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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 130-137, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176247

RESUMO

The pikeperch Sander lucioperca is an economically important freshwater species that is currently threatened by higher summer temperatures caused by global warming. To clarify the physiological state of pikeperch reared under relatively high temperatures and to acquire valuable biomarkers to monitor heat stress in this species, 100 fish were subjected to five different temperature treatments, ranging from 23 °C (control) to 36 °C. The physiological and biochemical indexes of liver and blood were determined, and heat-shock cognate 70 kDa protein (Hsc70) mRNA expression profiles were analyzed. The results showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in heat-stressed pikeperch first increased and then decreased, exhibiting peaks at 34 °C, 28 °C, and 28 °C, respectively. The level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in all experimental groups was significantly higher than that of the control. The numbers of red blood cells, the packed-cell volume, and the contents of hemoglobin were significantly higher in the 34 °C and 36 °C treatment groups. Under heat stress, the albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides contents decreased with increasing temperatures. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative RT-PCR showed that Hsc70 mRNA levels increased in all eight of the tested tissues under heat stress. Expression reached maximum levels at 34 °C in the muscle, heart and gill tissues, and at 36 °C in the other five tissues. These results demonstrate that several physiological and biochemical phenotypes, such as oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones, could be important biomarkers of heat stress in pikeperch, and are potentially valuable to uncover the mechanisms of heat-stress responses in fish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSC70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Percas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSC70/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Hemoglobinas/análise , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Percas/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105219, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195325

RESUMO

Nrf2 is a crucial transcription factor that regulates the expression of cytoprotective enzymes and controls cellular redox homeostasis. Both arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants that are known to induce Nrf2. They are reported to coexist in many areas of the world leading to complex mixture effects in exposed organisms. The present study investigated the expression of Nrf2 and related xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes along with other stress markers such as histopathological alterations, catalase activity, reduced glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in zebrafish liver as a function of combined exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic (37.87 µgL-1 or 5.05 × 10-7 M) and fluoride (6.8 mg L-1 or 3.57 × 10-4 M) for 60 days. The decrease in the total reduced glutathione level was evident in all treatment conditions. Hyperactivity of catalase along with conspicuous elevation in reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content and histo-architectural anomalies signified the presence of oxidative stress in the treatment groups. Nrf2 was seen to be induced at both transcriptional and translational levels in case of both individual and co-exposure. The same pattern was observed in case of its nuclear translocation also. From the results of qRT-PCR it was evident that at each time point co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride seemed to alter the gene expression of Cu/Zn Sod, Mn Sod, Gpx and Nqo1 just like their individual exposure but at a very low magnitude. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time the differential expression and activity of Nrf2 and other stress response genes in the zebrafish liver following individual and combined exposure to arsenic and fluoride.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105225, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220755

RESUMO

Phenylurea herbicides are often present in the aquatic ecosystems and may be accumulated by the non-targeted organisms and impose a negative effect on the organism and the community. This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of two different isoproturon (IPU) pulse exposure scenarios on the non-targeted aquatic plant Lemna minor with effects observed in the standard test with continuous exposure. The obtained results showed that continuous IPU treatment causes significant reduction of photosynthetic pigment concentration and proteins as well as inhibition of L. minor growth. The activities of CAT, G-POX, and APX were significantly induced to diminish the accumulation of ROS under IPU treatment, but the induction of antioxidant enzymes was not sufficient to protect the plants from herbicide-induced oxidative stress. The growth of L. minor under pulse exposure to IPU recovers fast, but pulse treatment results in significant physiological changes in treated plants. The accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation products, alongside the reduced concentration of proteins and photosynthetic pigments in pulse treatment after a recovery period, indicates that IPU causes prolonged oxidative stress in L. minor plants. The recovery potential of L. minor plants after treatment with herbicides may have an important role in maintaining the population of essential primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, but IPU-induced physiological changes could potentially have a significant role in modulating the response of the plants to the next exposure event.


