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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574448

RESUMO

This is the protocol for a scoping review that aims to systematically explore and summarise the published evidence of violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) and subsequent World Health Assembly Resolutions globally. The planned scoping review will seek to identify what research has been conducted on the topic, examine the geographic spread and nature of violations, and summarise knowledge gaps. The Code was adopted in 1981 by the World Health Assembly to protect infant health, in particular from aggressive and inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes including formula and related products. Non-compliance with the Code or violations are described in reports, however, no existing systematic review of the global research appears to have been conducted that encompasses the varied disciplines including health, economics, and gender. The review will inform international and national decision-makers on the nature of violations and potentially highlight the need for new modalities to regulate this marketing. The proposed scoping review will use the six-step process of Arksey and O'Malley which includes defining the research question; identifying the relevant literature; selecting studies; charting the data; collating, summarising and reporting the findings; and will include a consultative group.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Substitutos do Leite , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Marketing , Leite Humano , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The promotion of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) is an important barrier to successful breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To examine the enactment and implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (the Code) in Vietnam with a focus on marketing practices by the baby food industry and perceptions of caregivers, health workers, and policy makers. METHODS: From May to July 2020, we conducted a mixed-method, cross-sectional study including a survey of 268 pregnant women and 726 mothers of infants aged 0-11 months and in-depth interviews with a subset of interviewed women (n = 39), policy makers, media executives, and health workers (n = 31). RESULTS: In the previous 30 days, two mothers (out of 726) participating in the quantitative survey reported that health workers had recommended BMS, at private hospitals in both cases. In-depth interviews with health workers showed that hospitals have internal procedures to prevent the promotion of BMS by health workers. However, companies employed representatives to promote products not covered under the Code (e.g., commercial milk formula for pregnant women) at antenatal care visits and by gaining contact information from women and using this information to promote BMS outside the hospital, often on social media. In the 30 days preceding the survey, one-fifth of pregnant women were exposed to promotions of commercial milk formula for pregnant women and 7.1% to promotions of BMS. Among mothers of infants, 7.3% and 10.7% of respondents with infants aged 0-5 and 6-11 months, respectively, were exposed to some form of BMS promotion in the past 30 days. Around the time of birth, parents commonly brought BMS to maternity facilities (52.5%) or purchased it nearby (35.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although Vietnam has a strong regulatory environment for the protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding, there are implementation, monitoring, and enforcement gaps. Stronger enforcement of national policies to regulate the presence of BMS industry representatives in health facilities-both public and private-and the promotion of BMS products on digital platforms are needed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Marketing/métodos , Substitutos do Leite/legislação & jurisprudência , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/psicologia , Política Nutricional , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vietnã
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444815

RESUMO

The presence of milk in meals and products consumed daily is common and at the same time the adoption of a milk-free diet increases due to milk allergy, lactose intolerance, vegan diets, and others. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for plant-based beverages, which present variable and, sometimes, unknown nutritional characteristics. This study sought to compare the nutritional aspects of plant-based beverages used as substitutes for cow's milk described in scientific studies. Therefore, we used a review of the scientific literature on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Patents, Embase, and ScienceDirect databases. The inclusion criteria were scientific studies referring to plant-based beverage used as an alternative to cow's milk; published in the English language; present data on the serving size, ingredients, and nutritional composition, containing at least data on energy and macronutrients of plant-based beverages. Ingredients and data on energy, macronutrients, and, if available, dietary fiber and some micronutrients of plant-based beverages were collected. Data were obtained from 122 beverages of 22 different matrices, with soy being the most used (27.87%, n = 34). The variation in the amount of nutrients found was 6-183 Kcal/100 mL for energy value; 0.00-22.29 g/100 mL for carbohydrate; 0.06-12.43 g/100 mL for protein; 0.00-19.00 g/100 mL for lipid; 0.00-4.40 g/100 mL for dietary fiber; 0.00-1252.94 mg/100 mL for calcium; 0.04-1.40 mg/100 mL for iron; 0.84-10,178.60 mg/100 mL for magnesium; 0.00-343.43 mg/100 mL for sodium. Salt was the most commonly found added ingredient in plant-based beverages. Some beverages have reached certain amounts of cow's milk nutrients. However, studies have pointed out differences in their qualities/types. Thus, attention is needed when replacing milk with these alternatives.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Intolerância à Lactose , Micronutrientes , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Nutrientes
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 12079-12093, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454754

