Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 986
Filtrar
1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(4): 139-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955584

RESUMO

Introduction: Comprehensive predictors of first-year students' academic performance, including pre-university experience, can be found at both individual and infrastructural levels that can be measured and used to increase academic performance and contribute to student mental health. Aim: To study the characteristics of students who are beginning their studies in medical, dental, pharmacy and health care organization. Method: Analysis of a database obtained through questionnaire data among first-year Semmelweis University students (n = 550). Significant explanatory variables influencing student performance were determined by logistic regression. Results: Different faculties and prestige channels have different success factors and student needs, the fulfillment of which also serves the maintenance of student mental health. Two groups were defined: (i) factors independent of age (perseverance value, religious belief, WHO value of well-being, importance of sport, trust), (ii) faculty-specific factors (Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry: parental influence on learning; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences: the importance of relationships is high; Faculty of Health Sciences: parental qualifications are decisive). Conclusion: At the start of a student's life, measurements can uncover factors that, if learned, can facilitate later successful studies, preventing early school leaving. During the course of studies, these features can be monitored continuously, so that the necessary interventions can be made to ensure student success. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(4): 139-150.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 81-87, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977085

RESUMO

The number of international students coming to the U.S. for post-secondary education has been steadily increasing. Prior research has found that international students encounter many barriers to academic success, but this topic has not been previously studied for the discipline of dental hygiene. The aims of this study were to investigate the barriers and challenges to academic success faced by international students in U.S. dental hygiene programs and to explore the students' thoughts on the value they bring to those programs. The overlapping qualitative methods of semi-structured focus groups and one-on-one interviews with 12 students in three U.S. dental hygiene programs were used for this phenomenological study. In the results, six themes emerged: language proficiency, communication challenges with faculty and patients, ability to adapt to a new educational system, adjusting to cultural differences, feelings of belonging, and the value of diversity. The most significant barrier for the participants was comprehension of the English language. Didactically, these students reported that they needed additional time to study and to process examination questions. This study found that these international students studying dental hygiene in the U.S. had academic challenges similar to international students studying in other disciplines. Dental hygiene educators may need to evaluate their didactic and test-taking strategies to ensure the academic success of international students.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Higienistas Dentários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Estudantes
3.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 294-304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335600

RESUMO

Drawing on my experience as a queer, genderqueer, Puerto Rican counselor educator, this article considers how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can expand to better include people with multiple marginalized identities. This article highlights some of the contradictions that educators face when engaging in the liberatory praxis that connects and creates a sense of belonging during these tumultuous times. This reflection suggests a decolonizing approach to intersectionality and highlights the importance of transcending binary discourse to engage in deconstructing the multiple layers of colonization in our internal and external spaces that is necessary for liberatory praxis. Finally, a few recommendations for how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can support scholars with multiple marginalized identities are identified.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Distância Social , Sucesso Acadêmico , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Apoio Social , Ensino , Redação
4.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 20-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860480