Assuntos
Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Araceae/fisiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 49-59, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170649

RESUMO

N-acetylcysteine (N-Acetyl L-cysteine, NAC) is a thiol compound derived from the addition of the acetyl group to cysteine amino acid. NAC has been used as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and chelating agent for reducing the deleterious effects on plants of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. It can also relieve heavy metal (HM) toxicity, although its alleviating mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we compared HM-stressed (Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb, 100 µM each) wheat seedlings without NAC treatment and in combination with NAC (1 mM). In comparison to HMs alone, NAC treatment in combination with HMs (Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively) stimulated root growth (1.1-, 1.5-, 10.5- and 1.9-fold), and significantly increased fresh (1.3-, 1.5-, 4.3- and 1.4-fold) and dry (1.2-, 1.5-, 2.5- and 1.2-fold) mass. Combination treatment also led to significant reductions in HM concentrations (1.3-, 1.4-, 4- and 1.1-fold, respectively). GSH (1.1 - 1.8-fold), TBARS (1.4 - 2.7-fold) and H2O2 (1.6 - 1.8-fold) contents in treatment with HMs alone were significantly mitigated by the NAC combination. Some of the antioxidant enzyme activities increased or reduced by some HM treatments alone were stimulated by a combination of NAC with HMs, or remained unchanged or changed only insignificantly, supported by the phenolic pool of the plant. Ferulic, p-comaric and syringic acids were the major phenolic acids (PAs) in the roots in free, ester, glycoside and ester-bound forms, and their concentrations were increased by HM treatments alone, in comparison to the control seedlings, while PAs concentrations were relatively reduced by NAC in combination with HMs. These results indicate that NAC can alleviate HM toxicity and improve the growth of HM-stressed wheat seedlings by coordinated induction of the phenolic pool and the antioxidant defence system.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24010-24019, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222653

RESUMO

Actinomycetes are a group of the Gram-positive bacteria famous for their antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-parasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of two bacterial extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains (S19 and G30) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats. Sixty-four male rats were assigned to four groups of 16 rats in each group. The 1st group was kept as a normal (control) group and given corn oil combined with the used production medium, while the 2nd group received only CCl4 (CCl4 group). On the other hand, the 3rd group (CCl4+S19) was administered CCl4 and the extract of the actinomycete strain S19 and the 4th group (CCl4+G30) received CCl4 and the extract of the actinomycete strain G30, both treatments for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the two actinomycete extracts S19 and G30 could significantly (p < 0.01) lower the elevated levels of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid caused by the CCl4 administration. Additionally, the two actinomycete extracts improved the decreased serum total protein. Interestingly, treatment of the CCl4-intoxicated rats with S19 and G30 extracts remarkably reversed the lowered renal glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), peroxidase (Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and the elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. The histopathological examination of the treated kidney revealed that the two actinomycete extracts improved rats against CCl4-induced kidney lesions. The present results suggested that the protective effect of the two actinomycete extracts may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant defense system.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Fatores Biológicos/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24121-24131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228067

RESUMO

Although iron oxide occurs naturally in the environment, iron oxide nanoparticles have distinct mobility, reactivity, and toxicity, which can harm the human health and nature. This scenario has motivated the investigation of the toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (akaganeite predominance + hematite) on the aquatic plant Lemna minor. First, nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized; then, different iron oxide NP concentrations were added to Lemna minor culture. After 7 days, all the Lemna minor leaves died, irrespective of the added NP concentration. The iron oxide NP impact on the plant was evaluated based on malondialdehyde (MDA) production from thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which was dose-dependent; i.e., lipid peroxidation in the plant increased with rising iron oxide NP concentration. The chlorophyll content decreased at high iron oxide NP concentrations, which disrupted the light absorption mechanism. Fe accumulation in Lemna minor roots also occurred, which can harm nutrient uptake. Therefore, the iron oxide NP toxic impact on plants and related ecosystems requires further studies in order to prevent environmental damage.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Araceae/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ferro/farmacocinética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
7.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(5): 728-735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061314