RESUMO

Most milk replacers (MR) contain more lactose compared with whole milk, which, when fed at a large meal size, could influence gut barrier function in calves. This study evaluated how replacing lactose in MR with fat (on a wt/wt basis) affects intestinal histomorphology and permeability in neonatal dairy calves. Thirty-four Holstein-Friesian bull calves were blocked by dam parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n = 17): a high-lactose (46.1% lactose, 18.0% crude fat, and 23.9% crude protein of dry matter) or a high-fat MR (HF; 39.9% lactose, 24.6% crude fat, and 24.0% crude protein of dry matter). Calves were individually housed and fed pooled colostrum at 1.5 h and 12 h postnatally, at 18 and 9% of metabolic body weight (BW0.75), respectively. From 24 h postnatally until the end of the study (d 7), calves were transitioned to be fed MR (prepared at 15% solids) at 18% of BW0.75 twice daily at 0700 and 1900 h. During postprandial sampling on d 6, intestinal permeability was assessed by mixing lactulose (1.03 g/kg of BW0.75) and d-mannitol (0.31 g/kg of BW0.75) into the morning meal without altering total meal volume. Sequential blood samples were collected via jugular catheter, and total urine was collected for 12 h to measure the marker content. Calves were euthanized 3 h after the morning meal on d 7, and gastrointestinal tract tissues and digesta were collected for analysis of histomorphology, digesta osmolality, and gene expression. The empty gastrointestinal tracts of HF calves were heavier, although length did not differ and differences in histomorphology were minor. Digesta osmolality changed along the tract without differences between treatments. Plasma lactulose was greater in HF, although plasma d-mannitol and the recovery of both markers in urine were unaffected. No significant differences were detected in gene expression, although HF calves tended to have lower expression of TJP1 and CLDN2 and higher expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL1B in ileum tissue. In conclusion, partially replacing lactose in MR with fat resulted in a heavier and more permeable gut, with minor histomorphological differences.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Desmame
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10399-10414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127265

