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1.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 638-647, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397437

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) performs proteolysis of most intracellular proteins. The key components of the UPS are the proteasomes, multi-subunit protein complexes, playing an important role in cellular adaptation to various types of stress. We analyzed the dynamics of the proteasome activity, the content of proteasome subunits, and the expression levels of genes encoding catalytic subunits of proteasomes in the human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line immediately, 2, 4, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after a heat shock (HS). The initial decrease (up to 62%) in the proteasome activity in cellular lysates was revealed, then 10 h after HS the activity began to recover. The amount of proteasomal α-subunits in the cells decreased 2 h after HS, and was restored to 24-48 h after HS. Fluctuations in the levels of mRNAs encoding proteasome catalytic subunits with the maximum expression 2 h after HS and a gradual decrease to 48 h after HS were observed. The average estimated number of mRNA copies per cell ranged from 10 for weakly to 150 for highly expressed proteasome genes. Thus, the recovery efficiency of UPS functionality after HS, which reflects the important role of proteasomes in maintaining cell homeostasis, was evaluated.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteólise , Células U937 , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(20): 4023-4042, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236625

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also known as complex II or succinate:quinone oxidoreductase is an enzyme involved in both oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle; the processes that generate energy. SDH is a multi-subunit enzyme which requires a series of proteins for its proper assembly at several steps. This enzyme has medical significance as there is a broad range of human diseases from cancers to neurodegeneration related to SDH malfunction. Some of these disorders have recently been linked to defective assembly factors, reinvigorating further research in this area. Apart from that this enzyme has agricultural importance as many fungicides have been/will be designed targeting specifically this enzyme in plant fungal pathogens. In addition, we speculate it might be possible to design novel fungicides specifically targeting fungal assembly factors. Considering the medical and agricultural implications of SDH, the aim of this review is an overview of the SDH assembly factors and critical analysis of controversial issues around them.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/enzimologia , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Proteínas/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/química , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/genética , Coenzimas/química , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/química , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Plantas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075988

RESUMO

Eukaryotic proteasomes harbor heteroheptameric α-rings, each composed of seven different but homologous subunits α1-α7, which are correctly assembled via interactions with assembly chaperones. The human proteasome α7 subunit is reportedly spontaneously assembled into a homotetradecameric double ring, which can be disassembled into single rings via interaction with monomeric α6. We comprehensively characterized the oligomeric state of human proteasome α subunits and demonstrated that only the α7 subunit exhibits this unique, self-assembling property and that not only α6 but also α4 can disrupt the α7 double ring. We also demonstrated that mutationally monomerized α7 subunits can interact with the intrinsically monomeric α4 and α6 subunits, thereby forming heterotetradecameric complexes with a double-ring structure. The results of this study provide additional insights into the mechanisms underlying the assembly and disassembly of proteasomal subunits, thereby offering clues for the design and creation of circularly assembled hetero-oligomers based on homo-oligomeric structural frameworks.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Multimerização Proteica
4.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 75(Pt 5): 359-367, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045565

RESUMO

As of 2017, tuberculosis had infected 1.7 billion people (23% of the population of the world) and caused ten million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is quickly evolving, and new strains are classified as multidrug resistant. Thus, the identification of novel druggable targets is essential to combat the proliferation of these drug-resistant strains. Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) is a key protein involved in cytokinesis, an important process for Mtb proliferation and viability. FtsZ is required for bacterial cell division because it polymerizes into a structure called the Z-ring, which recruits accessory division proteins to the septum. Here, the crystal structure of the MtbFtsZ protein has been determined to 3.46 Šresolution and is described as a dimer of trimers, with an inter-subunit interface between protomers AB and DE. In this work, a novel conformation of MtbFtsZ is revealed involving the T9 loop and the nucleotide-binding pocket of protomers BC and EF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Divisão Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1425281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058184

