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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(1): e13, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has profoundly affected education, with most universities changing face-to-face classes to online formats. To adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic situation, we adopted a blended learning approach to anatomy instruction that included online lectures, pre-recorded laboratory dissection videos, and 3D anatomy applications, with condensed offline cadaver dissection. METHODS: We aimed to examine the learning outcomes of a newly adopted anatomy educational approach by 1) comparing academic achievement between the blended learning group (the 2020 class, 108 students) and the traditional classroom learning group (the 2019 class, 104 students), and 2) an online questionnaire survey on student preference on the learning method and reasons of preference. RESULTS: The average anatomy examination scores of the 2020 class, who took online lectures and blended dissection laboratories, were significantly higher than those of the 2019 class, who participated in an offline lecture and dissection laboratories. The questionnaire survey revealed that students preferred online lectures over traditional large group lecture-based teaching because it allowed them to acquire increased self-study time, study according to their individual learning styles, and repeatedly review lecture videos. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a blended learning approach is an effective method for anatomy learning, and the advantage may result from increased self-directed study through online learning.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , /epidemiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Cadáver , Instrução por Computador , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
2.
J Surg Res ; 257: 128-134, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing the number of women and ethnic minority groups in surgery, the academic advancement of such individuals within surgical fields lags behind Caucasian men. We sought to identify gender and ethnic inequalities in the receipt of surgical society research grants for young faculty investigators and compare the scholarly productivity of these groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional and retrospective study, the gender and race of surgical society grant recipients were determined from surgical society Web sites. Surgical society grants aimed at providing research grants for junior faculty investigators were analyzed. Using the Scopus database, each recipient's scholarly productivity was determined by means of h-index, a standardized measure of the quantity and impact of an individual's published articles. We generated descriptive statistics to compare the gender, race, and h-index of grant recipients in the years 2006-2008 and 2016-2018. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2008, there were 68 research grant recipients. Of these recipients, 79% were men and 21% were women. The racial breakdown was 54% Caucasian men, 22% Asian men, 1.4% African American men, 1.4% Hispanic men, 12% Caucasian women, 7% Asian Women, and 1.4% African American women. The average h-index of the male and female recipients is 25 (±14) and 24 (±14), respectively (P = 0.81). Between 2016 and 2018, there were 113 research grant recipients. Of these recipients, 66% were men and 34% were women. The racial breakdown was 47% Caucasian men, 16% Asian men, 3.5% African American men, 1% Hispanic men, 26% Caucasian women, 3.5% Asian women, and 3.5% African American women. The average h-index of the male and female recipients is 12 (±8) and 9 (±6), respectively (P = 0.046). Caucasian women had the only statistically significant change in the proportion of grant recipients from 2006-2008 to 2016-2018, with an increase from 12% to 26% (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Most surgical society research grants for young investigators continue to be awarded to Caucasian men, with Caucasian women earning a distant second in the 2016-2018 cohort. Ethnic minorities continue to be awarded less research grants than Caucasian recipients. Overall, the average h-index of women was less than men. This study highlights the persistent need for surgical societies to consider gender and ethnic disparities when awarding junior investigator grants, including barriers minority groups may face in achieving the same h-index as Caucasian men.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Eficiência , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underrepresentation of women in academic medicine at senior level and in leadership positions is well documented. Biomedical Research Centres (BRC), partnerships between leading National Health Service (NHS) organisations and universities, conduct world class translational research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the UK. Since 2011 BRCs are required to demonstrate significant progress in gender equity (GE) to be eligible to apply for funding. However, the evidence base for monitoring GE specifically in BRC settings is underdeveloped. This is the first survey tool designed to rank and identify new GE markers specific to the NIHR BRCs. METHODS: An online survey distributed to senior leadership, clinical and non-clinical researchers, trainees, administrative and other professionals affiliated to the NIHR Oxford BRC (N = 683). Participants ranked 13 markers of GE on a five point Likert scale by importance. Data were summarised using frequencies and descriptive statistics. Interrelationships between markers and underlying latent dimensions (factors) were determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 36% (243 respondents). Respondents were more frequently female (55%, n = 133), aged 41-50 years (33%, n = 81), investigators (33%, n = 81) affiliated to the BRC for 2-7 years (39.5%, n = 96). Overall participants ranked 'BRC senior leadership roles' and 'organisational policies on gender equity', to be the most important markers of GE. 58% (n = 141) and 57% (n = 139) respectively. Female participants ranked 'organisational policies' (64.7%, n = 86/133) and 'recruitment and retention' (60.9%, n = 81/133) most highly, whereas male participants ranked 'leadership development' (52.1%, n = 50/96) and 'BRC senior leadership roles' (50%, n = 48/96) as most important. Factor analyses identified two distinct latent dimensions: "organisational markers" and "individual markers" of GE in BRCs. CONCLUSIONS: A two-factor model of markers of achievement for GE with "organisational" and "individual" dimensions was identified. Implementation and sustainability of gender equity requires commitment at senior leadership and organisational policy level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Sexismo , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Direitos da Mulher/organização & administração , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997723

