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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1862-1870, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290324

RESUMO

Plant sterol (PS) (1 g/100 mL) enriched milk-based fruit beverages with or without galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (1.8 g/100 mL) were used in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Their potential cytopreventive effect against oxidative stress induced by cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and their anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated. Preincubation (24 h) with bioaccessible fractions from beverages without and with GOS (MfB and MfB-G) completely prevented the COPs (60 µM/4 h) induced oxidative stress independent to GOS presence with exception to calcium influx and GSH content, where a partial protective effect was observed. Besides, MfB produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of IL-8 (40%) and IL-6 (50%) after IL-1ß-induction (1 ng/mL/24 h) through the inhibition of NF-κB p65 translocation into the nucleus (16%) compared to control cells, while GOS presence compromised their anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, PS-enriched milk-based fruit beverage could be an interesting strategy to prevent intestinal injury produced by COPs and to attenuate the pro-inflammatory process in intestinal human diseases. GOS addition had no extra beneficial antioxidant effect and even reduced their anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Bebidas/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fitosteróis/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
2.
Comput Biol Chem ; 84: 107196, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881525

RESUMO

'Bottom-up', i.e., molecule to medicine strategy for the discovery of new drugs takes enormous time and cost. In most of the cases, inherent toxicity and undesired side effects of the developed drug hinder its way beyond the early stages of development. In this regard, the systems pharmacology can play an excellent role by reducing the cost and time of drug development through rationalization and/or repurposing of traditional drugs with known side effects. In the present study, our aim was to develop an integrated systems biology method for the prediction of active ingredients of a traditional medicine and their potential targets inside the body. Further, we evaluated the predictive capacity of the developed method in a preclinical animal model. Here, we have prepared a formulation (SKP17LIV01) from an extract of eight medicinal plants traditionally used as liver medicine and identified the constituents using UHPLC-MS technique. Using systems biology approach, we have rationalized the components of the formulation for potential use in the treatment of heavy metal-induced hepatotoxicity. The active ingredients and potential therapeutic targets were also predicted. A detailed biochemical, histopathological and molecular study on the mice model of lead toxicity confirms the efficacy of the formulation as per prediction by the systems pharmacology approach. The study may open a new frontier for re-discovery of drugs that are already used in traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Chumbo/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Magnoliopsida/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133716, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756789

RESUMO

This study aims to quantify the selenium contribution from tuna to the Spanish diet and evidence the Se protective role against mercury and inorganic arsenic toxicity. Selenium concentrations in tuna were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry (expressed as mg kg-1), and the risk assessment was evaluated joined to Hg and iAs contrasting criteria of regulatory agencies with those that consider the Se protective role. Differences between Se average concentrations in fresh (1.24) and preserved (1.17) tuna were not statistically significant. In canned tuna species, Se presented higher mean levels in Thunnus albacares (1.28) than Thunnus alalunga (1.01) with statistically significant differences (p = 0.002), and among canned preparations a decreasing sequence was observed in different preparation-packaging media: oil (1.42) > natural (1.01) > pickled (0.92). Statistical study showed Hg-iAs as the only pair significantly correlated in all samples. The HI (sum of individual target hazard quotients -THQs-) on the consumption of tuna in Spain, due to exposure to Se, Hg and iAs, revealed the possibility of risk of adverse chronic effects in the six-year-old children group (1.09). According to the maximum allowable tuna consumption rate in meals/week (CRmw) and the THQs obtained, tuna intake, especially in children, should be moderated. The health benefit values (HBVSe) were positive in all samples, 14.53 and 15.65 in fresh and preserved tuna, respectively, which allows tuna to be considered safe. The benefit-risk value (BRV) evidenced the Se molar excess with respect to Hg that reached a surplus of 14.32% on Se AI in adults. Since iAs reduces the Se bioavailability, applying a new BRV criterion, the aforementioned percentage decreased to 13.49% of Se AI. In conclusion, tuna offers high levels of selenium to counteract adverse effects by the presence of Hg and iAs, and to provide consumers an important source of this essential element safely.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Selênio/análise , Atum , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
4.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(11): 823-827, nov. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190504

