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2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2820-2823, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018593

RESUMO

This paper reports our study on the impact of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on the classification of aortic stenosis (AS) patients using cardio-mechanical modalities. Machine learning algorithms such as decision tree, random forest, and neural network were applied to conduct two tasks. Firstly, the pre- and post-TAVR data are evaluated with the classifiers trained in the literature. Secondly, new classifiers are trained to classify between pre- and post-TAVR data. Using analysis of variance, the features that are significantly different between pre- and post-TAVR patients are selected and compared to the features used in the pre-trained classifiers. The results suggest that pre-TAVR subjects could be classified as AS patients but post-TAVR could not be classified as healthy subjects. The features which differentiate pre- and post-TAVR patients reveal different distributions compared to the features that classify AS patients and healthy subjects. These results could guide future work in the classification of AS as well as the evaluation of the recovery status of patients after TAVR treatment.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(9): 759-764, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957759

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the prognosis of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) stenosis. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, who underwent TAVR with follow-up time more than one year in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from April 2016 to August 2018, were included. According to aortic CT angiography, the patients were divided into BAV group and TAV group. The primary endpoint was the composite event of all-cause death and stroke, and the secondary endpoints were TAVR-related complications. Incidence of clinical endpoints and parameters derived from echocardiography were compared between the groups, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the composite event between the two groups. Results: A total of 49 patients were included. The age was (73.6±6.3) years, and 25(51.0%) were male. There were 32 patients in BAV group and 17 in TAV group, the follow-up time was 466 (390, 664) days. The incidence of composite endpoint of death and stroke at one year were comparable in BAV and TAV groups (6.3% (2/32) vs. 5.9% (1/17), P=1.00). Kaplan-Meier curves also showed a similar risk of the composite endpoint(HR=1.03,95%CI 0.09-11.24,Log-rank P=0.98) between two groups. The incidence of all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, severe bleeding, major vascular complications, new-onset atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and permanent pacemaker implantation were all similar between the two groups(all P>0.05), and there was no acute kidney injury (stage 2 or 3) in both groups. Echocardiographic parameters at one year were similar between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The midterm prognosis of TAVR in patients with BAV and TAV stenosis is similar. Clinical trials of large sample size with long-term follow-up are warranted to verify our findings.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 491-496, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has undergone rapid expansion internationally over the past 15 years. In view of resource constraints in developing countries, a major challenge in applying this technology lies in identifying patients most likely to benefit. The development of a risk prediction model for TAVI has proved elusive, with a reported area under the curve (AUC) of 0.6 - 0.65. The available models were developed in a First-World setting and may not be applicable to South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate novel indicators and to develop a TAVI risk prediction model unique to the SA context. The current work represents the important initial steps of derivation cohort risk model development and internal validation. METHODS: Seven-year experience with 244 successive TAVI implants in three centres in Western Cape Province, SA, was used to derive risk parameters. All outcomes are reported in accordance with the Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. Multiple preprocedural variables were assessed for their impact on 1-year survival using univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: Factors found not to correlate with 1-year survival included age, renal function and aortic valve gradients. The commonly used surgical risk prediction models (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and EuroSCORE) showed no correlation with outcomes. Factors found to correlate best with 1-year survival on multivariate analysis were preprocedural body mass index (BMI) (favouring higher BMI), preprocedural left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVED) and ejection fraction (EF) (favouring smaller LVED and higher EF), absence of atrial fibrillation, and three novel parameters: independent living, ability to drive a car, and independent food acquisition/cooking. Discriminant analysis of these factors yielded an AUC of 0.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7 - 0.9) to predict 1-year survival, with resubstitution sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from existing predictors, we identified three novel risk predictors (independent living, ability to drive a car, and independent food acquisition/cooking) for 1-year survival in TAVI candidates. These novel parameters performed well in this early evaluation, with an AUC for predicting 1-year survival higher than the AUCs for many of the internationally derived parameters. The parameters are inexpensive and easy to obtain at the initial patient visit. If validated prospectively in external cohorts, they may be applicable to other resource-constrained environments.


Assuntos
Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Vida Independente , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1059-1069, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921666

RESUMO

Because of its rigidity and non-steerability, the presence of a horizontal aortic root poses a major anatomical issue during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with Evolut self-expanding valve. Previous studies have elucidated the difficulties of coaxial implantation of the self-expanding valve in patients with horizontal aorta, often resulting in increased complications and a lower device success rate. To date, most patients with extremely horizontal aorta (aortic root angle ≥ 70°) have been excluded from major TAVR clinical trials. Therefore, available data on TAVR with Evolut in this challenging anatomy are limited, and standardized treatment strategies and clinical results remain unknown. Herein, we report a clinical case series of TAVR with Evolut in extremely horizontal aorta. Among seven patients (aged 80-92 years; STS score, 12.6% ± 7.9%) who underwent TAVR with Evolut system, aortic root angle ranged from 71° to 83° (mean, 75.1°± 4.5°). All patients achieved device success with dedicated strategies and were clinically stable at 3-month follow-up. None of the patients had more than mild paravalvular leakage (PVL) at any point during follow-up.Complications in three patients included complete atrioventricular block requiring a permanent pacemaker implantation, cerebral infarction because of atrial fibrillation 3 days after TAVR, and cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. In this case series, Evolut self-expanding TAVR in extremely horizontal aorta was effective and feasible with a high device success rate. Based on anatomical features, some dedicated strategies majorly contribute to the success of this procedure. Large-scale multicenter studies are required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Tamponamento Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pericardiocentese , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 961-969, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921672

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling with aortic stenosis (AS) appears to differ according to sex, but reverse remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has not been elucidated in a Japanese population. This study aims to determine whether any sex-related differences in LV or reverse remodeling after TAVI exist in the context of severe AS.Of 208 patients who received TAVI for severe AS in our institution, 100 (men, 42; mean age, 83.0 ± 4.9 years) underwent transthoracic echocardiography before and 3 months after TAVI. Despite similar valvular gradients, women with severe AS had lower indexed LV mass (LVMi) than did men (152.3 ± 35.4 versus 173.2 ± 44.6 g/m2, P = 0.005), with smaller indexed LV end-diastolic (LVEDVi) (50.2 ± 13.3 versus 61.4 ± 20.7 mL/m2, P = 0.001) and end-systolic (LVESVi; 17.9 ± 8.7 versus 24.3 ± 13.8 mL/m2, P = 0.006) volumes. After TAVI, women (-6.0% ± 14.4%) had higher reduction in the rate of change of relative wall thickness (RWT) than did men (4.4% ± 19.0%, P = 0.003). Men (-8.9% ± 3.9%) had higher reduction in the rate of change of LVEDVi than did women (1.5% ± 3.3%, P = 0.045). Incidence of LV reverse remodeling defined as a reduction in LVESV of >15% was significantly higher in men (50%) than in women (26%, P = 0.013).In addition to sex differences in the pattern of LV remodeling with AS, reverse LV remodeling after TAVI also differed between sexes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1447-1457, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Trombose/epidemiologia
15.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 117(9): 802-810, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908111

RESUMO

While hospitalized due to severe aortic stenosis, an 84-year-old woman developed repeated bleeding from angiodysplasia in the stomach leading to a diagnosis of Heyde syndrome. Following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), there was no recurrence of bleeding from the angiodysplasia, and the decrease in von Willebrand factor levels that caused Heyde syndrome also improved. It was felt that the TAVI was able to prevent the recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia in Heyde syndrome.


Assuntos
Angiodisplasia/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos
18.
Amsterdã; s.ed; 20200829. graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1120220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few data exist regarding the late clinical impact of the Selvester score prediction of myocardial fibrosis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This study evaluated the predictive power of the Selvester score on survival in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVR. METHODS and results: Patients with severe AS who had preoperative e le ctrocardiograms were included. Clinical follow-up was obtained retrospectively. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Two hundred twenty-eight patients were included (mean age, 81.5 ± 7.4 years; women, 58.3%). Deceased patients had a higher mean score (4.6 ± 3.2 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3; p < 0.001). At a mean follow-up of 36.2 ± 21.2 months, the Selvester score was independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.84; p < 0.001), cardiovascular death (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.38-1.74; p < 0.001), and MACE (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.30-1.68; p < 0.001). After 5 years, the mortality risk was incrementally related to the Selvester score. The involvement of the inferior wall of the le ft ventric le was a lower mortality risk (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.98; p = 0.046). For a Selvester score of 3, the area under the curve showed 0.92, 0.94, and 0.86 (p <0.001), respectively, for 1, 2, and 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: E le vated Selvester scores increase the risk of poor outcomes in patients with AS undergoing TAVR. The involvement of the anterior or lateral wall presents worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Resultado do Tratamento
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