RESUMO

AIM: This article discusses the challenges of international PhD nursing students and recommends strategies to support them. BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 percent of the students enrolled in research-focused nursing doctoral programs in the United States are non-US residents, challenging schools of nursing to examine ways to support these students. METHOD: We searched five electronic databases using international student* AND doctoral OR graduate as search terms; we integrated the authors' experiences. RESULTS: Faculty and peer support can promote a smooth transition into the United States. Participating on research teams or school committees promotes academic socialization. Dissertation work has multiple unique challenges, including international relevance of topics, translation, funding, and location of the research. CONCLUSION: Faculty advisers and universities can facilitate student adjustment. Once international students become familiar with the academic requirements and culture, they have the capacity to contribute rich, diverse perspectives that greatly enhance the quality of PhD education.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estados Unidos
5.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(3): 109-120, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) provide a supportive educational and therapeutic environment for students subsequent to treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Most students served by RHSs have concurrent mental health disorders and are at risk for school failure or dropout and substance use relapse. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The central question addressed is whether RHSs are economically efficient alternatives to other high school settings for students in recovery. The aim is to estimate the incremental cost-benefit of RHSs. METHODS: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. We compared substance use and educational outcomes for adolescents who had received specialty SUD treatment; 143 who enrolled in an RHS were compared to 117 who enrolled in a non-RHS school. Groups were balanced by use of a propensity score to drop students who were not similar to those in the other group. The propensity score was also used as a covariate in multiple regression to estimate cost and outcome parameters and standard errors. To take account of uncertainties in impacts and shadow prices, we used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the distribution of incremental benefits of RHS relative to non-RHS schooling. RESULTS: Two beneficial impacts of statistical and substantive importance were identified: increased probability of high school graduation and increased sobriety. RHS students had significantly (p<.05) less substance use during the study period -- at 12-month follow-up, 55% of RHS and 26% of comparison students reported 3 month abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Urinalysis confirmed abstinence from THC (cannabis) for 68% of RHS versus 37% of comparison students. RHS students' high school graduation rates were 21 to 25 percentage points higher than comparison students. Adopting a societal perspective, incremental benefits of RHSs were estimated by monetizing the increased probability of high school graduation and comparing it to incremental costs. Mean net benefits ranged from USD16.1 thousand to USD51.9 thousand per participant; benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 3.0 to 7.2. DISCUSSION: Monetizing the benefits and the incremental costs of RHS relative to conventional schooling show substantial positive net benefits from RHS participation. Two factors lend credibility to the results. First, the RHS improvement in substance use indicates a mechanism through which the increased probability of high school graduation can plausibly occur. Second, the estimated increases in the probability of high school graduation were large and statistically significant. As the productivity gains from high school graduation are also large, the dominant benefit category is very plausible. Limitations include the non-randomized design; selection bias into the study conditions not fully controlled by the propensity scores; generalizability only to young people with treated behavioral health disorders; lack of estimates for direct monetization of reduced substance use among adolescents; possible attenuation of the value of education among individuals with behavioral health issues; and uncertainty in calculation of school costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH POLICIES: This research provides evidence that the recovery high school model provides cost beneficial support for high school students after primary SUD treatment. The students who enroll in RHSs typically have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, adding complexity to their continuing care. Funding policies recognizing the multiple systems of care (behavioral health, education, child and family services, juvenile justice) responsible for these young people are called for.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1447, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health selection hypothesis suggests that poor health leads to low educational attainment during the life course. Adolescence is an important period as poor health might prevent students from making the best educational choices. We test if health in adolescence is associated with educational aspirations and whether these associations persist over and above sociodemographic background and academic achievement. METHODS: Using classroom surveys, a cohort of students (n = 5.614) from the Helsinki Metropolitan Region was followed from the 7th (12-13 years,) up to the 9th grade (15-16 years) when the choice between the academic and the vocational track is made in Finland. Health factors (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-rated health, daily health complaints, and long-term illness and medicine prescribed) and sociodemographic background were self-reported by the students. Students' educational aspirations (applying for academic versus vocational track, or both) and their academic achievement were obtained from the Joint Application Registry held by the Finnish National Agency for Education. We conducted multilevel multinomial logistic regression analyses, taking into account that students are clustered within schools. RESULTS: All studied health factors were associated with adolescents' educational aspirations. For the SDQ, daily health complaints, and self-rated health these associations persisted over and above sociodemographic background and academic achievement. Students with better health in adolescence were more likely to apply for the academic track, and those who were less healthy were more likely to apply for the vocational track. The health in the group of those students who had applied for both educational tracks was in between. Inconsistent results were observed for long-term illness. We also found robust associations between educational aspirations and worsening health from grade 7 to grade 9. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that selection by health factors to different educational trajectories takes place at early teenage much before adolescents choose their educational track, thus supporting the health selection hypothesis in the creation of socioeconomic health inequalities. Our findings also show the importance of adolescence in this process. More studies are needed to reveal which measures would be effective in helping students with poor health to achieve their full educational potential.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Nível de Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 40(6): E16-E18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609818