RESUMO

Leishmania major, a protozoan parasite that diverged early from the main eukaryotic lineage, exhibits unusual mechanisms of gene expression. Little is known in this organism about the transcription factors involved in the synthesis of tRNA, 5S rRNA, and snRNAs, transcribed by RNA Polymerase III (Pol III). Here we identify and characterize the TFIIIB subunit Bdp1 in L. major (LmBdp1). Bdp1 plays key roles in Pol III transcription initiation in other organisms, as it participates in Pol III recruitment and promoter opening. In silico analysis showed that LmBdp1 contains the typical extended SANT domain as well as other Bdp1 conserved regions. Nevertheless, LmBdp1 also displays distinctive features, including the presence of only one aromatic residue in the N-linker region. We were not able to produce null mutants of LmBdp1 by homologous recombination, as the obtained double replacement cell line contained an extra copy of LmBdp1, indicating that LmBdp1 is essential for the viability of L. major promastigotes. Notably, the mutant cell line showed reduced levels of the LmBdp1 protein, and its growth was significantly decreased in relation to wild-type cells. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that Pol III transcription was affected in the mutant cell line, and ChIP experiments showed that LmBdp1 binds to 5S rRNA, tRNA, and snRNA genes. Thus, our results indicate that LmBdp1 is an essential protein required for Pol III transcription in L. major.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/genética , RNA Polimerase III/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIB/genética , Transcrição Genética , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Conservada/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/biossíntese , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/biossíntese , RNA de Transferência/biossíntese
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035668

RESUMO

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na+,K+-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine ß1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst ß1 subunits of the Na+,K+-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the α subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces the detachment of epithelial cells when used at concentrations above 300 nM. At nanomolar non-inhibiting concentrations, ouabain affects the adhesive properties of epithelial cells by inducing the expression of cell adhesion molecules through the activation of signaling pathways associated with the α subunit. In this study, we investigated whether the adhesion between ß1 subunits was also affected by ouabain. We used CHO fibroblasts stably expressing the ß1 subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase (CHO ß1), and studied the effect of ouabain on cell adhesion. Aggregation assays showed that ouabain increased the adhesion between CHO ß1 cells. Immunofluorescence and biotinylation assays showed that ouabain (50 nM) increases the expression of the ß1 subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase at the cell membrane. We also examined the effect of ouabain on the activation of signaling pathways in CHO ß1 cells, and their subsequent effect on cell adhesion. We found that cSrc is activated by ouabain and, therefore, that it likely regulates the adhesive properties of CHO ß1 cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that the ß1 subunit adhesion is modulated by the expression levels of the Na+,K+-ATPase at the plasma membrane, which is regulated by ouabain.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Expressão Gênica , Ligação Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/química , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
7.
Science ; 364(6438): 355-362, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975770

RESUMO

Glutamate-gated AMPA receptors mediate the fast component of excitatory signal transduction at chemical synapses throughout all regions of the mammalian brain. AMPA receptors are tetrameric assemblies composed of four subunits, GluA1-GluA4. Despite decades of study, the subunit composition, subunit arrangement, and molecular structure of native AMPA receptors remain unknown. Here we elucidate the structures of 10 distinct native AMPA receptor complexes by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We find that receptor subunits are arranged nonstochastically, with the GluA2 subunit preferentially occupying the B and D positions of the tetramer and with triheteromeric assemblies comprising a major population of native AMPA receptors. Cryo-EM maps define the structure for S2-M4 linkers between the ligand-binding and transmembrane domains, suggesting how neurotransmitter binding is coupled to ion channel gating.


Assuntos
Receptores de AMPA/química , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Ratos , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Imagem Individual de Molécula
8.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018491

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and release behavior of anthocyanin (ANC) loaded within FA-g-MD wall (ANC-FA-g-MD microcapsule) in vitro. The microencapsulation of ANC was prepared by spray drying and displayed a biphasic release profile. The combination of ANC and FA-g-MD (0.0625-1 mg/mL) showed a higher antioxidant activity than that of both individuals. A possible intermolecular interaction between ANC and FA-g-MD was studied by UV-vis spectra. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, and protein expression of quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC) were measured through human colon cancer cells (HT-29). After a 24-hour incubation of the HT-29, the combinations (0-60 µg/mL) exhibited a high potential to diminish the ROS level. And the distinct upregulated expressions of GCLC and NQO1 of HT-29 were detected after treatment with combinations compared to those of single ones. These results suggested that the ANC-FA-g-MD microcapsules exerts enhanced antioxidant effect with capability of the modulation of GCLC and NQO1.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Cápsulas/síntese química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Polissacarídeos/química , Antocianinas/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidades Proteicas/agonistas , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo
9.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(3): 48-57, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942155