RESUMO

This paper reports the results of a multi-stage effort to develop a measure of Academic Entitlement. An empirical/rational approach was taken to develop items and reduce the item set for a final version of the Academic Entitlement Scale (AES). The measure includes seven dimensions: Accommodation, Reward for Effort, Responsibility Avoidance, Grade Haggling, Customer Orientation, Customer Service Expectations, and General Academic Entitlement. Fit, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, for the seven-factor correlated model and a bifactor model including General AE and the six specific factors, was good. The full measure is reported along with descriptive statistics for the scale and preliminary validation evidence.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Testes de Personalidade/normas , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882960

RESUMO

By 15 April 2020, more than 1.5 billion students worldwide experienced school closures in an effort to slow the spread of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These interruptions in formal in-person educational experiences caused adverse consequences on school-age children's academic outcomes. Using a pre-existing database, we calculated changes in children's reading ability without formal education (i.e., the summer months). The resultant models predicted that the rate of reading ability gain in kindergarten children during COVID-19 school closures without formal in-person education will decrease 66% (2.46 vs. 7.17 points/100 days), compared to the business-as-usual scenario, resulting in a 31% less reading ability gain from 1 January 2020 to 1 September 2020. Additionally, the model predicted that kindergarten children who have books read to them daily would have 2.3 points less loss (42%) compared to those who do not, who are predicted to have a 5.6-point loss during the same time period. Even though reading books to children will not substitute the critical role of formal education in teaching children how to read, families, educators, and policy makers can promote this simple strategy to facilitate and maintain reading ability gain during school closures, which may be a common occurrence as nations see the public health benefits of physical distancing for the current and future pandemic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Leitura , Betacoronavirus , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the clinical competence of medical students for decades. Limited data are available on the factors that predict students' performance on the OSCEs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the factors predicting performance on the pediatrics final OSCE, including the timing of students' clerkship and their performance on the in-training OSCE and written examinations. METHODS: Grades in pediatrics for 3 consecutive academic years (2013-2016) were included. The average scores of the in-training OSCEs, written and final OSCEs and written exams were compared among the three years using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The correlations between performance on the final OSCEs and the in-training OSCEs, in-training written exams and final written exams were studied using Spearman's Rho correlation test. The effect of the timing of the clerkship on the final OSCE performance was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 286 students' records were included. There were 115 male students and 171 female students (M:F 1:1.5). There were strong positive correlations between students' performance on the in-training examinations (OSCE and written) and the final OSCE (correlation coefficients of 0.508 and 0.473, respectively). The final written exam scores were positively correlated with the final OSCEs (r = 0.448). There was no significant effect of the timing of the clerkship. CONCLUSIONS: Students' performance on in-training examinations might predict their final OSCE scores. Thus, it is important to provide students with the necessary intervention at an early stage to reduce failure rates. The final OSCE performance does not seem to be affected by the timing of the clerkship.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Pediatria/educação , Estágio Clínico , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This umbrella review aimed to summarise the evidence presented in systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding the effect of physical activity on academic achievement of school-age children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search for relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Latin American and Caribbean of Health Sciences Information System, and reference lists of the included studies, from inception to May 2020. Studies were included if they were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, included school-age children or adolescents, the intervention included physical activity, and the outcome was the academic achievement. Two independent authors screened the text of potentially eligible studies and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the AMSTAR 2 tool. RESULTS: Forty-one systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined the effects of physical activity on children and adolescents' academic achievement were identified. Overall, the systematic reviews reported small positive or mixed associations between physical activity and academic achievement. From meta-analyses, it was observed that physical activity had null or small-to-medium positive effects on academic achievement. Chronic physical activity showed a medium positive effect on academic achievement, and acute physical activity did not demonstrate benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity seems not to be detrimental to school-age children and adolescents' academic achievement, and may, in fact, be beneficial.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Região do Caribe , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752246