RESUMO

The relationships between social identity, stereotype threat, and academic success were explored among prenursing students. Stereotype threat has been linked to academic success in students from underrepresented populations within the social sciences and educational literature but has not been explored in nursing. A descriptive correlational design was used with Picho and Brown's Social Identities and Attitudes Scale emailed to 159 prenursing students. Stereotype threat was significantly related to race/ethnicity with no significant relationship between stereotype threat and academic success. Further exploration of stereotype threat in nursing is warranted; there may be implications for retention and support of diverse students.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Identificação Social , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1883-1898, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520237

RESUMO

Research on sexual and gender minority student achievement indicates that such students report lowered achievement relative to other students. Increased victimization and less school belonging, amongst other factors, have been identified as contributing to these inequalities. However, supportive schooling structures and caregiver support may support their achievement. A nationally representative survey of secondary school students was used to identify specific factors that support achievement for sexual minority (n = 485), gender minority (n = 298), and heterosexual cisgender (where one's sex assigned at birth "matches" a binary gender identity, i.e., a male assigned at birth identifies as a boy/man, n = 7064) students in New Zealand. While reported victimization did not affect achievement for sexual and gender minority students, school belonging, and teacher expectations of success, emerged as significant factors. Differences emerged between sexual minority and gender minority achievement factors, suggesting a range of detailed policy implications and recommendations.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although other mechanisms are also involved, at least one reason high educational attainment (EA) is associated with better health is lower employment stress in individuals with high EA. Minorities' Diminished Returns, however, refer to the smaller protective health effects of EA for racial- and ethnic-minority individuals, particularly African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, as compared to Whites. We are, however, not aware of many studies that have explored differential associations between EA and work-related stress across racial and ethnic groups. AIMS: We aimed to compare racial and ethnic groups for the association between EA and occupational stress in a national sample of American adults. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2015), a cross-sectional survey, included 15,726 employed adults. Educational attainment was the dependent variable. Occupational stress was the outcome. Race and ethnicity were the moderators. Age, gender, number of jobs, and years in the job were the covariates. RESULTS: Overall, higher EA was associated with lower levels of occupational stress. Race and ethnicity both interacted with EA, suggesting that the association between high EA and reduced occupational stress is systemically smaller for AAs and Hispanics than it is for Whites. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, race and ethnicity limit the health gains that follow EA. While EA helps individuals avoid environmental risk factors, such as occupational stress, this is more valid for non-Hispanic Whites than AAs and Hispanics. The result is additional physical and mental health risks in highly educated AAs and Hispanics. The results are important, given racial and ethnic minorities are the largest growing section of the US population. We should not assume that EA is similarly protective across all racial and ethnic groups. In this context, EA may increase, rather than reduce, health disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540214

RESUMO

Health literacy as a set of competencies to promote and sustain health has received significant research attention, particularly in studies on adults. Improving health literacy at an early age is crucial to personal health and development, so there is a need to investigate the health literacy of school-aged children. The aims of this study were to determine the level of subjective health literacy among adolescents in Lithuania and to examine the association between health literacy, school achievement, health education in schools, and family affluence. Health literacy was assessed using a brief Health Literacy for School-Aged Children instrument on a representative sample of 2369 subjects (from the 7th to 10th grades). Overall, 12.1% of all respondents had low, 70.5% moderate, and 17.4% a high level of health literacy. School achievements were found to be a significant predictor of health literacy, as were the number of school-based health promotion events. Family affluence also predicted an increased level of health literacy. This study was the first nationally representative examination of this topic in Lithuania and it highlighted the alarming finding that less than one-fifth of adolescents had high health literacy.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 331-337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Academic learning is the most important source of stress among young students worldwide and appears to be quite severe in eastern countries. We aimed to examine the relationship between academic stress and depression among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in United Arab Emirates using the Perceived Stress Scale - 14 (PSS-14) and Educational Stress Scale (ESS) for Adolescents (English and Arabic versions). RESULTS: The overall PSS was high in 186 (20%) of the respondents, and moderate in 695 (76%). A multiple regression model of predictors of the PSS showed statistically significant correlations between the total PSS-14 scores and age (p<0.0004), gender (p<0.0001), and grade (p<0.001). A multiple regression model of the PSS-14 questionnaire as predictors of the ESSA revealed that Four variables on PSS-14 were statistically significant predictors of the ESSA: history of depression (p<0.0001), content with academic achievement (p<0.0001), high academic expectation of parents (p<0.003), and a believe capable of meeting parental expectations (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with severe academic stress need to be identified early. We suggest that an interdisciplinary team in the schools including student advisors and counselors be developed to further address stressors. In addition, students should be taught different stress management techniques such as cognitive behavioral skills to improve their ability to cope with school demands. The identification of stressors may lead to strategies that might address the quality of teaching and mental health evaluation among adolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Depressão/psicologia , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Emirados Árabes Unidos
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4877-4890, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482372