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale protocorms (DOPs) are a specific developmental stage of Dendrobium officinale KIMURA et MIGO, which is used in folk medicine to ease skin issues, such as wrinkles and erythema. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of DOPs on UV irradiation-induced skin damage in bc_nu hairless mice, using matrixyl as a positive control. Hairless mice were randomly separated into 6 groups (8 mice per group). The normal control group received solvent and was not exposed to UV irradiation, while the model control group received solvent and was exposed to UV irradiation. The positive control group was subjected to UV irradiation and then received a 10 mg/mL formulation of matrixyl. The DOPs-treated groups received a transdermal application of a DOPs formulation after 4 weeks of UV irradiation. Relevant indicators, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), were then used to evaluate the ability of DOPs to repair photodamage. The results indicated that DOPs significantly reduced erythema and protected the skin from dryness and therefore exhibits a significant anti-photoaging effect. In addition, the expression of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px increased while TBARS and MMPs levels decreased in DOPs-treated mice. This demonstrated that DOPs can inhibit photodamage in the skin of hairless mice. DOPs could be used as a potential therapeutic agent to protect the skin against UV-induced photoaging.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos Pelados , Fitoterapia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 2484678, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049128

RESUMO

Due to atrophy, muscle weakness is a common occurrence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The majority of human studies are conducted on the vastus lateralis muscle-a muscle with mixed fiber type-but little comparative data between multiple muscles in either rodent or human models are available. The current study therefore assessed both muscle ultrastructure and selected redox indicators across various muscles in a model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Only three muscles, the gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and soleus, had lower muscle mass (38%, 27%, and 25% loss of muscle mass, respectively; all at least P < 0.01), while the vastus lateralis muscle mass was increased by 35% (P < 0.01) in RA animals when compared to non-RA controls. However, all four muscles exhibited signs of deterioration indicative of rheumatoid cachexia. Cross-sectional area was similarly reduced in gastrocnemius, EDL, and soleus (60%, 58%, and 64%, respectively; all P < 0.001), but vastus lateralis (22% smaller, P < 0.05) was less affected, while collagen deposition was significantly increased in muscles. This pathology was associated with significant increases in tissue levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in all muscles except the vastus lateralis, while only the gastrocnemius had significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and antioxidant activity (FRAP). Current data illustrates the differential responses of different skeletal muscles of the hindlimb to a chronic inflammatory challenge both in terms of redox changes and resistance to cachexia.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Caquexia/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Caquexia/patologia , Feminino , Membro Posterior/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 187-198, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078725

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a potent toxicant. In the field of public health a chronic-low-level environmental Hg exposure resulting from fish consumption in general population is still being discussed. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of real Hg exposure on biomarkers of selenium (Se) status and selected biomarkers of pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects in healthy men (n = 67) who participated in the short-term intervention study consisting in daily fish consumption for two weeks. The analysis included Se level, Se-associated antioxidants at molecular (profile of 7 genes encoding selected proteins related to antioxidant defense) and biochemical levels (Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases activities and plasma selenoprotein P concentration). A pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance was explored using a biomarker of plasma lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity. The study revealed significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the biomarkers of exposure to Hg, Se level and Se-dependent antioxidants. Even though the risk of adverse effects of Hg for volunteers was substantially low, biomarkers of Hg altered levels of circulation selenoproteins and their genes expression. Changes in genes expression during study differed between the main enzymes involved in two systems: downregulation of thioredoxin reductase1 and upregulation of glutathione peroxidases. Hg exposure caused imbalance between the biomarkers of pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Selênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 230-235, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928372

RESUMO

The aim was to determine the effect of zinc (Zn) and insulin on oxidative stress and levels of dopamine in brain of rats. Wistar rats were treated either with zinc alone or combined with insulin during 10 days. After the last dose blood glucose was measured. Their brains were extracted to measure H2O2, Ca+2, Mg+2 ATPase, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (Tbars) and Dopamine. Zn does not possess anti-glycemic effect like Insulin however, it is noticeable that the combination of Insulin plus Zn induces a major glucose reduction (p < 0.0001) than Insulin alone. In cerebellum/medulla oblongata, the groups treated with Insulin and Zn show a significantly increase in dopamine (p < 0.005). Insulin plus Zn reduced GSH level in cortex. Insulin plus Zn reduced level of H2O2 in Striatum and in cerebellum/medulla oblongata. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by the administration of Insulin as in the combination of Insulin and Zn in all regions (p < 0.0001). In cerebellum medulla oblongata, ATPase activity showed an increase only in the group treated with Insulin + Zn. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the use of insulin plus Zn produce favorable changes on oxidative stress and this as consequence on the levels of dopamine.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 227: 1-7, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998938

RESUMO

AIMS: The current study aims to evaluate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on memory impairment induced by sleep-deprivation in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were chronically sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform model (8 h/day for 8 weeks). Omega-3 fatty acids were administered as fish oil via oral gavage at a daily dose of 100 mg omega-3 PUFA/100 g BWT. The spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Additionally, the following oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the hippocampus: glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). KEY FINDINGS: Animals in the SD group committed significantly more errors in both short- and long- term memory tests of the RAWM compared to other groups. On the other hand, animals that were sleep deprived and treated with omega-3 fatty acids committed similar number of errors compared to the control group. This indicates that SD impaired both short- and long- term memories, and that chronic omega-3 fatty acids administration prevented these effects. Omega-3 fatty acids also prevented the decreases in hippocampal GPx, catalase and GSH/GSSG ratio and normalized the increases in GSSG levels, which were impaired by SD model. No changes were observed on hippocampal TBARS levels, or activity of SOD among experimental groups. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids administration has been observed against chronic SD-induced memory impairment probably via improving hippocampus antioxidant effects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Longo Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
12.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 69: 72-79, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965278

RESUMO

Nanoparticle (NP) forms of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are used in various fields such as engineering, pharmacy, medicine etc. Compounds containing aluminium oxide NPs may present toxic effects after certain thresholds. Thus, the present study was carried out to determine the effects of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al-NPs) in rats. For this aim, different doses (0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg b.w./day) of Al NP (˜40 nm) were orally administered to female rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinus) for 14 days and the response of several biomarkers such as activities of ATPases (total ATPase, Na,K-ATPase, Mg-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), levels of different glutathione forms and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in different tissues. Additionally, tissue accumulation of Al-NPs was demonstrated by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The images showed the presence of Al-NP aggregates in all the tissues at all doses. The sizes of NP aggregates were dependent on NP doses and it was a bit more loose in the brain than in the liver and kidney. AChE activity in the brain decreased significantly at all NP doses, whereas TBARS levels in the liver did not alter significantly at any NP dose. Although there was no significant change in ATPase activities in the intestine at any NP dose, there were significant decreases in the kidney and brain. There were some variations in the levels of total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (rGSH), though these variations were not significant (P > 0.05). Likewise, the ratio of rGSH/GSSG also did not differ significantly among NP doses and control. The brain seems most affected organ following Al-NP administration. This study demonstrated that most biomarkers in the tissues of rats were affected by Al-NP, showing the signal of toxic effects and suggests further studies to understand better the effects of Al NPs, especially in their use for pharmacology.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
13.
Epilepsy Res ; 153: 7-13, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between anti-epileptic usage and oxidative damage has not yet been clearly understood. In our study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters, carnitine levels, liver function tests (LFT) and their relationship in epileptic children treated with valproic acid or levetiracetam. METHOD: LFTs, serum free carnitine and oxidative damage markers and their relations with each other were determined in patients who are on valproic acid or levetiracetam treatment at least for 6 months. 25 patients on therapeutic doses of valproic acid, 26 patients on therapeutic doses of levetiracetam and 26 healthy volunteers as controls were included. LFTs, ammonia, carnitine, lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA) and a sensitive marker of DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were measured. Results of patients are compared to healthy controls. The data is evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. RESULTS: Ammonia and MDA levels were elevated in patients using levetiracetam; 8-OHdG levels were elevated in both patient groups. Carnitine levels were significantly low in patients under valproic acid therapy, however they were not found to be correlated with MDA, 8-OHdG or LFTs. MDA showed positive correlation with ammonia and 8-OHdG in the levetiracetam group. CONCLUSION: We did not observe hepatotoxicity in patients under therapeutic doses of valproic acid. However, epileptic children under therapeutic doses of levetiracetam showed significantly elevated levels of MDA and 8-OHdG, which is supportive for oxidative damage under levetiracetam therapy. This result was observed for the first time in childhood epilepsies and further studies are needed to understand its mechanism.


Assuntos
Carnitina/sangue , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes , Criança , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Epilepsia/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1380605, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918577

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy complication. Abnormal development of the placenta is the prevailing cause theory of this complication. Women with preeclampsia suffer from acute oxidative stress and high lipid oxidation in plasma. The aim of this study was to compare levels of polyphenols and lipid peroxidation in colostrum of nursing mothers with and without preeclampsia. The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Soroka University Medical Center. The study group consisting of 18 women, who were diagnosed with preeclampsia, was compared to the control group: 22 healthy women. The total phenolic content in the colostrum was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring MDA, using the TBARS assay. Polyphenol concentrations were significantly higher (about 33%) in the colostrum of the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.00042). Lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) were significantly lower (about 20%) in the colostrum of the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.03). Negative correlation was found between MDA concentration and the polyphenol level (R = -0.41, p = 0.02). In conclusion, we showed in this study a potential compensation mechanism that protects the newborn of a mother with preeclampsia from the stress process experienced by its mother.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Gravidez , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 287: 280-286, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857701

RESUMO

The effect of winter savory (Satureja montana L.) essential oil (SEO) and supercritical extracts (SE1; SE2) at concentrations of 0.075 and 0.150 µL/g on pH, lipid oxidation (TBARS), microbial growth and sensory quality of fresh pork sausages during storage were investigated. SEO, SE1 and SE2 improved oxidative and microbial stability of fresh pork sausages. The addition of SEO and SE1 at concentration of 0.150 µL/g affected the reduction of total Enterobacteriaeceae count to under 3 log cfu/g. Sausages produced with SE1 and SE2 had a higher scores for odor, flavor and overall acceptance compared to sausages treated with SEO and control sample. Therefore, the results of this paper revealed significant antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of SE1 and SE2, and consequently its high potential of utilization in processing of fresh pork sausages.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha , Satureja/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Suínos , Paladar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
16.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 8690805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886657

RESUMO

Introduction: Kidney disease is a worldwide health and economic burden, with rising prevalence. The search for biomarkers for earlier and more effective disease screening and monitoring is needed. Oxidative stress has been linked to both, acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of our study was to investigate whether the concentrations of systemic markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status are affected by AKI and CKD, and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods: In adult male Wistar rats, AKI was induced by bilateral nephrectomy, and CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood was collected 48 hours after surgery in AKI and 6 months after surgery in CKD. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), fructosamine, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured. Results: Impaired renal function was confirmed by high concentrations of plasma creatinine and urea in AKI and CKD animals. AOPP and fructosamine were higher by 100% and 54% in AKI, respectively, and by 100% and 199% in CKD, respectively, when compared to corresponding control groups. Similarly, there was approximately a twofold increase in AGEs (by 92%) and TAC (by 102%) during AKI. In CKD, concentrations of FRAP, as an antioxidative status marker, were doubled (by 107%) when compared to the control group, but concentration of TAC, another marker of antioxidative status, did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: AKI and CKD led to increased systemic oxidative stress. AOPP and fructosamine could be considered potential biomarkers for both, acute and chronic kidney damage. On the other hand, AGEs, TAC, and FRAP seem to be disease specific, which could help to differentiate between acute and chronic kidney injuries. However, this needs further validation in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Animais , Frutosamina/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
17.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2019: 5413461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854350

RESUMO

Animal models of obstructive cholestasis and ischemia/reperfusion damage have revealed the functional heterogeneity of liver lobes. This study evaluates this heterogeneity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rat models. Twelve-week-old Obese and Lean male Zucker rats were used for NAFLD. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats fed with 8-week methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet and relative control diet were used for NASH. Gelatinase (MMP-2; MMP-9) activity and protein levels, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated in the left (LL), median (ML), and right liver (RL) lobes. Serum hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were assessed. An increase in gelatinase activity in the NASH model occurred in RL compared with ML. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 displayed the same trend in RL as ML and LL. Control diet RL showed higher MMP-9 activity compared with ML and LL. No significant lobar differences in MMP-2 activity were detected in the NAFLD model. MMP-9 activity was not detectable in Zucker rats. TIMP-1 was lower in LL when compared with ML while no lobar differences were detectable for TIMP-2 in either Obese or Lean Zucker rats. Control diet rats exhibited higher ROS formation in LL versus RL. Significant increases in TBARS levels were observed in LL versus ML and RL in control and MCD rats. The same trend for ROS and TBARS was found in Obese and Lean Zucker rats. An increased serum TNF-alpha occurred in MCD rats. A lobar difference was detected for MMPs, TIMPs, ROS, and TBARS in both MCD and Zucker rats. Higher MMP activation in RL and higher oxidative stress in the LL, compared with the other lobes studied, supports growing evidence for functional heterogeneity among the liver lobes occurring certainly in both NAFLD and NASH rats.


Assuntos
Gelatinases/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Zucker , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/metabolismo
18.
Toxicon ; 162: 24-31, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849456

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a grape seed byproduct to mitigate the harmful damage produced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at systemic level in plasma and liver as well as at local level in the gastrointestinal tract in weaned piglets. Twenty four crossbred pigs (TOPIG) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets: 1)- control diet (normal compound feed for starter piglets without mycotoxin), 2)- AFB1 diet (compound feed contaminated with 320 ppb pure AFB1), 3)- GS diet (compound feed including 8% of grape seed meal), 4)- AFB1+GS diet (compound feed containing 8% of grape seed meal contaminated with 320 ppb AFB1) for 30 days. The results showed that pigs fed AFB1 diet had altered performance (-25.1%), increased the thiobarbituric substances (TBARS) concentration wile reduced total antioxidant capacity and activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GPx) in plasma and organs. AFB1 produced a dual effect on inflammatory response by increasing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and colon and decreasing these cytokines in duodenum. The inclusion of grape seed in the diet of AFB1 intoxicated pigs enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity, decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines and TBARS level and ameliorated the growth performance of AFB1-treated animals. These findings suggest that grape waste is a promising feed source in counteracting the harmful effect of aflatoxin B1.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Dieta/veterinária , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Sementes , Sus scrofa/sangue , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
19.
Lipids ; 54(1): 81-97, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767221

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in, or associated with, the development of obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. This work was designed to determine the evolution of inflammation and oxidative stress during onset and progression of hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided to control and high-fat high-fructose (HFHFr) groups. A subgroup of each group was sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. HFHFr-fed rats exhibited overweight, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with increased contents of hepatic diacylglycerols and ceramides. The HFHFr diet increased hepatic interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein and adipose tissue CCL5 gene expression and hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity but not mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The HFHFr diet decreased plasma and liver levels of isoprostanoid metabolites as well as plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Hepatic glutathione content was decreased with a moderate decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with the HFHFr diet. Overall, HFHFr diet led to hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose intolerance, which were accompanied by only moderate inflammation and oxidative stress. Most of these changes occurred at the same time and as early as 8 or 12 weeks of diet treatment. This implies that oxidative stress may be the result, not the cause, of these metabolic alterations, and suggests that marked hepatic oxidative stress should probably occur at the end of the steatotic stage to result in frank insulin resistance and steatohepatitis. These findings need to be further evaluated in other animal species as well as in human studies.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/imunologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 172: 216-224, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710772

RESUMO

Indiscriminate use of insecticides/pesticides affects the structure and function of the ecosystems. The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic potential of Fipronil (a second generation phenylpyrazole) using Spodoptera litura larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an experimental model. Commercial grade of Fipronil, an insecticide was fed (20-80 mg/L) to the 4th instar larvae of S. litura for 12-72 h and examined different molecular, biochemical and organismal parameters. We observed a significant dose- and time-dependent changes in the biochemical parameters such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Catalase (CAT), level of 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) [Malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalent] in the exposed larvae. We also observed that Fipronil interacts with DNA. Next, we examined the influence of sub-cellular damages at the organismal level. The alterations in the parameter such as the delayed emergence of larvae, reduced fecundity, fertility and increased rate of malformation in pupae and adults indicate the sub-organismal damages influence at the organismal level. The findings of the present study suggest that discriminatory non-scientific use of insecticide/pesticide might influence the population dynamics of insects and in large ecosystem too and needs further thorough investigations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , DNA/química , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Pirazóis/química , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
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