RESUMO

The plateau zokor (Myospalaxbaileyi) is a specialized subterranean rodent that lives on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and has successfully adapted to hypoxic environment. Raised expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and enhanced microvessel density (MVD) in tissues enable subterranean rodents to adapt to hypoxic sealed burrows. However, the expression of VEGF is inhibited by decreases in oxygen content, which is different from what obtains in Sprague Dawley (SD)rats. Thromspondin-1(TSP-1) is the first endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor identified inp53 pathway. It has several domains that bind to different proteins which regulate cell-to-cell interactions, inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and induce endothelial cell apoptosis (anti-angiogenesis). In this study, we analyzed the coding region and the expression pattern of TSP-1 gene in plateau zokor under different oxygen partial pressures using bioinformatics and qRT-PCR, respectively. Our results showed that the base and amino acid homologies between plateau zokor and Northern Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Nannospalaxgalili) were 95.08 and 97.61%, respectively. There were eight parallel evolution sites with Nannospalaxgalili. Evaluation by 'Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant' (SIFT) algorithm showed four sites with significant effects on the function of TSP-1. Three-dimensional (3D) structures revealed that Asp185 and Thr270 were located in the NH2 terminal domain, with Glu536 in the Type I repeat domain, and Thr1092 in the COOH terminal domain. Compared to SD rats, the polarities of these four mutation sites changed. The expression levels of TSP-1 in plateau zokor tissues increased significantly from 2 260 m(16.12kPa) to 3 300 m(14.13kPa), but there was no significant difference in TSP-1 expression in SD rats. In conclusion, due to long-term adaption to the hypoxic environment of sealed burrows, plateau zokor upregulates the expression of TSP-1 to effect anti-angiogenesis. Moreover, mutations in gene structure of TSP-1 may play an important role in inhibiting angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Roedores/genética , Trombospondina 1/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Trombospondina 1/química , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo
10.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841485

RESUMO

Herpesvirus infection is an orderly, regulated process. Among these viruses, the encapsidation of viral DNA is a noteworthy link; the entire process requires a powered motor that binds to viral DNA and carries it into the preformed capsid. Studies have shown that this power motor is a complex composed of a large subunit, a small subunit, and a third subunit, which are collectively known as terminase. The terminase large subunit is highly conserved in herpesvirus. It mainly includes two domains: the C-terminal nuclease domain, which cuts the viral concatemeric DNA into a monomeric genome, and the N-terminal ATPase domain, which hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for the genome cutting and transfer activities. Because this process is not present in eukaryotic cells, it provides a reliable theoretical basis for the development of safe and effective anti-herpesvirus drugs. This article reviews the genetic characteristics, protein structure, and function of the herpesvirus terminase large subunit, as well as the antiviral drugs that target the terminase large subunit. We hope to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesviridae/enzimologia , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Empacotamento do DNA , DNA Viral , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Montagem de Vírus
11.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(2): 63-68, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860473

RESUMO

Caffeine is one of the most extensively consumed stimulants in the world and has been suggested to induce wakefulness by antagonizing the function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic caffeine consumption on learning and memory in the REM sleep-deprived rats.Male Wistar rats (n = 50), were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Control (C), Caffeine (Cf), Pedestal Control (PC), Sleep Deprivation (SD), Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine (SD + Cf). Sleep deprivation procedure was applied as the flower-pot technique. SD and SD + Cf groups were deprived for 18 hours in a day for 21 days. Caffeine was administered daily in drinking water (0.3 g/L) for 5 weeks. For evaluated learning and memory function, Morris Water Maze Test (MWM) was used. Fluidigm Access Array was used for Grin2a, Grin2b, BDNF, cdk5/cdk5r1, CaMKIIa genes expression in the hippocampus. Distance moved and escape latency were decreased through trial days (p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference between groups for time spent in targeted quadrant during probe test for memory performance. Grin2a up-regulation was found in Cf and SD+Cf (p<0.05), and cdk5r1 increased in Cf and PC control (p<0.05). Also, BDNF up-regulation was found in PC group. Grin2b, Cdk5, CaMKIIa expression levels were not changed significantly. We showed chronic caffeine altered some of the hippocampal genes without changing learning and memory in REM sleep deprived rats. Chronic consumption of caffeine caused up-regulation in Grin2a that subunit of NMDA receptor. We supposed that chronic caffeine consumption maintained arousal without affecting learning and memory performance.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , N-Metilaspartato/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1288, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894545