RESUMO

College may be considered a gateway to success, yet access to college is limited for young adults with autism. Given the research recommendations to elicit student experiences and to communicate among universities to improve college access, success, and equity, the present study examined the questions: What factors are perceived as pathways to success or barriers to success by college students on the autism spectrum? What university provided accommodations and/or support services do they prefer? Participants from four universities completed surveys and semi-structured interviews. Findings from the multi-university study suggest the need to provide transition planning and systematic non-academic social and emotional supports from the start of the college experience as well as specific training for faculty, staff, and peers.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2038-2050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482515

RESUMO

Teaching mathematics involves helping students develop mathematical skills and empowering students to see themselves as capable of participating in and being knowers and doers of mathematics. Extant research has postulated that mathematics identity is a critical contributor to adolescents' mathematics achievement and subsequent academic success. Guided by motivation and instructional quality theories, this classroom-based study examined a mediating mechanism through which teacher practices associated with mathematics identity through motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancies, task values, and cost value). Participants included 525 sixth-grade students (48.6% male; 64% European American, 34% African American, 2% other race; 58.6% free-or-reduced lunch) in the United States. The findings suggest that competence beliefs and task values, except for cost value, mediated the association between teacher practices and mathematics identity. These mediation pathways also differed by race. The mediating role of mathematics expectancies was stronger for European American adolescents, while the mediating role of mathematics task values was stronger for African American adolescents, though effect sizes were relatively modest. Teachers seeking to develop students' mathematics identity-especially in their minority or stereotyped students-might consider enhancing their sensitivity to students' psychological needs, quality of feedback, and instructional learning supports in their daily interaction with students.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/etnologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos
16.
Neuropsychiatr ; 33(4): 179-190, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The percentage of smartphone users-especially among minors-is growing, and so is the body of literature hinting at increasing rates of problematic smartphone use in children and adolescents. However, comprehensive reviews regarding this issue are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this review was to provide an overview of studies focusing on specific risk factors predicting problematic smartphone use in children and adolescents. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in Google Scholar and PubMed. RESULTS: The search yielded 38 articles that met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Research regarding influencing factors such as gender, age, and social, family, and personality factors, as well as duration of use and use patterns, could be found. Results seem to cautiously suggest that using a smartphone for gaming and social networking might be risk factors, whereas having good friendships might constitute a protective factor. Also, female adolescents seem to be prone to a higher smartphone addiction risk than male adolescents. For family, school, and personality factors, results are still scarce, and more research is needed. Nevertheless, strict parenting, low self-control, and low self-esteem seem to increase risks for problematic use, whereas academic motivation and school success might decrease this risk. CONCLUSION: A concise theoretical conceptualization of problematic smartphone use and corresponding standardized measures are needed to increase comparability of future studies and to thereby add to a clearer understanding of this contested concept.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Rede Social , Jogos de Vídeo
17.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 788-791, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The most common treatment for this disorder is methylphenidate, which is a disqualifying medication for flight. Candidates with previous use of methylphenidate are not necessarily disqualified from the Israeli Air Force (IAF) flight academy.METHODS: Flight cadets from 12 consecutive flight courses who have used methylphenidate at least once in the past were identified according to their medical records. The graduation ratio of cadets with previous use of methylphenidate was compared with that of the rest of the cadets. A comparison was also made with regard to the causes of disqualification from the flight course. Statistical significance was assessed using the Fischer Test.RESULTS: Among the 90 flight cadets who have used methylphenidate, only 2 (2.2%) successfully graduated from the IAF flight academy. Among the 2983 flight cadets who have no history of methylphenidate use, 461 (15.4%) successfully graduated. We found no significant differences in the disqualification causes between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The IAF flight academy graduation rate was meaningfully and significantly lower among cadets who reported previous use of methylphenidate. The study design, however, limits the inference of causal relationship.Sarfati S, Nakdimon I, Tsodyks J, Assa A, Gordon B. Success rates at an air force pilot academy and its relation to methylphenidate use. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):788-791.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Militares/educação , Pilotos/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pilotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(9): 1640-1655, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464486