RESUMO

Within a socio-situational and socio-behavioural context, the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and the academic confidence of university students and how they differed by sex of the student was explored. Previous research has identified both conscientiousness and academic confidence as being linked to university performance. In respect of sex, female students have been found to score higher on all of the Big Five measures, whereas the relationship between sex and academic confidence has been mixed. Using self-report measures of personality and academic confidence from 1523 Spanish students, it was found that the female students were more confident in their grades, studying and attendance components of academic confidence and had higher scores for conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism personality measures. A multiple regression analysis found that personality predicts academic confidence, with conscientiousness being the trait that statistically loaded the most strongly. This research further confirms the validity of the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale and suggests that measures of personality and, especially, academic confidence could be usefully used in student support situations to help students acquire the strategies and skills that lead to successful university study. It is suggested that further research in the area needs to include outcome or achievement measures and measures of hypothetical constructs, such as personality and academic confidence, that go beyond self-report measures.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Estudantes , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(4): 446-453, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the claim that interventions to improve academic achievement can reduce the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHOD: Using nationwide data for individuals born in Sweden from 1972 to 1981 (n = 930,182), we conducted instrumental variable and co-relative analyses of the association between academic achievement and AUD with a mean 21.4-year follow-up. Our instrument, used in the instrumental variable analyses, was month of birth. Co-relative analyses were conducted in cousins, full siblings, and monozygotic twins discordant for AUD, with observed results fitted to a genetic model. The academic achievement-AUD association was modeled in Cox regression. AUD was assessed using national medical, criminal, or pharmacy registries. RESULTS: Later month of birth was significantly associated with poorer academic achievement. Lower standardized academic achievement had a strong relationship with the risk for subsequent AUD registration: hazard ratio (HR) [per SD] = 2.14 [2.11, 2.17]. Instrumental variable analysis produced a substantial but moderately attenuated association: HR = 1.52 [1.28, 1.80]. Controlling for modest associations between month of birth and parental education and AUD risk reduced the association to HR = 1.43 [1.20, 1.69]. Our genetic co-relative model fitted the observed data relatively well and estimated the academic achievement-AUD association in monozygotic twins discordant for academic achievement to equal an HR of 1.44 [1.35, 1.52]. Results were broadly similar when analyzed separately in males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct methods with different assumptions produced results suggesting that the association observed between academic achievement at age 16 and the risk for AUD into middle adulthood is partly causal, thereby providing support for interventions to improve academic achievement as a means to prevent later AUD risk.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756557

RESUMO

Maximising research productivity is a major focus for universities world-wide. Graduate research programs are an important driver of research outputs. Choosing students with the greatest likelihood of success is considered a key part of improving research outcomes. There has been little empirical investigation of what factors drive the outcomes from a student's PhD and whether ranking procedures are effective in student selection. Here we show that, the research environment had a decisive influence: students who conducted research in one of the University's priority research areas and who had experienced, research-intensive, supervisors had significantly better outcomes from their PhD in terms of number of manuscripts published, citations, average impact factor of journals published in, and reduced attrition rates. In contrast, students' previous academic outcomes and research training was unrelated to outcomes. Furthermore, students who received a scholarship to support their studies generated significantly more publications in higher impact journals, their work was cited more often and they were less likely to withdraw from their PhD. The findings suggest that experienced supervisors researching in a priority research area facilitate PhD student productivity. The findings question the utility of assigning PhD scholarships solely on the basis of student academic merit, once minimum entry requirements are met. Given that citations, publication numbers and publications in higher ranked journals drive university rankings, and that publications from PhD student contribute approximately one-third of all research outputs from universities, strengthening research infrastructure and supervision teams may be more important considerations for maximising the contribution of PhD students to a university's international standing.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Universidades , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pesquisa , Estudantes
13.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 47(4): 337-341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830939

RESUMO

Children living with kidney failure who are on hemodialysis are at risk for having a poor quality of life. Within the pediatric hemodialysis unit, patients were not receiving adequate educational services. Alternative school options available for patients on hemodialysis were insufficient to meet their needs. This deficit contributed to patients' academic failures, and decreased their self-esteem and quality of life. To improve academic services for patients on hemodialysis, a full-time schoolteacher was employed. The addition of the hemodialysis schoolteacher supported patients' academic success, which led to a significant improvement in the patients' quality of life.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal , Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Humanos , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Insuficiência Renal/enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Professores Escolares/organização & administração
14.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(5): 299-300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773579

RESUMO

This article describes the application of the Collective Impact Model as an innovative conceptual framework for developing a pedagogical process for advancing academic success and retention for underrepresented nursing students. A more diverse nursing workforce is critical to promoting health equity and supporting a culture of health by providing access to culturally and linguistically appropriate care. By strategically applying this framework to a complex issue in nursing education, we discuss a process that may lead to increased academic success and NCLEX®RN pass rates for underrepresented students.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Licenciamento em Enfermagem
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 614-619, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842112

RESUMO

Unilateral coronal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is associated with asymmetric skull growth, which may influence cerebral long-term function. Twenty affected adolescents who underwent cranial vault remodeling at a mean age of 8.2 months (12 from the Yale Craniofacial Clinic and eight from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) all completed a double-blinded neurodevelopmental assessment at an average age of 12.1 years. The study cohort included 55 percent female and 50 percent right-sided craniosynostosis. Mean verbal intelligence quotient was highest at 117.3, and mean performance intelligence quotient was 106.4, for a mean full-scale intelligence quotient of 112.5. Patients performed above the national average on all academic achievements except for numerical operations, which was significantly lower than word reading (p = 0.022). Patients performed below average on all Beery-Buktenica visual motor tests; motor-coordination was poorer than both visual motor integration and visual perception (p = 0.027 and p = 0.005). Significant positive correlations existed between paternal education/visual perception (r = 0.450; p = 0.046) and household income/verbal intelligence quotient (r = 0.628; p = 0.004). Patients with right unilateral coronal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis had improved spelling compared with left-sided patients on multivariate regression (p = 0.033). Female patients had higher motor coordination (p = 0.024). Breast-fed patients had better performance intelligence quotient (p = 0.024), visual motor integration (p = 0.014), and visual perception (p = 0.031). Adolescents who underwent cranial vault remodeling at two institutions had above average intelligence quotient scores, but worse mathematical and visual motor achievement compared with control subjects. Left-side craniosynostosis patients performed worse in spelling than right-side patients. Breast-feeding was an independent predictor for improved performance intelligence quotient, visual motor achievement, and visual perception performance. Study findings are limited by the cohort size. A larger population study is required, which could validate or modify the study conclusions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Leitura , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Craniossinostoses/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Sch Psychol ; 35(4): 227-232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673051

RESUMO

School Psychology is an outlet for research on children, youth, educators, and families that has scientific, practice, and policy implications. The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly disrupted K-12 schooling as well as university training, impacting educational attainment and highlighting longstanding inequality. Furthermore, the killing of Breonna Taylor and George Floyd has precipitated worldwide protests against antiblack racism, white supremacy, and police brutality. In this editorial, we highlight the potential impacts to our field, including prioritizing research related to educational equity, identifying new research questions related to technology, and utilizing new research methods. We also consider the impact of gender and racial disparities in publications during this time. Finally, given these events, we discuss how best our editorial team can serve the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/prevenção & controle
17.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(6): ajpe8144, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665720

RESUMO

During times of stress, such as those experienced during the novel coronavirus identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pharmacy students handle the experience differently. For some, the experience may negatively impact their sense of well-being; for others, being at home with family could actually improve their well-being. While students are completing academic work at home and after they finally return to campus, pharmacy schools need to be keenly aware of students' experiences and implement strategies to build their resilience and improve their well-being. One approach will not meet the needs of all students. Many of the challenges that pharmacy students have faced or will face when they return to the classroom are discussed along with some programs and activities that have proven successful.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Farmácia/organização & administração , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Empoderamento , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Incerteza , Estados Unidos
18.
Surgery ; 168(4): 707-713, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolving landscape of academic surgery demands leaders who are not only effective clinicians and researchers, but also administrators able to navigate complex hospital organizations, financial pressures in the era of quality measures, and inclusion of an increasingly diverse workforce. The aim of this study was to characterize achievements and assess perspectives in becoming a surgical chair in order to guide young surgeons in their career trajectories to surgical leadership. METHODS: A survey encompassing demographics, surgical training, nonmedical advanced degrees, academic advancement, and leadership experiences was sent via electronic mail to members of the American College of Surgeons Society of Surgical Chairs in December 2018. RESULTS: Of 191 Society of Surgical Chairs members, 52 (27.2%) completed the survey, with 6 (11.5%) women, 40 (76.9%) white, and the majority becoming chair between ages 46 and 60 (n = 39, 75.0%). Training beyond residency included fellowships (n = 41, 78.8%) and advanced nonmedical degrees (n = 15, 28.8%). Median H-index was 47 (range 10-120) with 126 (5-500) research publications, and grants received was 2 (0-38) for federal and 5 (0-43) for industry. Female chairs appear to have fewer nonmedical degrees (n = 1) and no difference in age at becoming chair (66.7% vs 79.6% between ages 46 and 60), H-index (26 [10-41] vs 49 [17-120]), or publications (93 [10-189] vs 150 [5,500]). Prior educational (n = 36, 69.2%) and clinical (n = 44, 84.6%) leadership roles were common, with 30 chairs (57.7%) having held both roles. Experiences which respondents felt have most helped them function as chair included serving as a clinical division director (n = 37, 71.2%), residency program director (n = 28, 53.8%), leadership courses (n = 28, 53.8%), a research career (n = 22, 42.3%), and being a vice/interim chair (n = 15, 28.8%). Personal traits felt to be most important in becoming a successful chair included being effective at communication (n = 37, 71.2%), collaborative (n = 35, 67.3%), trustworthy (n = 30, 57.7%), and a problem-solver (n = 27, 51.9%). CONCLUSION: Becoming a department surgical chair often involves not only surgical subspecialty expertise, but also nonmedical training and prior leadership roles, which help facilitate development of skills integral to navigating the collaborative and diverse nature of academic surgery in the current era.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Liderança , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Pesquisa Biomédica , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Bolsas de Estudo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Habilidades Sociais , Estados Unidos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1097, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of puberty and menarche is a potentially vulnerable time for girls. Educational and psychosocial competencies are regarded as essential tools that empower them to successfully navigate the adolescent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate to what extent school going girls are equipped with these key competencies, and how they vary across a given grade cohort. METHODS: Data was collected in Kilifi County, Kenya, from 140 public primary schools from grade 7, across three sub-counties. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to compare competency outcomes by age groups comprising 10-14 years and 15 year and above. Generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors was used where outcomes were measured as binary outcomes, and linear regression for continuous outcomes. Clustering was factored in at the school level and stratification at the subcounty level. Wilcoxon Rank sum test incorporating clustering effects was used where continuous outcomes were not normally distributed. RESULTS: A total of 3489 adolescent girls were interviewed with a mean age of 14 years (SD:1.5; min:10, max:21). Compared to the lower age group, girls in the higher age group were less likely to have ambitions of furthering their education beyond secondary school (odds ratio (OR):0.63 (95%CI:0.53, 0.74)), more likely to report not feeling confident enough to answer questions in class (OR:1.18 (95%CI:1.02, 1.36) and scored lower on their cognitive, math and literacy tests. They also displayed less positive gender norms (coefficient (coeff):-0.091 (95%CI:-0.16, - 0.022)) and were more likely to agree with intimate-partner violence in marriage (coeff:1.17 (95%CI:1.00, 1.37)). They however scored higher on the decision-making scale (coeff:0.36 (95%CI:0.13, 0.60)) and were more likely to be able to spontaneously name a method of modern contraception (OR:1.56 (95%CI:1.36, 1.80)). CONCLUSION: Large variability in age exits within a grade. Compared to older girls, younger girls were more likely to perform better on their educational and social competencies. In countries with large age ranges per grade, identifying the presence of educational and psychosocial competency variabilities will allow informed decisions to be made on how school-based interventions should be adapted to address the varying needs within a grade. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN10894523 , date of registration: 22/08/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Quênia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(9): 1821-1834, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671624

RESUMO

Adolescents with low family socioeconomic status (SES) often have lower academic achievement than their peers with high family SES. However, less is known about the personal buffering mechanisms on the relationship between low family SES and academic achievement for youth. To address adolescents' academic achievement gap related to family SES, this study aimed to test whether family SES predicted adolescents' academic achievement and whether adolescents' subjective social mobility and attention moderated this relationship with longitudinal data. Valid participants included 827 adolescents (Mage = 12.30 years, range: 11-14 years, SD = 0.87, and 40.99% girls) from five township public schools in China. The results showed that family SES (comprising parents' education, parents' occupation, and family income) was positively correlated with adolescents' academic achievement (i.e., Chinese and math) when controlling for prior academic achievement. The positive associations between family SES and both Chinese and math achievement 9 months later were nonsignificant for adolescents with higher levels of subjective social mobility. In addition, the positive effect of family SES on Chinese achievement 9 months later was nonsignificant among adolescents with higher levels of attention. In conclusion, low family SES impairs adolescents' Chinese and math achievement, high levels of adolescents' subjective social mobility can buffer the adverse effects of low family SES on both Chinese and math achievement, and high levels of adolescents' attention can buffer the adverse effects of family SES on Chinese achievement but not on math achievement. These findings may emphasize the significance of developing differential interventions aimed at specific subject achievement for adolescents with low family SES.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Mobilidade Social , Adolescente , Atenção , China , Feminino , Humanos , Classe Social
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