RESUMO

Intensified milk replacer (MR) feeding in calves has nutritional long-term effects and is suggested to increase milk production later in life. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate whether MR feeding intensity has long-term effects on energy metabolism and energy use efficiency of dairy calves. Newborn female Holstein calves (n = 28) were randomly assigned to 2 liquid feeding groups offered daily either 10% of body weight (BW) colostrum followed by 10% of BW MR (10%-MR) or 12% of BW colostrum followed by 20% of BW MR (20%-MR). Calves were housed individually. Weaning was completed by the end of wk 12. Hay and calf starter were fed from d 1 until the end of wk 14 and 16, respectively. A total mixed ration was fed from wk 11 onward, and the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) was determined daily. Energy metabolism of calves was measured in respiratory chambers before weaning in wk 6 and 9, and after weaning in wk 14 and 22. The MEI/BW0.75 was higher before weaning but lower during and shortly after weaning in 20%-MR calves. During the preweaning period, the 20%-MR animals had higher average daily gain, BW, back fat thickness and muscle diameter, but lower plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. The group difference in average daily gain ceased in wk 9, differences in back fat thickness and muscle diameter ceased after weaning, whereas difference in BW0.75 persisted until wk 23. The energy conversion ratio (BW gain/MEI) was not different before weaning, but was lower during and after weaning in 20%-MR calves. The higher MEI and BW0.75 in 20%-MR calves resulted in higher heat production (HP), as well as in higher carbohydrate oxidation (COX) and fat oxidation during the preweaning period. Gas exchange variables normalized to BW0.75 or MEI differed between groups only during preweaning. The energy balance was lower in 10%-MR calves in wk 6 and 9. The HP/BW0.75 and COX/BW0.75 were higher, whereas HP/MEI was lower in 20%-MR calves in wk 6. When normalized to BW0.75 and MEI, HP in wk 6 and 9, and COX in wk 9 was lower in 20%-MR calves. In conclusion, 20%-MR calves showed greater efficiency estimates preweaning, but this effect did not occur after weaning, suggesting that energy use efficiency does not persist until later stages in life.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Substitutos do Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Leite , Desmame
7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 109, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-based milk alternatives are more popular than ever, and chickpea-based milks are among the most commercially relevant products. Unfortunately, limited nutritional value because of low levels of the essential amino acid L-lysine, low digestibility and unpleasant taste are challenges that must be addressed to improve product quality and meet consumer expectations. RESULTS: Using in-silico screening and food safety classifications, 31 strains were selected as potential L-lysine producers from approximately 2,500 potential candidates. Beneficially, 30% of the isolates significantly accumulated amino acids (up to 1.4 mM) during chickpea milk fermentation, increasing the natural level by up to 43%. The best-performing strains, B. amyloliquefaciens NCC 156 and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NCC 2511, were tested further. De novo lysine biosynthesis was demonstrated in both strains by 13C metabolic pathway analysis. Spiking small amounts of citrate into the fermentation significantly activated L-lysine biosynthesis in NCC 156 and stimulated growth. Both microbes revealed additional benefits in eliminating indigestible sugars such as stachyose and raffinose and converting off-flavour aldehydes into the corresponding alcohols and acids with fruity and sweet notes. CONCLUSIONS: B. amyloliquefaciens NCC 156 and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NCC 2511 emerged as multi-benefit microbes for chickpea milk fermentation with strong potential for industrial processing of the plant material. Given the high number of L-lysine-producing isolates identified in silico, this concept appears promising to support strain selection for food fermentation.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lisina/biossíntese , Substitutos do Leite/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Cicer/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genoma Bacteriano , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Paladar
8.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 38, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global advocates for breastfeeding were evident since the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (BMS Code) was adopted in 1981 and fostered by subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions, using a framework that promotes, supports and protects breastfeeding. Global partners provided comprehensive support for countries to achieve breastfeeding targets while progress was closely monitored. This review identifies breastfeeding policy and implementation gaps in Thailand. MAIN FINDINGS: Although Thailand implemented three Thai voluntary BMS Codes, ineffective enforcement results in constant violations by BMS industries. In light of strong resistance by the BMS industries and their proxies, it was not until 2017 that the Code was legislated into national law; however regulatory enforcement is a protracted challenge. A Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), mostly in public hospitals, was successfully applied and scaled up nationwide in 1992, but it later became inactive due to lack of continued support. Several community-based and workplace programmes, which supported breastfeeding, also faced challenges from competing agendas. Although the Labor Protection Law offers 98 days maternity leave with full pay, the conducive environment for successful six- month exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) needs a significant boost. These gaps in policy were exacerbated by a lack of multi-sectoral collaboration, ineffective implementation of existing interventions, inadequate investment, and lack of political will to legislate six-month maternity leave. As a result, the progress of EBF rate during the first 6 months as measured by previous 24 h was erratic; it increased from 12.3% in 2012 to 23.1% in 2015 and decreased to 14% in 2019. There was a deterioration of early initiation from 49.6% in 2006 to 34% in 2019. These low performances hamper the achievement of global targets by 2030. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the following. First, increase financial and human resource investment, and support successful exclusive breastfeeding in BHFI, communities and workplaces through multi-sectoral actions for health. Second, implement the active surveillance of violations and strengthen law enforcement for timely legal sanctions of violators. Third, revitalize the BFHI implementation in public hospitals and extend to private hospitals.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Substitutos do Leite , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Marketing , Gravidez , Tailândia
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 7711-7724, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896629

RESUMO

Lifting the preweaning milk restriction in dairy calves has been causally associated with beneficial effects on growth and future lactation performance. However, the biological mechanisms linking early-life nutrient supply and future performance remain insufficiently understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize growth and the metabolic profiles of calves fed a restricted (RES) and an elevated (ELE) milk supply preweaning. A total of 86 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked in pairs by maternal parity and received identical colostrum supply within block. Treatments randomized within block consisted of a milk replacer (MR; 24% crude protein, 18% crude fat, and 45% lactose) supplied at either 5.41 Mcal of ME in 8 L of MR/d (ELE) or 2.71 Mcal of ME in 4 L of MR/d (RES) from d 2 after birth until they were stepped down by 50% during wk 7 and fully weaned at wk 8. All calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter (17.3% crude protein, 24.4% neutral detergent fiber, 2.0% crude fat, and 18.2% starch), chopped wheat straw, and water. At 2 and 49 d of age, blood samples were taken for metabolomics analysis. The ELE group by design consumed more milk replacer, resulting in a lower starter intake and a greater body weight and average daily gain. The ELE calves consumed 20.7% more ME and 9.7% more crude protein. However, efficiency of growth was not different between groups. Metabolomic profiling using 908 identified metabolites served to characterize treatment-dependent biochemical differences. Principal component analysis revealed clearly distinct metabolic profiles at 49 d of age in response to preweaning milk supply. Changes in energy (fatty acid metabolism and tricarboxylic acid metabolites), protein (free AA, dipeptides, and urea cycle), and liver metabolism (bile acid and heme metabolism) were the main effects associated with the dietary differences. The ELE group consumed proportionately more glucogenic nutrients via milk replacer, whereas the RES group consumed proportionately more ketogenic nutrients from the digestion of the calf starter, comprising a larger portion of total intake. Associated with the higher growth rate of the ELE group, hepatic changes were expressed as differences in bile acid and heme metabolism. Furthermore, energy metabolism differences were noted in fatty acid and AA metabolism and the urea cycle. The metabolic profile differences between the ELE and RES groups reflect the broad differences in nutrient intake and diet composition and might point to which metabolic processes are responsible for greater dairy performance for cows fed a greater milk supply preweaning.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Substitutos do Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Metabolômica , Leite , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Desmame
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 7738-7748, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865577

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate 3 milk replacer (MR) feeding programs on calf performance to 4 mo of age. Male Holstein calves (n = 48; 2-3 d old) were randomly assigned to either a moderate rate of MR (MOD; 0.66 kg/d for 39 d, then 0.33 kg/d for 3 d), an ad libitum rate of MR (ADLIB; offered twice daily between 0630 and 0830 h and between 1430 and 1630 h for 35 d, 0.66 kg/d for 4 d, and 0.33 kg/d for 3 d), or a step-up rate of MR (STEPUP; increased from 0.32 to 0.62 kg/d in first 12 d, 0.66 kg/d for 27 d, and 0.33 kg/d for 3 d). The MR (25% CP, 18% fat) was fed twice daily to d 39 and once daily thereafter. During the nursery phase (0-56 d), calves were housed in individual pens and offered textured starter (40% starch, 21% CP on a DM basis) and water ad libitum. Calf body weight (BW) was measured initially and weekly thereafter. Hip widths (HW) were measured initially and every 2 wk thereafter. In the grower phase, (57-112 d), calves were grouped by previous treatment and moved to group pens (4 calves/pen). The same starter used in the nursery phase was blended with 5% chopped grass hay and offered ad libitum. Calf BW and HW were measured on d 56, 84, and 112. Total MR intake per calf averaged 27, 51, and 25 kg for MOD, ADLIB, and STEPUP programs, respectively, with a range of 42 to 63 kg for ADLIB. In the nursery phase, starter intake and feed efficiency were less for ADLIB versus MOD, whereas fecal scores and abnormal fecal score days were greater for calves fed ADLIB versus MOD. Calves fed STEPUP had lesser average daily gain than calves fed MOD. During the grower phase, initial BW was greater for ADLIB versus MOD, though final BW was not different between MOD and ADLIB or STEPUP. Calves previously fed MOD had greater average daily gain, feed efficiency, and HW change than calves fed ADLIB. In this study, feed efficiency was lower when MR was fed ad libitum, and growth advantages observed at 2 mo were lost by 4 mo of age.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Masculino , Desmame
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 7808-7819, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865583

RESUMO

The consequences of supplementing Lys, Met, and Thr in milk replacers (MR) for calves have been widely studied, but scarce information exists about potential roles of other AA (whether essential or not). The effects on growth performance of supplementation of 4 different AA combinations in a mixed ration (25.4% crude protein and 20.3% fat) based on skim milk powder and whey protein concentrate were evaluated in 76 Holstein male calves (3 ± 1.7 d old). The 4 MR were as follows: CTRL with no AA supplementation; PG, supplying additional 0.3% Pro and 0.1% Gly; FY, supplying additional 0.2% Phe and 0.2% Tyr; and KMT, providing additional 0.62% Lys, 0.22% Met, and 0.61% Thr. All calves were fed the same milk allowance program and were weaned at 56 d of study. Concentrate intake was limited to minimize interference of potential differences in solid feed intake among treatments. Animals were weighed weekly, intakes recorded daily, and blood samples obtained at 2, 5, and 7 wk of study to determine serum urea and plasma AA concentrations. Plasma AA concentrations were explored using compositional data analysis, and their isometric log-ratio transformations were used to analyze their potential influence on ADG and serum urea concentration using a linear mixed-effects model. We detected no differences in calf performance and feed intake. Plasma relative concentration of the AA supplemented in the KMT and PG treatments increased in their respective treatments, and, in PG calves, a slight increase in the proportion of plasma Gly, Glu, and branched-chain AA was also observed. The proportions of plasma branched-chain AA, His, and Gln increased, and those of Thr, Arg, Lys, and Glu decreased with calves' age. A specific log-contrast balance formed by Arg, Thr, and Lys was found to be the main driver for lowering serum urea concentrations and increasing calf growth. The use of compositional mixed-effects models identified a cluster formed by the combination of Arg, Thr, and Lys, as a potential AA to optimize calf growth.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804481

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is critical to maternal and child health and survival, and the benefits persist until later in life. Inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes (BMS), feeding bottles, and teats threatens the enabling environment of breastfeeding, and exacerbates child mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition, especially in the context of COVID-19. These tactics also violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. This study identified marketing tactics of BMS companies since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic by reviewing promotional materials and activities from 9 companies in 14 countries, and the official Code reporting data from the Philippines. Eight qualitative themes emerged that indicate companies are capitalizing on fear related to COVID-19 by using health claims and misinformation about breastfeeding. Other promotional tactics such as donations and services were used to harness the public sentiment of hope and solidarity. Past studies show that these tactics are not new, but the pandemic has provided a new entry point, helped along by the unprecedented boom in digital marketing. There was a sharp increase of reported violations in the Philippines since the pandemic: 291 during the first months of the outbreak compared with 70 in all of 2019, corroborating the thematic findings. A lack of public awareness about the harm of donations and inadequate Code implementation and enforcement have exacerbated these problems. Proposed immediate action includes using monitoring findings to inform World Health Assembly (WHA) actions, targeted enforcement, and addressing misinformation about breastfeeding in the context of COVID-19. Longer-term action includes holding social media platforms accountable, raising public awareness on the Code, and mobilizing community monitoring.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Substitutos do Leite , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Marketing , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806688

RESUMO

Concerns about environmental impact and sustainability, animal welfare, and personal health issues have fueled consumer demand for dairy alternatives. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional survey of plant-based non-dairy beverages from three different continents (USA, Australia, and Western Europe) to assess their nutritional content and health profile. A total of 148 non-dairy beverages were analyzed from the nutrition label and ingredients listed on the commercial package or from the information located on the website of the manufacturer or retailer. The different types of beverages were extracts of nuts or seeds (n = 49), grains (n = 38), legumes (n = 36), coconut (n = 10), and mixed blends (n = 15). On average, the plant-based beverages generally scored well in terms of not containing high levels of sodium, saturated fat, or calories. Over half of the beverages were fortified with calcium to levels equal to or greater than that of dairy milk. The protein content varied from 0 to 10 g/serving. Levels of vitamin D and B12 fortification were quite low. Consumers should be informed of the nutritional profile and potential health benefits of plant-based dairy alternatives as the nutritional content can vary greatly between the different types of beverages.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Substitutos do Leite/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Austrália , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Fabaceae , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes , Sementes , Estados Unidos , Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitamina D/análise
14.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 78, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonization of intestinal microbiota in ruminant during the early life is important to host health, metabolism and immunity. Accumulating evidence revealed the ameliorative effect of milk replacer administration in the gut microbial development of early-weaned ruminants. Yimeng black goats (YBGs) inhabiting Shandong, China show a complex intestinal microbial ecosystem, but studies of their gut microbiota are still insufficient to report. Here, this study was performed to investigate how the gut microbiota develops in weaned YBGs with the effect of age and milk replacer. RESULTS: Results indicated that both age and milk replacer were important factors to change the gut microbiota of YBGs. Although the alpha diversity of gut microbiota did not change with the age of YBGs, the taxonomic compositions significantly changed. The relative abundance of some beneficial bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, Eubacterium and Barnesiella significantly decreased and subsequently increase with age, which contributes to maintain the stability of intestinal environment and realize the diversity of intestinal functions. The relative abundance of Porphyromonas, Brevundimonas, Flavobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Propionibacterium, Acinetobacter, Enterococcus and Clostridium belong to pathogenic bacteria in milk replacer-treated YBGs was significantly decreased. Additionally, some beneficial bacteria such as Ruminococcus, Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae and Ruminiclostridium also display a trend of decreasing first followed by gradually increasing. CONCLUSIONS: This study first revealed the gut bacterial community alterations in YBGs with the effect of age and milk replacer. This study also characterized the gut microbial distribution in YBGs with different ages and provided better insight into microbial population structure and diversity of YBGs. Moreover, milk replacer may serve as a good applicant for improving gut microbial development in early-weaned YBGs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/classificação , China , Fezes/microbiologia , Cabras , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Desmame
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5557-5568, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663862

RESUMO

Direct-fed microbial feed additives with potential to enhance growth performance, gut health, and immunity have gained considerable popularity in neonatal calf production. Lactobacillus plantarum GB LP-1 (LP) produced by a proprietary fermentation process could be a viable direct-fed microbial feed for neonatal calves. The hypothesis was that feeding LP may ease transitioning from milk replacer (MR) to calf starter (CS) by improving gut health and appetite, while minimizing health challenges from pathogens and stress to improve growth performance. The experimental objective was to evaluate LP in an MR feeding program at 3 inclusion rates. Fifty-one 2- to 5-d-old Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments using a randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) Control (LP0): LP fed at 0 g/d; (2) LP4: LP fed at 4 g/d; and (3) LP8: LP fed at 8 g/d. Calves were fed MR at 0.57 kg/d for 14 d via bucket, which was increased to 0.85 kg/d until 35 d, and were then fed once daily at 0.425 kg/d with weaning after d 42 of the 56-d experiment. Calves were fed at 0630 and 1800 h in equal allotments, with access at all times to free-choice water and a pelleted CS with 25.5% crude protein. Calves demonstrated a linear growth response to increasing LP inclusion rate: calves fed LP8 gained more body weight (33.0, 36.9, and 37.7 kg for LP0, LP4, and LP8, respectively) than calves fed LP0, with calves fed LP4 being intermediate and similar. The 0-to-42-d (MR feeding phase) average daily gain (ADG; 562.9, 595.9, and 655.7 g/d) and 0-to-56-d ADG (588.6, 658.4, and 673.0 g/d) demonstrated linear responses, with calves fed LP8 having greater ADG than calves fed LP0, and calves fed LP4 being intermediate and similar. Total CS intake was similar among calves fed all treatments (66.3, 69.0, and 72.5 kg/56 d), which resulted in a quadratic response in feed efficiency (0.50, 0.53, and 0.52 kg of gain/kg of dry matter) for calves fed LP4 compared with calves fed LP0, with calves fed LP8 being intermediate and similar. Fecal scores improved linearly with increasing LP inclusion rate. These data demonstrate that feeding Lactobacillus plantarum GB LP-1 to neonatal calves improves gut health to increase growth performance at 4 and 8 g/d, while feed efficiency was greatest at 4 g/d.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Substitutos do Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Leite , Desmame
16.
Nutrition ; 87-88: 111206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes (World Health Organization [WHO] Code) in Ecuador's two main cities, Quito and Guayaquil. METHODS: The WHO Net Code Protocol was applied. It examines compliance with the WHO Code by: (1) Interviews with health professionals and mothers of children <24 mo in randomly selected health facilities (HFs); (2) Surveillance of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) points of sale (POS); (3) Assessment of BMS labels; and (4) Mass media monitoring. RESULTS: Most HFs were contacted by BMS company representatives. BMS promotional materials were found in one of every four HFs. Almost 50% of health personnel knew about the WHO Code. At least 48.5% of mothers received advice on feeding their children BMS. The varied advice came from several sources. Of POS, 68% failed to comply with the WHO Code in several ways (e.g., giving gifts, promotional packaging, and informational materials) and by reducing the price of BMS. More than half of the BMS labels contained texts or images that idealized their use. More than $1 million of BMS advertising expenses were identified in the media. CONCLUSION: The fact that the WHO Code was violated many times in Quito and Guayaquil strengthens the need for regulatory mechanisms and for the promotion of breastfeeding by multiple sectors.