RESUMO

Mindset theory predicts that a growth mindset can substantially improve children's resilience to failure and enhance important outcomes such as school grades. We tested these predictions in a series of studies of 9-13-year-old Chinese children (n = 624). Study 1 closely replicated Mueller and Dweck (1998). Growth mindset manipulation was associated with performance on a moderate difficulty postfailure test (p = .049), but not with any of the 8 motivation and attribution measures used by Mueller and Dweck (1998): mean p = .48. Studies 2 and 3 included an active control to distinguish effects of mindset from other aspects of the manipulation, and included a challenging test. No effect of the classic growth mindset manipulation was found for either moderate or more difficult material in either Study 2 or Study 3 (ps = .189 to .974). Compatible with these null results, children's mindsets were unrelated to resilience to failure for either outcome measure (ps = .673 to .888). The sole exception was a significant effect in the reverse direction to prediction found in Study 2 for resilience on more difficult material (p = .007). Finally, in 2 studies relating mindset to grades across a semester in school, the predicted association of growth mindset with improved grades was not supported. Neither was there any association of children's mindsets with their grades at the start of the semester. Beliefs about the malleability of basic ability may not be related to resilience to failure or progress in school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cognição , Motivação , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382589

RESUMO

Research has repeatedly highlighted the important influence of parental socialization styles on children's psychosocial adjustment. However, previous studies about their effects on school adjustment have traditionally addressed a limited set of indicators, such as academic achievement or self-concept, which should be broadened in order to increase our level of knowledge about this topic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between parenting styles and other relevant school adjustment criteria (self-regulated learning and academic stress) in adolescence. The study participants were 437 Spanish adolescents (44.7% men) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.55, SD = 1.80) who were enrolled in high school. A multivariate factorial design (parenting × sex × educational level) was used for each set of criteria. The results are consistent with previous research, showing that the indulgent style was related to better school adjustment during adolescence, evaluated through self-regulated learning and academic stress, thus increasing the available evidence about the influence of parenting styles in this setting. Additionally, this relationship remains invariant with regard to sex and the educational level of the participants in the study. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of parenting practices related to high acceptance/involvement for the adequate school adjustment of Spanish adolescents.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole , Socialização , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical student journals play a critical role in promoting academic research and publishing amongst medical students, but their impact on students' future academic achievements has not been examined. We aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of publication in the New Zealand Medical Student Journal (NZMSJ) through examining rates of post-graduation publication, completion of higher academic degrees, and pursuing an academic career. METHODS: Student-authored original research publications in the NZMSJ during the period 2004-2011 were retrospectively identified. Gender-, university- and graduation year-matched controls were identified from publicly available databases in a 2:1 ratio (two controls for each student authors). Date of graduation, current clinical scope of practice, completion of higher academic degrees, and attainment of an academic position for both groups were obtained from Google searches, New Zealand graduate databases, online lists of registered doctors in New Zealand and Australia, and author affiliation information from published articles. Pre- and post-graduation PubMed®-indexed publications were identified using standardised search criteria. RESULTS: Fifty publications authored by 49 unique students were identified. The median follow-up period after graduation was 7.0 years (range 2-12 years). Compared with controls, student-authors were significantly more likely to publish in PubMed®-indexed journals (OR 3.09, p = 0.001), obtain a PhD (OR 9.21, p = 0.004) or any higher degree (OR 2.63, p = 0.007), and attain academic positions (OR 2.90, p = 0.047) following graduation. CONCLUSION: Publication in a medical student journal is associated with future academic achievement and contributes to develop a clinical academic workforce. Future work should aim to explore motivators and barriers associated with these findings.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Autoria , Publicações , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Editoração
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA