such as tap water, differentially desalinated water and bottled water, were analysed. Moreover, different metal ions and anions, including sodium, potassium, calcium, lead, cadmium, manganese, bicarbonate, fluoride, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and nitrite, were evaluated and assessed for human health. Bacterial and fungal pollutions arising from various water sources were also investigated. This study was conducted on polymer bottles and the best storage conditions. In order to acquire purified water safe for human consumption, certain recommendations pertaining to the steps of water treatment can be recommended.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Substâncias Perigosas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Ânions/análise , Cálcio/análise , Água Potável/química , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Arábia Saudita , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Abastecimento de Água
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(35): 35913-35923, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707609

RESUMO

Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) provide a unique pathway to treat hazardous industrial effluents. MMMs containing zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as filler in polydimethoxysilane (PDMS) matrix were synthesized. ZIF-8 was prepared using a modified recipe and characterized by different techniques to evaluate its morphology, thermal stability, surface area, pore volume, and other characteristics. The performance of membranes was evaluated for their application in industrial dye-stuff wastewater treatment and solvent-resistant nanofiltration. The results demonstrated that increase in the percentage of ZIF-8 loading in PDMS led to simultaneous increase in the solvent permeability as well as solute rejection from wastewater. The permeability of MMMs increased up to 32% as compared with neat PDMS membrane. The organic dye rejection was achieved more than 87% with MMMs incorporated with 20% loading of nanofillers. Rejection of MMMs was 22% higher than that of unfilled PDMS membrane due to the effect of reduced polymer swelling and size exclusion of the nanofillers. Membrane swelling tests with toluene and isopropanol demonstrated that nanofiller amount has inverse relation with membrane swelling, which implied that nanofillers were in good interaction with polymer and allowed defect free membranes with higher solute rejections and reduced membrane swelling.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Polímeros , Sonicação , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zeolitas/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(35): 36037-36047, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713131

RESUMO

Copeptin is a precursor for arginine vasopressin which is usually elevated in acute stress and cardiac emergencies. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ideal plasticizing factor used in manufacturing of plastics and epoxy resins. To evaluate the cardio toxicity of bisphenol A and to assess copeptin as a cardio toxic diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in Wistar rats. Sixty Wistar rats were classified into three groups: group I, naive group received regular diet and water; group II, vehicle group administered corn oil; and group III, each rat received BPA daily with (30 mg/kg/day S.C). After 4 weeks, blood samples were collected for estimating serum copeptin levels. Then, the hearts were subjected to histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic examination. Cell suspensions from the hearts were examined to determine the extent of DNA damage by comet assay. Bisphenol A induced a significant increase in mean values of serum copeptin level, histopathological changes in the form of dilated congested blood vessels and extensive collagen fiber deposition in the myocardium. Ultrastructurally, disturbed indented nuclei, focal lysis of myofibrils, normal cross striations loss, mitochondrial swelling, and intercalated disks distortion were noticed. Immunohistochemical study showed a significant increase in TLR2 immunoreactions in the myocytes of BPA administered rats. In addition, comet assay showed that bisphenol A exposure produced DNA damage in cardiac cells. We concluded that bisphenol A has deleterious effects on cardiac tissues mean, while copeptin is a good diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Glicopeptídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35151-35162, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686333

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA) is a heat-induced toxin formed during thermal processing of many commonly consumed foods, including meat products, French fries, potato crisps, bread, cereals, cookies, and coffee. There is thus potentially high dietary exposure of humans to AA, which can induce significant oxidative stress. Hesperidin (HS) and diosmin (DS) are flavone glycosides that have antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of HS and DS against AA toxicity. Fifty-six adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups. The first group was orally administered 0.5% (w/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and considered as the control group. The second and third groups were orally administered 10 mg/kg/day of HS or DS, respectively. The fourth group received 20 mg/kg/day of AA orally for 14 days. The fifth and sixth groups were given 10 mg/kg/day of HS or DS, respectively, followed by AA. The seventh group was given both HS and DS after AA administration. AA intoxication significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased serum levels of liver function enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), kidney function products (urea and creatinine), oxidative DNA damage marker (OHdG), proinflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), lipid peroxidation marker (malondialdehyde), and nitric oxide (NO). On the other hand, it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, kidney, and brain. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver, kidney, and brain tissues were also reduced. HS and DS supplementation prevented lipid peroxidation, normalized the serum parameters altered by AA, and enhanced the tissue concentrations and activities of antioxidant biomarkers. It could be concluded that HS and DS have potent protective effects against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage induced by AA toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Diosmina/farmacologia , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635088

RESUMO

The negative impact of air incidents and emergency situations results from the leakage of liquids into the soil and water and the leakage of flue gases and combustion products of aircraft structural materials into the air during fires. This article deals with air pollution caused by the combustion of composite materials commonly used in general aviation. Samples of composite materials of aircraft registered in the Czech Republic were selected. These samples of composite materials were tested for flammability, according to ISO 5660-1:2002 Reaction to fire tests-Heat Release, smoke production and mass loss rate (ISO-International Organization for Standardization). Total smoke release and total oxygen consumed were assessed in this study, both of which have a significant impact on air quality in the case of an air incident. Based on the results of the research, differences resulting from the diversity of the structures of the tested composite materials were found. The most hazardous composite material was evaluated from the point of view of its impact on air quality during combustion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aeronaves , Fogo , Fumaça/análise , República Tcheca , Gases , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos
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