RESUMO

Background and aims: to investigate the potential effect and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza in Gynura segetum-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS). Methods: the mice were gavaged with PBS, Gynura segetum or Gynura segetum, along with 100 or 200 mg/kg Salvia miltiorrhiza. Histological scoring and liver function were performed. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alfa), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and nuclear transcription factor P65 (NF-κBp65) were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. Results: liver function were effectively improved in the Salvia miltiorrhiza groups. The levels of TNF-alfa, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and NF-κBp65 were significantly lower in the Salvia miltiorrhiza groups than in the Gynura segetum group. Conclusions: Salvia miltiorrhiza has a therapeutic effect on Gynura segetum-induced HSOS


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/induzido quimicamente , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Substâncias Protetoras/análise
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(2): 187-194, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598890

RESUMO

A choice test bioassay was devised to screen compounds as potential semiochemicals (e.g., kairomones or allomones that mediate aggregation, attraction or repellence) for the obligate parasitic mite, Psoroptes ovis. The choice test used filter paper discs in a 1:4 test:control ratio and was found to be a reliable, effective and efficient method. Four mammalian lipid components were assessed as potential attractants-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, methyl myristate and squalene-, and the insect/tick repellent DEET for potential repellence. Linoleic acid was significantly attractive to P. ovis adult females and has the potential to act as an attractant. Identification of P. ovis semiochemicals, especially attractants, would be beneficial in the development of novel control methods and tools for this species. This is essential considering the increase in resistance to the limited prophylactic chemical treatments in the UK, and the high prevalence of scab infections.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Lipídeos/análise , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Psoroptidae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ovinos
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(12): e1900428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637808

RESUMO

The present study was performed to assess the HPLC-DAD analysis as well as antioxidant and protective effects of Tunisian Rhanterium suaveolens (Rs) against acetamiprid (ACT) induced oxidative stress on mice erythrocytes. The in vitro assays showed that the methanolic extract of Rs has an impressive antioxidant effect proved by testing the total antioxidant and scavenging activities using BCB, DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative analysis using HPLC-DAD revealed the richness of Rs in polyphenols where p-Coumaric, Apigenin-7-glucoside and Ferulic acid were detected as the most abundant polyphenols. In the in vivo experiment, ACT, used as a toxicity model, was given to mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The latter was the origin of hemolytic anemia characterized by a significant decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and an increase in bilirubin, LDH, osmotic fragility, reticulocytes and white blood cells number. Characteristic erythrocyte morphological alterations were also determined as spherocytosis, schistocytosis and dacryocystitis. The oxidative status of ACT-treated mice was also altered manifested by a significant increase in MDA and GSH levels and a decrease in SOD, CAT and GPx activities. When receiving the Rs methanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg, all the parameters cited above were restored in mice. These remarkable corrections could only confirm the important antioxidant effect and the noticeable protective properties that possess Rs owing to its broad range of secondary bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tunísia
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3027-3036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529805

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Se (Selenium) treatment on nutritional quality in radish sprouts. The results showed that 15 µM sodium selenite significantly increased phenolics compounds, flavonoids compounds, anthocyanins, and some essential amino acid content, while improving the total antioxidant capacity of radish sprouts. Besides, the Se-enriched radish sprouts significantly alleviated the liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in mice and improved the antioxidant capacity of the liver in mice, whereas the Se-enriched radish sprouts alleviated the inflammatory reaction and apoptosis caused by CCl4 . These results imply that Se-enriched radish sprouts have a positive impact on mice with CCl4 -induced liver injury, and that in future Se-enriched radish sprouts could be developed into an effective food and health care product for the liver injury prevention. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Because selenium is an essential trace element in the human body, selenium-enriched sprouts can help eliminate free radicals in the body, relieve aging, and selenium-deficient diseases. They are easy to grow and have low costs. Hence, selenium-enriched sprouts have a great potential of being widely consumed.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/dietoterapia , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Raphanus/química , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise
8.
Biotechniques ; 67(3): 98-109, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347927

RESUMO

Poloxamers are water-soluble polymers that are widely used in cell culture bioprocessing to protect cells against shearing forces. Use of poor-quality poloxamers may lead to a drastic reduction in cell growth, viabilities and productivities in cell culture-based manufacturing. In order to evaluate poloxamer quality and promote more consistent performance, a rapid cell membrane adhesion to hydrocarbon assay was developed based on the adhesive properties of cell membranes to selective hydrocarbons. The assay can identify a poor-performing poloxamer characterized by significant drop in viable cell density and percent viability. The assay was verified across multiple good and bad poloxamer lots, and the results were in agreement with established cell growth and high-performance liquid chromatography assays.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Poloxâmero/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Células CHO , Contagem de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/economia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cricetulus , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Poloxâmero/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1979-1985, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206673