RESUMO

The TFIIH subunit XPB is involved in combined Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome (XP-B/CS). Our analyses reveal that XPB interacts functionally with KAT2A, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that belongs to the hSAGA and hATAC complexes. XPB interacts with KAT2A-containing complexes on chromatin and an XP-B/CS mutation specifically elicits KAT2A-mediated large-scale chromatin decondensation. In XP-B/CS cells, the abnormal recruitment of TFIIH and KAT2A to chromatin causes inappropriate acetylation of histone H3K9, leading to aberrant formation of transcription initiation complexes on the promoters of several hundred genes and their subsequent overexpression. Significantly, this cascade of events is similarly sensitive to KAT2A HAT inhibition or to the rescue with wild-type XPB. In agreement, the XP-B/CS mutation increases KAT2A HAT activity in vitro. Our results unveil a tight connection between TFIIH and KAT2A that controls higher-order chromatin structure and gene expression and provide new insights into transcriptional misregulation in a cancer-prone DNA repair-deficient disorder.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Síndrome de Cockayne/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/genética , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Acetilação , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cockayne/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cockayne/patologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histona Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/metabolismo , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/metabolismo , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/patologia
13.
EBioMedicine ; 41: 333-344, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly discovered family of immune cells that have similar cytokine-secreting profiles as T helper cell subsets. Although ILCs are critical for host defense against infections and tissue homeostasis, their roles in tumor development are not well established. METHODS: We studied the function of ILC3 cells in the liver for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in murine HCC models using flow cytometry, adoptive transfer, and in vitro functional assays. FINDINGS: We found that ILC3 lacking the natural cytotoxicity-triggering receptor (NCR-ILC3) promoted the development of HCC in response to interleukin 23 (IL-23). IL-23 serum level is elevated in HCC patients and its high expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We found that IL-23 could promote tumor development in murine HCC tumor models. IL-23 promoted the expansion of NCR-ILC3 and its differentiation from group 1 ILCs (ILC1s). Furthermore, NCR-ILC3 initiated IL-17 production upon IL-23 stimulation and directly inhibited CD8+ T cell immunity by promoting lymphocyte apoptosis and limiting their proliferation. INTERPRETATION: Together, our findings suggest that NCR-ILC3 initiates the IL-17-rich immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promotes the development of HCC, thus may serve as a promising target for future cancer immunotherapy. FUND: This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471586, 81571556), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, the collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, start-up grant from National University of Singapore, the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas CPRIT (RR180017), and the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Center Support (Core) Grant CA016672 (to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/análise , Interleucina-23/análise , Interleucina-23/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Subunidades Proteicas/deficiência , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Transplante Homólogo
14.
J Biol Chem ; 294(15): 6157-6171, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728247

RESUMO

A number of epilepsy-causing mutations have recently been identified in the genes of the α1, ß3, and γ2 subunits comprising the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor. These mutations are typically dominant, and in certain cases, such as the α1 and ß3 subunits, they may lead to a mix of receptors at the cell surface that contain no mutant subunits, a single mutated subunit, or two mutated subunits. To determine the effects of mutations in a single subunit or in two subunits on receptor activation, we created a concatenated protein assembly that links all five subunits of the α1ß3γ2 receptor and expresses them in the correct orientation. We created nine separate receptor variants with a single-mutant subunit and four receptors containing two subunits of the γ2R323Q, ß3D120N, ß3T157M, ß3Y302C, and ß3S254F epilepsy-causing mutations. We found that the singly mutated γ2R323Q subunit impairs GABA activation of the receptor by reducing GABA potency. A single ß3D120N, ß3T157M, or ß3Y302C mutation also substantially impaired receptor activation, and two copies of these mutants within a receptor were catastrophic. Of note, an effect of the ß3S254F mutation on GABA potency depended on the location of this mutant subunit within the receptor, possibly because of the membrane environment surrounding the transmembrane region of the receptor. Our results highlight that precise functional genomic analyses of GABAA receptor mutations using concatenated constructs can identify receptors with an intermediate phenotype that contribute to epileptic phenotypes and that are potential drug targets for precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular , Epilepsia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Subunidades Proteicas , Receptores de GABA-A , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/patologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
15.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(1): 13-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704918

RESUMO

We cloned a set of genes encoding alcohol oxidase from Ochrobactrum sp. AIU 033 (OcAOD), which exhibits the appropriate substrate specificity for glyoxylic acid production from glycolic acid. The set of genes for OcAOD contained two open reading frames consisting of 555-bp (aodB) and 1572-bp (aodA) nucleotides, which encode the precursor for the ß-subunit and α-subunit of OcAOD, respectively. We expressed the cloned genes as an active product in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant OcAOD oxidized glycolic acid and primary alcohols with C2-C8 but not glyoxylic acid (as is the case for native OcAOD), whereas the Km and Vmax values for glycolic acid and the pH stability were higher than those of native OcAOD. A consensus sequence for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway was identified in the N-terminal region of the precursor for the ß-subunit, and the active form of OcAOD was localized in the periplasm of recombinant E. coli, which indicated that OcAOD would be transported from the cytoplasm to the periplasm by the hitchhiker mechanism through the Tat pathway. The OcAOD productivity of the recombinant E. coli was 24-fold higher than that of Ochrobactrum sp. AIU 033, and it was further enhanced by 1.2 times by the co-expression of additional tatABC from E. coli BL21(DE3). Our findings thus suggest a function of the ß-subunit of OcAOD in membrane translocation, and that the recombinant OcAOD has characteristics that are suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of glyoxylic acid as well as native OcAOD.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Arginina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ochrobactrum/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glioxilatos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Ochrobactrum/enzimologia , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Periplasma/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Biol Chem ; 294(13): 4759-4774, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723160

RESUMO

Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are obligatory dimers that are particularly important for neuronal responses to endogenous and environmental stimuli. Ligand recognition through large extracellular domains leads to the reorganization of transmembrane regions to activate G protein signaling. Although structures of individual domains are known, the complete architecture of a class C GPCR and the mechanism of interdomain coupling during receptor activation are unclear. By screening a mutagenesis library of the human class C sweet taste receptor subunit T1R2, we enhanced surface expression and identified a dibasic intracellular retention motif that modulates surface expression and co-trafficking with its heterodimeric partner T1R3. Using a highly expressed T1R2 variant, dimerization sites along the entire subunit within all the structural domains were identified by a comprehensive mutational scan for co-trafficking with T1R3 in human cells. The data further reveal that the C terminus of the extracellular cysteine-rich domain needs to be properly folded for T1R3 dimerization and co-trafficking, but not for surface expression of T1R2 alone. These results guided the modeling of the T1R2-T1R3 dimer in living cells, which predicts a twisted arrangement of domains around the central axis, and a continuous folded structure between transmembrane domain loops and the cysteine-rich domains. These insights have implications for how conformational changes between domains are coupled within class C GPCRs.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Multimerização Proteica/fisiologia , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
17.
Neurochem Res ; 44(4): 978-993, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747310

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment in diabetes (CID) is a severe chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been hypothesized that diabetes can lead to cognitive dysfunction due to expression changes of excitatory neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR); however, the pathogenesis involved in this has not been fully understood, especially at early phase of DM. Here, we sought to determine the cognitive changes and aim to correlate this with the expression changes of NMDAR and AMPAR of glutamate signaling pathways in the rat hippocampus from early phase of DM and in the course of the disease progression. By Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence labeling, the hippocampus in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in protein expression NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B and AMPAR subunit GluR1. Along with this, behavioral test by Morris water maze showed a significant decline in their performance when compared with the control rats. It is suggested that NR1, NR2A, NR2B and GluR1are involved in learning and memory and that their expression alterations maybe correlated with the occurrence and development of CID in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/biossíntese , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/biossíntese , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Subunidades Proteicas/biossíntese , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética
18.
Soft Matter ; 15(9): 1999-2008, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719518

RESUMO

Vimentin intermediate filaments constitute a distinct filament system in mesenchymal cells that is instrumental for cellular mechanics and migration. In vitro, the rod-like monomers assemble in a multi-step, salt-dependent manner into micrometer long biopolymers. To disclose the underlying mechanisms further, we employed small angle X-ray scattering on two recombinant vimentin variants, whose assembly departs at strategic points from the normal assembly route: (i) vimentin with a tyrosine to leucine change at position 117; (ii) vimentin missing the non-α-helical carboxyl-terminal domain. Y117L vimentin assembles into unit-length filaments (ULFs) only, whereas ΔT vimentin assembles into filaments containing a higher number of tetramers per cross section than normal vimentin filaments. We show that the shape and inner structure of these mutant filaments is significantly altered. ULFs assembled from Y117L vimentin contain more, less tightly bundled vimentin tetramers, and ΔT vimentin filaments preserve the number density despite the higher number of tetramers per filament cross-section.


Assuntos
Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Mutação , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Vimentina/química , Vimentina/genética , Humanos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 38, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many physiological processes are influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), ranging from neuromuscular and parasympathetic signaling to modulation of the reward system and long-term memory. Due to the complexity of the nAChR family and variable evolutionary rates among its members, their evolution in vertebrates has been difficult to resolve. In order to understand how and when the nAChR genes arose, we have used a broad approach of analyses combining sequence-based phylogeny, chromosomal synteny and intron positions. RESULTS: Our analyses suggest that there were ten subunit genes present in the vertebrate predecessor. The two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (1R and 2R) then expanded this set to 19 genes. Three of these have been lost in mammals, resulting in 16 members today. None of the ten ancestral genes have kept all four copies after 2R. Following 2R, two of the ancestral genes became triplicates, five of them became pairs, and three seem to have remained single genes. One triplet consists of CHRNA7, CHRNA8 and the previously undescribed CHRNA11, of which the two latter have been lost in mammals but are still present in lizards and ray-finned fishes. The other triplet consists of CHRNB2, CHRNB4 and CHRNB5, the latter of which has also been lost in mammals. In ray-finned fish the neuromuscular subunit gene CHRNB1 underwent a local gene duplication generating CHRNB1.2. The third tetraploidization in the predecessor of teleosts (3R) expanded the repertoire to a total of 31 genes, of which 27 remain in zebrafish. These evolutionary relationships are supported by the exon-intron organization of the genes. CONCLUSION: The tetraploidizations explain all gene duplication events in vertebrates except two. This indicates that the genome doublings have had a substantial impact on the complexity of this gene family leading to a very large number of members that have existed for hundreds of millions of years.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos/genética , Éxons/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Sintenia/genética , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 141: 384-391, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648615

RESUMO

The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R), in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), plays an important role in alcohol reward mechanisms. The major neuronal type within the NAc is the GABAergic medium spiny neuron (MSN), whose activity is regulated by dopaminergic inputs. We previously reported that genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of D3R increases GABAA α6 subunit in the ventral striatum. Here we tested the hypothesis that D3R-dependent changes in GABAA α6 subunit in the NAc affect voluntary alcohol intake, by influencing the inhibitory transmission of MSNs. We performed in vivo and ex vivo experiments in D3R knockout (D3R -/-) mice and wild type littermates (D3R +/+). Ro 15-4513, a high affinity α6-GABAA ligand was used to study α6 activity. At baseline, NAc α6 expression was negligible in D3R+/+, whereas it was robust in D3R-/-; other relevant GABAA subunits were not changed. In situ hybridization and qPCR confirmed α6 subunit mRNA expression especially in the NAc. In the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm, systemic administration of Ro 15-4513 inhibited alcohol intake in D3R+/+, but increased it in D3R-/-; this was confirmed by intra-NAc administration of Ro 15-4513 and furosemide, a selective α6-GABAA antagonist. Whole-cell patch-clamp showed peak amplitudes of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in NAc medium spiny neurons higher in D3R-/- compared to D3R+/+; Ro 15-4513 reduced the peak amplitude in the NAc of D3R-/-, but not in D3R+/+. We conclude that D3R-dependent enhanced expression of α6 GABAA subunit inhibits voluntary alcohol intake by increasing GABA inhibition in the NAc.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/genética , Neurônios GABAérgicos/patologia , Receptores de Dopamina D3/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Animais , Bebedeira/patologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/patologia , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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