Assuntos
Marketing , Substitutos do Leite , Aleitamento Materno , Cidades , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Marketing/normas , Leite Humano , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5432-5444, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685703

RESUMO

Compared with Holstein whole milk, commercial milk replacers (MR) for calves deliver relatively high levels of lactose and low levels of fat, and protein levels are rather comparable, resulting in a lower energy density and energy-to-protein ratio of the diet. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially exchanging lactose with fat in MR on voluntary feed intake, growth performance, and feeding behavior. Thirty-two male Holstein calves (2.1 ± 0.16 d of age, 46.4 ± 0.77 kg of body weight; BW) were assigned to 16 blocks of 2 calves per block based on arrival date and serum IgG. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: a high-lactose MR (HL; 17% fat; 44% lactose), or a high-fat MR (HF; 23% fat; 37% lactose). Lactose was exchanged by fat on a weight per weight basis, resulting in a 6% difference in metabolizable energy density per kilogram of MR. The experiment was divided into 3 phases: preweaning (P1; 0-35 d), weaning (P2; 36-56 d), and postweaning (P3; 57-84 d). For the first 2 wk of P1, calves were individually housed, fed their respective MR ad libitum through teat buckets, and provided access to water. At 14.2 ± 0.5 d of age, calves were group-housed (4 blocks/pen, 8 calves) and housed in group pens for the remainder of the study. In the group pens, calves were fed ad libitum MR, starter feed, chopped wheat straw, and water via automated feeders. During P2, calves were gradually weaned until complete milk withdrawal by 57 d and then monitored until 84 d (P3). Measurements included daily intakes and feeding behavior (rewarded and unrewarded visits), weekly BW and body measurements, and biweekly blood samples. Increasing fat content at the expense of lactose decreased MR intake during P1 by 15% (HL = 1.32 ± 0.04; HF = 1.17 ± 0.04 kg of dry matter per day), whereas total starter intake was not affected by MR composition. Once MR was restricted during P2, HL calves were reported to have more unrewarded visits to the automatic milk feeder than HF calves (11.9 ± 0.95 vs. 8.4 ± 1.03 visits/d, respectively). Crude protein intake was higher for HL calves during P1 (352.1 ± 11.2 vs. 319.6 ± 11.6 g/d), which was attributed to the higher intake of MR during that period, and metabolizable energy intake and protein-to-energy ratio remained comparable between treatments. Plasma cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids levels were higher in HF calves as a consequence of the diet. Nevertheless, final BW (84 d) did not differ between treatments. Overall, calves fed ad libitum seemed to regulate their intake of MR based on its energy density, without significant effects on solid feed intake and overall growth.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lactose , Masculino , Desmame
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 6768-6778, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773775

RESUMO

This study evaluated effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding rate and fat concentration in MR on total-tract digestion (TTD) and growth performance in Jersey calves. Jersey heifer calves (n = 100, 2 blocks of 50; initially 30 ± 3.0 kg of body weight; 4-11 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR feeding rate [454 g for 42 d, and 227 g for 7 d (MOD); or 454 g for 7 d, 681 g for 35 d, and 341 g for 7 d (HI), as-fed basis] and MR fat content (17 or 24% fat as-fed basis). Milk replacers (24% crude protein as-fed basis) were reconstituted to 14% solids and fed in 2 equal feedings for 42 d, and then mornings only for 7 d. Textured calf starter (21% crude protein, 40% starch, dry matter basis) and water were offered for ad libitum consumption. From d 57 to 112, calf starter was mixed with 5% chopped grass hay. Calves were housed individually to d 56 and housed in groups (4-5 calves/pen) from d 57 to 112. Estimates of TTD were measured in 5 calves/treatment (block 1) at wk 3 of the study using acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. From 0 to 56 d, calf starter intake (CSI) was greater for MOD vs. HI and 17 versus 24% fat; average daily gain was greater for HI versus MOD; and hip width change was greater for 17 versus 24% fat. Estimates of organic matter TTD were greater for HI versus MOD, but neutral detergent fiber TTD was greater for MOD versus HI and for 17 versus 24% fat. From 57 to 112 d, hip height change was greater for MOD versus HI, and hip width change was greater for 17 versus 24% fat. In this study, feeding Jersey calves more MR improved preweaning average daily gain, but had a negative effect on CSI and likely rumen development, as neutral detergent fiber TTD was reduced at 3 wk and frame growth was reduced from d 57 to 112. This resulted in similar final calf body weights between MR feeding rates at the end of the study. No benefits were observed for feeding more fat in MR as CSI or for NDF digestibility, and frame growth was reduced.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Nutrientes , Desmame
19.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 3159-3169, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729245

RESUMO

Plant-based drinks as a substitute for animal milk consumption are crucial products in the food industry. Soy and rice drinks are the most successful milk substitutes but are low in fiber and protein contents, respectively, whilst being rich in sugars. Generally, an improvement is foreseen; thus, apart from supplement addition, a natural occurring strategy is functionalizing the drinks by beneficial bacteria fermentation. The aim of this work is to develop novel plant-based drinks assessing different mixtures of soy and rice milks fermented with single or multi-strain probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, L. plantarum, L. helveticus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and B. longum). The drinks were characterized to study bacterial performances, by means of culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and their volatilome, by means of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Through multivariate analysis, these features were investigated and correlated to define accurate descriptors of the produced functional drinks. The results showed that combined drinks and multi-strain fermentation generated higher-value products. For example, combined drinks in comparison with single ones had a lower amount of toxic 2-acetyl-3,5-dimethylfuran and higher abundances of desirable compounds such as 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy and butanoic acid. Multivariate analysis of volatile metabolites and physiological parameters could offer a novel approach to assess the quality of functional plant-based drinks and result in a decisional tool for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Substitutos do Leite , Oryza , Probióticos , Soja , Fermentação , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4650-4664, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589259

RESUMO

This study intended to classify ad libitum-fed calves according to their milk replacer (MR) meal size using the K-means clustering approach. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MR meal size on feed intake, growth performance, and blood metabolic and hormones of ad libitum MR-fed calves. German Holstein calves (16 male and 16 female) were studied from birth until d 77 of age. All calves received first colostrum (2.5 kg) milked from their dams within 2 h after birth. Subsequent colostrum meals (subsequent 4 meals until 2.5 d of age; 2 meals/d) and MR (125 g of powder/L; 21.7% crude protein, 18.6% crude fat) were fed ad libitum by teat bucket until d 10 ± 2 of age. Afterward, calves were housed in group pens with automatic feeders for MR (maximum of 25 L/d) and concentrate from 10 ± 3 d of age. Half of the calves received MR supplemented with butyrate to improve growth performance. Milk intake was stepped down to 2 L/d from wk 9 to 10, and 2 L/d of MR were offered until the end of the study. On d 1, 2, 4, and 7, and then weekly until wk 11 of age, blood samples were collected for measurement of metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism and growth. The K-means cluster analysis on the MR meal size data collected from the automatic feeder resulted in 3 clusters (n = 14, n = 12, and n = 6). Two clusters with a sufficient cluster size (n = 14 and n = 12) were included for further statistical analysis using repeated measures mixed-model ANOVA. In both clusters, butyrate supplementation was equally distributed and failed to affect a difference in MR meal size. Cluster 1 showed calves with higher MR meal size (HI; 2.2 ± 0.11 L/visit of MR) and cluster 2 with lower meal size (LO; 1.8 ± 0.07 L/visit of MR) supplemented MR without (HIB-; n = 6; LOB-, n = 7) or with 0.33% calcium-sodium butyrate (HIB+; n = 6; LOB+, n = 7). Dry matter intake of MR did not differ between HI and LO, but intakes of concentrate and total dry matter tended to be greater in HI than in LO and increased more distinctly in HI than in LO at the end of the study. The average daily gain (g/d) was greater in HI than in LO. Plasma concentrations of total protein (g/L), albumin (g/L), glucose (mmol/L), urea (mmol/L), insulin (µg/L), and glucagon (ng/L) were higher, and the concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I tended to be higher, in HI than in LO calves. Plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate was higher in LO than in HI at d 63 and lower in calves fed MR with butyrate at d 77. In conclusion, clustering analysis discriminates 2 main groups of calves with different MR meal size and indicates an effect of MR meal size on solid feed intake, growth performance, and metabolic changes.


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Hormônios , Masculino , Refeições , Gravidez , Desmame
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