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) are widely used in foods as flavoring and preservative agents. Many of the biological activities of EO have been attributed to major essential oil compounds (EOC) but their direct interaction with colonic epithelial cells and their genotoxic and genoprotective effects are not well established. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of EOC including nerolidol, thymol, geraniol, methylisoeugenol, eugenol, linalool, and a commercial blend (Agolin) were determined. Furthermore, the genoprotective effects of EOC against oxidative and methylating damage were assessed using the comet assay in HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The majority of EOC were cytotoxic to HT-29 cells at or above 250 ppm after 24 hr exposure. At noncytotoxic doses, none of the EOC was genotoxic in the comet assay. Genoprotection against oxidative DNA damage was observed for nerolidol (at 62.5 ppm), thymol (at 12.5 ppm), geraniol, and methylisoeugenol (both at 125 ppm), as well as linalool and Agolin (both at 250 ppm). Thymol was the most protective compound against oxidative DNA damage and geraniol (at 125 ppm) also protected cells against methylating DNA damage. This study highlights the potential of EOC such as thymol to protect the colonic epithelium against oxidative DNA damage and geraniol against methylating DNA damage. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings for safety and efficacy to exploit their potential pharmaceutical or nutraceutical uses for colonic health.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Ensaio Cometa , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenol/análise , Eugenol/farmacologia , Humanos , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/farmacologia , Timol/análise , Timol/farmacologia
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 137, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cree of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay area of northern Quebec) suffer from a high rate of diabetes and its complications partly due to the introduction of the western lifestyle within their culture. As part of a search for alternative medicine based on traditional practice, this project evaluates the biological activity of Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. needle, bark, and cone, in preventing glucose toxicity to PC12-AC cells in vitro (a diabetic neurophathy model) and whether habitat and growth environment influence this activity. METHODS: Three different organs (needle, bark, and cone) of P. mariana were collected at different geographical locations and ecological conditions and their 80% ethanolic extracts were prepared. Extracts were then tested for their ability to protect PC12-AC cells from hyperglycaemic challenge at physiologically relevant concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/mL. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of P. mariana extracts. RESULTS: All extracts were well-tolerated in vitro exhibiting LD50 of 25 µg/mL or higher. Extracts from all tested organs showed a cytoprotective concentration-dependent response. Furthermore, the cytoprotective activity was habitat- and growth environment-dependent with plants grown in bog or forest habitats in coastal or inland environments exhibiting different cytoprotective efficacies. These differences in activity correlated with total phenolic content but not with antioxidant activity. In addition, this paper provides the first complete Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry analysis of Picea mariana's bark, needles and cones. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results provide further understanding of the cytoprotective activity of Canadian boreal forest plants identified by the Cree healers of Eeyou Istchee in a cell model of diabetic neuropathy. Their activity is relevant to diabetic peripheral neuropathic complications and shows that their properties can be optimized by harvesting in optimal growth environments.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Glucose/toxicidade , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Picea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Quebeque , Ratos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20610-20618, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104244

RESUMO

The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis (SP) against cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead nitrate in Clarias gariepinus. Four groups of fishes were used: first group as control which fed on basal diet, second group fed on basal diet and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate), third group fed on diet containing 0.25% SP and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate), and fourth group fed on diet containing 0.5%SP and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate). Fish samples were taken at 2nd and 4th week of exposure. The hematological indices of lead nitrate-exposed group were decreased significantly compared to the control group at 2nd and 4th week of exposure. Lead nitrate caused a significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis, micronuclei, and apoptotic cells as well as comet tail length and olive tail moment compared with the control group at 2nd and 4th week of exposure. The highest level of damage was found on 4th week of exposure with all parameters. Dietary inclusion of SP ameliorated these cytotoxic and genetic changes, as well as this amelioration was concentration and time dependent. Consequently, the present study proposed that the addition of SP to the fish diet can be used as a promising protective agent to oppose cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead nitrate in aquaculture. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Nitratos/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Spirulina/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Peixes-Gato/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 237: 87-94, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034969

RESUMO

Active ingredient of the commercial herbicide BASTA (B), phosphinothricin, acts as an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation. The treatment with BASTA leads to an elevation of ammonium levels in plants and further to various physiological alterations, ammonium toxicity and lethality. Results of the present study emphasize the complexity underlying control mechanisms that determine BASTA interaction with essential oil (EO) from Nepeta rtanjensis (NrEO), bioherbicide inducing oxidative stress in target plants. Simultaneous application of NrEO and BASTA, two agents showing differential mode of action, suspends BASTA-induced ammonium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This is achieved through maintaining GS activity, which sustains a sub-toxic and/or sub-lethal ammonium concentration in tissues. As revealed by the present study, regulation of GS activity, as influenced by BASTA and NrEO, occurs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and/or posttranslational levels. Two genes encoding cytosolic GS, GLN1;1 and GLN1;3, are highlighted as the main isozymes in Arabidopsis shoots contributing to NrEO-induced overcoming of BASTA-generated ammonium toxicity. The effects of NrEO might be ascribed to its major component nepetalactone, but the contribution of minor EO components should not be neglected. Although of fundamental significance, the results of the present study suggest possible low efficiency of BASTA in plantations of medicinal/aromatic plants such as Nepeta species. Furthermore, these results highlight the possibility of using NrEO as a bioherbicide in BASTA-treated crop fields to mitigate the effect of BASTA residues in contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Nepeta/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Aminobutiratos/química , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos , Ciclopentanos/análise , Herbicidas/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Pironas/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 413-421, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176454

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to understand the effect of biofertilizers on cadmium (Cd)-induced phytotoxicity and the rhizosphere bacterial community. The crop specie rice (Oryza sativa L.) was planted in Cd-contaminated soils, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was performed to investigate how the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community responded to the addition of biofertilizers. Biofertilizers were effective in alleviating Cd phytotoxicity as indicated by the significant increase in plant biomass (up to 85.2% and 48.4% for roots and shoots, respectively) and decrease in tissue Cd concentration (up to 72.2% in roots) of rice receiving fertilizer treatments compared with the CK (no treatment). These positive effects were likely due to the increase in soil pH, which can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization, and the promotion of beneficial taxa such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Firmicutes. In addition, autoclaved biofertilizers tended to have similar beneficial effects and similar bacterial community alpha diversities as the original biofertilizer treatments. This suggests that the change in soil physicochemical properties by biofertilizer addition might drive the structure of rhizosphere bacterial community, and not the biofertilizer microbes themselves. In both the original and sterilized biofertilizer treatments, the effectiveness in mitigating of Cd phytotoxicity was found to be dependent on the type of biofertilizer applied. Comparatively, the biofertilizer denoted as DY was more effective in mitigating Cd phytotoxicity than others. These results demonstrate that biofertilizer addition could be a promising approach to immobilize soil Cd by manipulating the rhizosphere bacterial community, thus to facilitate plant growth.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera
14.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 336, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) regulates the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) through the metabolism of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Pilot studies have associated the rs805305 SNP of DDAH2 with ADMA concentrations in sepsis. This study explored the impact of the rs805305 polymorphism on DDAH activity and outcome in septic shock. METHODS: We undertook a secondary analysis of data and samples collected during the Vasopressin versus noradrenaline as initial therapy in septic shock (VANISH) trial. Plasma and DNA samples isolated from 286 patients recruited into the VANISH trial were analysed. Concentrations of L-Arginine and the methylarginines ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined from plasma samples. Whole blood and buffy-coat samples were genotyped for polymorphisms of DDAH2. Clinical data collected during the study were used to explore the relationship between circulating methylarginines, genotype and outcome. RESULTS: Peak ADMA concentration over the study period was associated with a hazard ratio for death at 28 days of 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.4), p < 0.001. Reduced DDAH activity measured by an elevated ADMA:SDMA ratio was associated with a reduced risk of death in septic shock (p = 0.03). The rs805305 polymorphism of DDAH2 was associated with reduced DDAH activity (p = 0.004) and 28-day mortality (p = 0.02). Mean SOFA score and shock duration were also reduced in the less common G:G genotype compared to heterozygotes and C:C genotype patients (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma ADMA is a biomarker of outcome in septic shock, and reduced DDAH activity is associated with a protective effect. The polymorphism rs805305 SNP is associated with reduced mortality, which is potentially mediated by reduced DDAH2 activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN20769191 . Registered on 20 September 2012.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Choque Séptico/enzimologia , Amidoidrolases/sangue , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/análise , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 76(2): 221-227, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298229

RESUMO

Adults of the Brown Ear Tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) have a predilection for feeding inside and around the ears of cattle and other hosts. A previous study has shown that the tick locates the host ears by 'push-pull' deployment of a repellent blend emitted at the anal region and an attractant blend emitted at the ears. Interestingly, the two odours play reverse roles with Rhipicephalus evertsi, which prefer to feed around the anal region. The present study was undertaken to characterize the major constituents of the cattle anal odour and to evaluate their repellence to R. appendiculatus. The anal odour was trapped with reverse-phase C18-bonded silica, Porapak Q and Super Q placed in an oven bag attached at the anal region of the cattle for 6 h. The adsorbents were then removed and extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted compounds analyzed by linked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the odour were o-xylene, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethylbenzene, 2,6,6-trimethyl-[1S(1α,ß,5α)]bicycloheptanes, 5-ethoxydihydro-2(3H)-furanone, 3-methylene-2-pentanone, 5-methyl-2-phenyl-1H-indole, and 3-pentanone. The repellency of the available compounds (o-xylene, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl benzene, 3-methylene-2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone) and blends was evaluated using a dual choice tick climbing assay at different doses. The anal odour showed repellence with RD75 of 0.39. Of the compounds tested, 4-methyl-2-methoxyphenol was found to be most repellent (RD75 = 0.56) and 3-pentanone least repellent (RD75 = 622.7). The blend of the six constituents showed RD75 of 0.34, comparable to that of the crude anal odour blend. A series of subtractive bioassays with one constituent of the 6-component blend missing was also carried out. Subtraction of 3-methylpentanone gave the most repellent blend (RD75 = 0.097), whereas subtraction of 4-methylguaiacol gave the least repellent blend (RD75 = 160.7) consistent with the high individual activity of this phenol. The study lays down useful groundwork for on-host deployment of controlled-release of a selected repellent or blend to disrupt the tick's ability to locate its preferred feeding site.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Bovinos/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 506(1): 204-210, 2018 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342852

RESUMO

The role of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with different sexes has not been clearly established. Sex hormones, especially testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), have been considered to play an important role in CAD. This study aimed to investigate the role of RBP4 and the possible association between RBP4 and T and E2 in CAD. The study included 658 individuals who underwent coronary angiography (CAG); they were assigned to CAD group (n = 440) and controls (n = 218). CAD group was subdivided into three subgroups. Serum RBP4 and T were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum E2 was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For men, RBP4 levels were lower in CAD group, especially those with acute myocardial infarction, than in controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). For women, no significant difference was found in RBP4 levels between both groups. RBP4 was positively correlated with T in male patients with CAD (r = 0.124, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that RBP4 was a protective factor for CAD (odds ratio 0.975, 95% confidence interval 0.958-0.993; P = 0.007). In conclusion, RBP4 levels were significantly decreased and positively related with T in men with CAD. Higher RBP4 levels were associated with lower risk of CAD. RBP4 may play a potential protective role for CAD among men.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Testosterona/sangue
17.
Food Funct ; 9(9): 4888-4896, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167607

RESUMO

This work addresses the role of different by-products derived from the industrial extraction of orange juice in a possible anti-inflammatory effect in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Fresh orange residue (FOR), dry orange residue (DOR), orange liqueur (OL) and animal feed (AF), as well as commercial citrus pectin (CP), were administered to C57BL/6J mice for 15 days before starting the DSS treatment. Analysis of macroscopic parameters such as the Disease Activity Index (DAI) and the colonic weight/length ratio revealed an anti-inflammatory effect following intake of FOR, AF or CP. Moreover, q-PCR of RNA from colonic tissue indicated measurable changes in the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, iNOS, and intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM I, as well as in intestinal barrier proteins such as MUC-3, occludin, and ZO-1. Pectin, phenolic compounds and/or Maillard reaction products formed at initial steps were identified as relevant components exerting the ascribed beneficial effects. Our findings could open up the further application of a variety of orange by-products as food supplements in the potential amelioration of inflammatory bowel diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Citrus sinensis/química , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/economia , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Frutas/economia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/economia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/uso terapêutico , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/economia , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/economia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/economia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
18.
J Therm Biol ; 77: 111-121, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196889

RESUMO

Unexpected fluctuations in weather parameters due to global climate change have been observed in all ecosystems worldwide. The aquatic ecosystem shelters a great diversity of fishes in the upper region of the ecosystem which adversely get affected due to their poikilothermic nature. The present study was designed to elucidate the impact of critical temperature minima (CTMin), lethal temperature minima (LTMin), critical temperature maxima (CTMax), and lethal temperature maxima (LTMax) on Channa striatus. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their potential to enhance thermal tolerance and improve the activities of biochemical enzymes of C. striatus reared under lead (Pb) and high temperature (34 °C) for 50 days. Three iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets which included a basal diet and two supplemented diets with Ag-NPs @ 0.5 mg/kg, and 1 mg/kg were used in the study. Results suggested that CTMin and LTMin were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced and CTMax and LTMax were enhanced in the group fed with 0.5 mg/kg Ag-NPs supplemented feed. Pre-exposure to high temperature led to enhanced CTMax and LTMax in C. striatus. The biochemical enzymes involved in protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, acetylcholine esterase and antioxidant activities were found to be normal in fish fed with 0.5 mg/kg Ag-NPs supplemented diet. Bioaccumulation of silver and Pb was determined in different fish tissues and experimental water. Overall, the incorporation of Ag-NPs at 0.5 mg/kg in diet can confer protection to fish against Pb and thermal stress and enhance thermal tolerance of C. striatus.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peixes/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/análise , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 428-434, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association of colorectal cancer with environmental solar radiation and sun exposure behavior, considering phenotypic variables (eye color, hair color and skin phenotype), dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and socio-demographic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter population-based frequency matched case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain), with 2140 CRC cases and 3950 controls. METHODS: Data were obtained through personal interviews using a structured epidemiological questionnaire that included socio-demographic data, residential history, environmental exposures, behavior, phenotypic and dietary information. An environmental-lifetime sun exposure score was constructed combining residential history and average daily solar radiation, direct and diffuse. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between different variables. A structural equation model was used to verify the associations of the conceptual model. RESULTS: We found a lower risk of CRC in subjects frequently exposed to sunlight during the previous summer and skin burning due to sun exposure. No association was observed in relation to the residential solar radiation scores. Subjects with light eye or light hair colors had a lower risk of CRC that those with darker colors. Dietary calcium and vitamin D were also protective factors, but not in the multivariate model. The structural equation model analysis suggested that higher sun exposure was associated with a decreased risk of CRC, as well as dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, and these factors are correlated among themselves and with environmental solar radiation and skin phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The results agree with previous observations that sun exposure, dietary vitamin D and calcium intake, and serum 25(OH)D concentration reduce the risk of CRC and indicate that these factors may be relevant for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 227: 69-81, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118838

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Capsicum annum L. (CA) is used extensively as a spice and is a rich source of antioxidant vitamins. It has long been used in Indian, Native American, and Chinese traditional medicine as a carminative and an appetizer that normalizes liver function. However, its hepato-protective activity has so far not been studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extract of CA at two different doses (125 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), against ethanol induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in liver tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-200 g, were randomly grouped (n = 6) and treated with ethanol (2 g/kg bw, i.p.), CA125 (125 mg/kg bw, i.p.), CA250 (250 mg/kg bw, i.p.), ethanol with CA (similar doses), and control (0.5 ml normal saline, i.p.) for 30 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione content (GSH) in tissue homogenate, along with catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD & Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P-D) activity were evaluated. Serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHLS), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), tumour necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were also measured using ELISA kits. Histopathological evaluation of the hepatic tissue was performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining. TUNEL assay was performed for apoptosis detection. RESULTS: Ethanol significantly (p < 0.001) increased ALT, AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-6, LPO, Cu-Zn-SOD, GST, GPx, TG, CHLS, LDL, VLDL levels, along with significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HDL, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and G6PD activity. Co-administration of CA along with ethanol alleviated changes in the above parameters (p < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner and also reduced the number of apoptotic death cells. Histo-pathological and histo-chemical studies of liver sections also ascertained the outcomes of this study. CONCLUSION: Thus, it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of green CA can exert a protective effect against ethanol induced hepato-toxicity. The possible mechanism may be by acting as an antioxidant; preventing ethanol induced apoptosis and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Capsicum , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Ratos Wistar
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