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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 246, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of pomegranate juice on inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6(IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and complete blood count (CBC) in hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel 2-arm (1:1 ratio) clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Yasuj City, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Informed consent Patients 18 years of age or older Diagnosis of COVID-19 based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Pregnancy or lactation Immunoglobulin A (IgA) level <61 mg/dl Disseminated intravascular coagulation or any other types of coagulopathy Severe congestive heart failure Participation in any clinical trial within 30 days prior to enrollment in this RCT Other contraindications determined by the specialist. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: 500 ml pomegranate juice and standard of care hospital treatment for COVID-19 Comparator: matching placebo containing 500 ml of red water and standard of care hospital treatment for COVID-19 Both intervention and comparator to be taken twice a day, after lunch and dinner, for 14 days. CRITERIA FOR DISCONTINUING: Transfer of patients to intensive care unit (ICU) Death Unwillingness to continue participating in the study MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcomes of this study are levels of inflammatory biomarkers, CRP, IL-6, ESR, and CBC after 14 days of treatment. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients will be randomly assigned into the intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be performed based on 8 permuted blocks with block sizes of 6 and they will be stratified according to sex and age categories. Randomization sequences will be prepared by the trial's pharmacist using computer-generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is a double-blind clinical trial (participant, researcher). The pomegranate juice and placebo juice are packaged in identical bottles, and the researcher and all the patients will be unaware of the study assignment until the end of the study. To ensure blinding, the randomization sequences will be kept in identical, opaque, sealed, and sequentially numbered envelopes. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 48 patients, with 24 patients assigned into each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, on March 3, 2021. Recruitment started on February 28, 2021, and is anticipated to be completed by May 21, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Name of registering trial Effects of Pomegranate Juice (Punica Granatum) on Inflammatory Biomarkers and CBC in Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT) Registration Number: IRCT20150711023153N2 Date of Trial Registration February 28, 2021, retrospectively registered FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials҆ website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
/terapia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Romã (Fruta) , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , /imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hospitalização , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia
2.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 123, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821421

RESUMO

Fruit juices are successfully proposed as suitable probiotic vehicles, but researchers' efforts should be developed to avoid effects of bacteria overgrowing on sensory and nutritional cues of final products and to preserve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage. In the present study, encapsulation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG strain in alginate systems was performed through ionotropic gelation technology. The alginate systems were optimized by using Box-Behnken Design to investigate the influence of three independent variables at three different levels: particle mean size and polydispersity index. The optimized probiotic-loaded alginate particles were added to orange juice samples. The viability of the probiotic strain, both as free and microencapsulated, was evaluated in orange juice stored at 5°C for 35 days. Morphology and size of probiotic-loaded alginate particles were found suitable for incorporation into juice. TEM analysis revealed that unloaded systems were clustered as nanoparticles (CL_NP), while the loaded sample appeared as a coated system (Coated_LGG). Microbiological evaluation revealed that the encapsulation assured the survival of Coated_LGG, with a reduction of less than 1-unit log in cellular density after 35 days of refrigerated storage in orange juice. Results indicated that the encapsulated bacteria did not affect the macroscopic properties neither the microbiological characteristic of orange juice; thus, it can be proposed as functional food.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Citrus sinensis , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Lactobacillus casei , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Alimento Funcional/análise , Viabilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Veículos Farmacêuticos
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129321, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667922

RESUMO

Low turbidity and low discolouration is targeted in clear red grape juice (RGJ) production. Depending on type of clarification agents, substantial discolouration may occur. Therefore, this study was undertaken to show effects of various clarification treatments (bentonite and chitosan, and combinations of "bentonite + gelatin (B + G)," "bentonite + casein (B + CA)," "bentonite + albumin (B + A)" and "bentonite + chitosan (B + CTS)" on turbidity, color (ACNs, color density-CD and polymeric color-PC), phenolics and antioxidant activity (AOA) during RGJ clarification. Casein alone (4.0 NTU and 9.1% ACN loss) and in combination with bentonite (4.4 NTU and 12.3% ACN loss), followed by B + A (5.7 NTU and 12.3% ACN loss) resulted in best clarity and was associated with least change in ACNs. These clarifications also resulted in high CD (intensive red color) and low PC (low browning). At all dosages, gelatin and albumin were associated with highest ACN losses, while casein in greatest retention. "Bentonite + casein," followed by "bentonite + albumin," achieved the best clarification of RGJ.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Cor
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669172

RESUMO

Pomegranate pomace (PP) is the solid waste produced in bulk by the pomegranate juice industry which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids that can replace the hazardous chemical antioxidants/antimicrobials currently used in the agro-food and cosmetics sectors. In the present work, the vacuum microwave assisted extraction (VMAE) of natural antioxidants from raw pomegranate pomace was investigated and successfully optimized at an industrial scale. For the optimization of PP VMAE a novel, highly accurate response surface methodology (RSM) based on a comprehensive multi-point historical design was employed. The optimization showed that the maximum recovery of PP total polyphenols as well as total PP flavonoids were obtained at microwave power = 4961.07 W, water to pomace ratio = 29.9, extraction time = 119.53 min and microwave power = 4147.76 W, water to pomace ratio = 19.32, extraction time = 63.32 min respectively. Moreover, the optimal VMAE conditions on economic grounds were determined to be: microwave power = 2048.62 W, water to pomace ratio = 23.11, extraction time = 15.04 min and microwave power = 4008.62 W, water to pomace ratio = 18.08, extraction time = 15.29 min for PP total polyphenols and PP total flavonoids respectively. The main conclusion of this study is that the VMAE extraction can be successfully used at industrial scale to produce, in economic manner, high added value natural extracts from PP pomace.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Romã (Fruta)/química , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Vácuo , Análise de Variância , Modelos Teóricos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estatística como Assunto
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671442

RESUMO

Background: Pomgranate (Punica granatum) represents a high source of polyphenols with great bioavailability. The role of this fruit in the prevention and treatment of various malignant pathologies has been long time cited in both scientific and non-scientific literature, making thus important to identify its involvement in the pathophysiological processes. The treatment for breast cancer had focused on the inhibition of the mechanisms that governs the estrogen activity. These mechanisms are covered either by the antagonism of the estrogen receptor (ER) or by the inhibition of the estrogen synthesis. Our interest in identifying a bioactive compound rich in polyphenols, which induces both the antagonism of the estrogen receptor, and the inhibition of the estrogen synthesis, revealed us the pomegranate fruit and its derivatives: peel and seeds. Pomegranates' chemical composition include many biological active substances such as flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins and gallotannins. Materials and Methods: We performed a review of the scientific literature by using the following keywords: "pomegranate", "breast cancer", "Punica granatum", "pomegranate polyphenols". Our search was performed in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and it included only original research written in English from the last 20 years. None of the articles were excluded due to affiliation. A total number of 28 original papers, which mentioned the beneficial activity of pomegranate against breast cancer, were selected. Both clinical and preclinical studies were considered for this review. Results: Recent discoveries pointed out that polyphenols from Punica granatum possess strong anti-cancer activity, exhibited by a variety of mechanisms, such as anti-estrogenic, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic. Pomegranate extracts induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and induced cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, several polyphenols extracted from pomegranate inhibited the invasion potential, migration and viability of breast cancer cells. The effects of pomegranate juice on serum estrogens and other sexual hormones levels were also investigated on two human cohorts. Conclusions: Punica granatum represents a promising area in oncology. The large availability and low cost, associated with the lack of side effects, made from this natural product a great strategy for the management of breast cancer. There are several mechanistic studies in mouse models and in breast cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible pathways through which polyphenols from pomegranate extracts act, but larger and better-controlled studies are necessary in the future. Only two small clinical trials were conducted on humans until now, but their results are contradictory and should be considered preliminary.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Romã (Fruta)/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
6.
Food Chem ; 352: 129327, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690077

RESUMO

This paper describes a voltammetric method and data analysis program developed for the detection of arsenic(III) in commercial apple juice. Arsenic(III) was detected using square wave stripping voltammetry with gold nanoparticle modified screen printed electrodes. The only sample pretreatment performed was the addition of a 100 mM phosphate buffer with a pH of 7. To compensate for interference from high ascorbic acid concentrations, a data analysis program was developed in MATLAB to fit a non-linear baseline, allowing for accurate peak height measurement. With this data analysis program, the developed methodology had a sensitivity of 0.1007 µA (µg L-1)-1 and a limit of detection of 16.73 µg L-1. A comparison between the voltammetric method and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy showed no bias in the voltammetric results and a good correlation between the two sets of predicted concentrations, with an R2 of 0.939.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Carbono/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ouro/química , Malus/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Eletrodos , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Impressão , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117770, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712128

RESUMO

Chitin-derived three-dimensional nanomaterials has tremendous potential in pesticide residue analysis as an attractive green substitute for toxic solvents. The work presented herein focuses on constructing the environmentally friendly nitrogen-containing chitin-derived carbon microspheres (N-CCMP) for the efficient adsorption of neonicotinoid pesticides (NPs) including acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The N-CCMP displayed hierarchical porous structure, uniform size distribution, and excellent specific surface area of 680.8 m2 g-1. The N-CCMP with N-heterocyclic ring structure and surface oxygen functional groups exhibited good affinity to NPs, which was beneficial for the rapid adsorption. Then, the N-CCMP were utilized as sorbent in extraction of NP residues. Under the optimum conditions, the relative recoveries in water and juice sample were in the range of 85 %-116 % and 74 %-108 %, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.1 %∼5.2 % and 0.7 %∼5.2 %, respectively. The extraction performance of N-CCMP were still over 80 % after 5 times of reuse.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Quitina/química , Microesferas , Neonicotinoides/química , Nitrogênio/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Água Doce/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Porosidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669973

RESUMO

Phenolic acids represent about one-third of the dietary phenols and are widespread in vegetable and fruits. Several plants belonging to both vegetables and medical herbs have been studied for their hydroxycinnamic acid content. Among them, Echinacea purpurea is preferentially used for caffeic acid-derivatives extraction. The wine industry is a source of by-products that are rich in phenolic compounds. This work demonstrates that unripe grape juice (verjuice) presents a simple high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile for hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), with a great separation of the caffeic-derived acids and a low content of other phenolic compounds when compared to E. purpurea and other grape by-products. Here it is shown how this allows the recovery of pure hydroxycinnamic acids by a simple and fast method, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). In addition, verjuice can be easily obtained by pressing grape berries and filtering, thus avoiding any extraction step as required for other vegetable sources. Overall, the proposed protocol could strongly reduce the engagement of solvent in industrial phenolic extraction.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/química
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672156

RESUMO

Fruits contain a number of useful substances including antioxidants. Their bio-accessibility after passing through the digestive tract is of primary importance when considering their benefits. In this respect, we investigated the effect of in vitro digestion on the phytochemicals of eight fruit juices. Freshly prepared juices from pomegranate, orange and grapefruit were used as well as commercially available juices from cherry, black grapes and aloe vera, blackberry and chokeberry, and two types of chokeberry and raspberries. Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods were used in order to analyse the sugar content, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC), anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Principle component analysis was used to explain the differentiation among the types of fruit juice. Sugar recovery variation was between 4-41%. The bio-accessibility of TPC ranged from 13.52-26.49% and of flavonoids between 24.25-67.00%. The pomegranate juice and the juice of black grapes and aloe vera kept 58.12 and 50.36% of their initial anthocyanins content, while for the other samples less than 1.10% was established. As a result, a maximum of 30% remaining antioxidant activity was measured for some of the samples, but for most this was less than 10%. In conclusion, fruit juices are a rich source of biologically active substances, but a more detailed analysis of food transformation during digestion is needed.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Animais , Suínos
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672773

RESUMO

A caloric surplus and a sedentary lifestyle are undoubtedly known to be the leading causes of obesity. Natural products represent valuable allies to face this problematic issue. This study was planned to assess the effect of a white grape (Vitis vinifera) juice extract (WGJe) in diet-induced obese zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were divided into four different diet groups: (i) normally fed (NF); (ii) overfed (OF); (iii) WGJe-supplemented NF (5 mL/L in fish water); (iv) WGJe-supplemented OF. Body mass index (BMI) was extrapolated each week. After the fourth week, euthanized zebrafish were processed for both microscopic evaluations and gene expression analyses. OF zebrafish showed higher BMI values with respect to NF counterparts, an effect that was hindered by WGJe treatment. Moreover, histological analyses showed that the area of the adipose tissue, as well as the number, size, and density of adipocytes was significantly higher in OF fish. On the other hand, WGJe was able to avoid these outcomes both at the subcutaneous and visceral levels, albeit to different extents. At the gene level, WGJe restored the altered levels of ghrelin and leptin of OF fish both in gut and brain. Overall, our results support the anti-obesity property of WGJe, suggesting its potential role in weight management.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras/antagonistas & inibidores , Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Leptina/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gorduras/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Food Chem ; 352: 129367, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684718

RESUMO

About 90% of grapefruit in Florida are affected by Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB negatively affects the organoleptic properties of grapefruit juice because affected trees overproduce bitter secondary-metabolites, mostly naringin. The objective of this research was to remove naringin from HLB-affected grapefruit juice using microporous-adsorbents and to investigate how debittering affected narirutin, limonoids, bergamottin, and consumer acceptability. The adsorption kinetics of naringin on seven adsorbent resins obeyed pseudo-second order. PAD550 and PAD600 showed better static adsorption/desorption. Adsorption-isotherms on these resins were better fitted on Temkin-Pyzhev-model. On a fixed-bed-column packed with PAD550 resin, a slower loading rate increased its breakthrough volume before naringin in effluent reached its taste-threshold. In addition to naringin being reduced to below its taste-threshold, debittering significantly decreased the content of limonin, nomilin, and bergamottin. A consumer taste panel rated debittered and half-debittered juices higher for overall acceptability than the untreated. The half-debittered juice was ranked the most preferred while untreated was the least preferred.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Citrus paradisi/microbiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Furocumarinas/análise , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Paladar , Porosidade
12.
Food Chem ; 352: 129430, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691211

RESUMO

The present work reports the development of a novel electrochemical sensor for the selective detection of fructose. The sensor was developed through electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polymer film on a reduced graphene oxide modified electrode. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. Through the application of the modified electrode, the recognition of fructose molecules occurred in a concentration range of 1.0 × 10-14 to 1.0 × 10-11 mol L-1, under a Langmuir adsorption isothermal model. The sensitivity and limits of detection and quantification obtained for the sensor were 9.9 × 107 A L mol-1, 3.2 × 10-15 mol L-1 and 1.1 × 10-14 mol L-1, respectively. The analytical method used for the detection of fructose presented good reproducibility, stability and accuracy, and was successfully applied for the quantification of this sugar in orange, apple and grape juices.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutose/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Grafite/química , /química , Eletrodos , Frutose/química , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540724

RESUMO

Juicing vegetables is thought to be an anticancer treatment. Support exists for a rank order of anticancer greens (kale > dandelion > lettuce > spinach) based on degrees of bioavailability of different phytochemicals, also offset by some noxious molecules (i.e., calcium-oxalate). We developed a new in vitro transepithelial anti-neuroblastoma model system. The juices were diluted as predicted once in the small intestine. They were applied to apical Caco-2Bbe1 cells atop dividing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and cell growth were considered with juice spectroscopies. Studied first in monoculture, kale and dandelion were the most cytostatic juices on SH-SY5Ys, lettuce showed no effect, and high (4.2%) spinach was cytotoxic. In co-culture, high (4.2%) kale was quickest (three days) to inhibit neuroblastoma growth. By five days, dandelion and kale were equally robust. Lettuce showed small anti-proliferative effects at five days and spinach remained cytotoxic. Spinach's cytotoxicity corresponded with major infrared bands indicative of oxalate. Kale juice uniquely induced reactive oxygen species and S-phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y. The superiority of kale and dandelion was also apparent on the epithelium, because raising TEER levels is considered healthy. Kale's unique features corresponded with a major fluorescent peak that co-eluted with kaempferol during high performance liquid chromatography. Because the anticancer rank order was upheld, the model appears validated for screening anticancer juices.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Técnicas de Cocultura , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Impedância Elétrica , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/fisiopatologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Spinacia oleracea/química , Taraxacum/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(5): 1727-1738, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527826

RESUMO

A prototype dual-detection headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-MS-IMS) system was used for the analysis of the volatile profile of 47 Citrus juices including grapefruit, blood orange, and common sweet orange juices without requiring any sample pretreatment. Next to reduced measurement times, substance identification could be improved substantially in case of co-elution by considering the characteristic drift times and m/z ratios obtained by IMS and MS. To discriminate the volatile profiles of the different juice types, extensive data analysis was performed with both datasets, respectively. By principal component analysis (PCA), a distinct separation between grapefruit and orange juices was observed. While in the IMS data grapefruit juices not from fruit juice concentrate could be separated from grapefruit juices reconstituted from fruit juice concentrate, in the MS data, the blood orange juices could be differentiated from the orange juices. This observation leads to the assumption that the IMS and MS data contain different information about the composition of the volatile profile. Subsequently, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machines (SVM), and the k-nearest-neighbor (kNN) algorithm were applied to the PCA data as supervised classification methods. Best results were obtained by LDA after repeated cross-validation for both datasets, with an overall classification and prediction ability of 96.9 and 91.5% for the IMS data and 94.5 and 87.9% for the MS data, respectively, which confirms the results obtained by PCA. Additional data fusion could not generally improve the model prediction ability compared to the single data, but rather for certain juice classes. Consequently, depending on the juice class, the most suitable dataset should be considered for the prediction of the class membership. This volatilomic approach based on the dual detection by HS-GC-MS-IMS and machine learning tools represent a simple and promising alternative for future authenticity control of Citrus juices.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Citrus/classificação , Análise Discriminante , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/classificação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Componente Principal
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4084-4093, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589256

RESUMO

With the purpose of developing an alternative set yogurt with high consumer acceptability, passion fruit juice, at levels that varied from 0 to 10%, was incorporated into set yogurt, and the effects on the fermentation kinetics, physicochemical properties, and functionality of set yogurt were evaluated. The results showed that the addition of passion fruit juice was simultaneously propitious for milk acidification in earlier fermentation stages and reduced the fermentation rate at later stages of fermentation. The phenolic compounds and pectin in passion fruit juice interacted with caseins to form soluble complexes, enhancing the gel strength of set yogurts by 7.5%. The aroma and flavor of the set yogurt was improved as well. However, with the addition of 10% passion fruit juice, the gel structure was destroyed, and the quality of the set yogurt was very degraded. More importantly, the addition of passion fruit juice increased the polyphenol content and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the set yogurt. This investigation demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating passion fruit juice-enriched set yogurt and its superior quality compared with the corresponding normal product.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Iogurte , Animais , Fermentação , Cinética , Paladar
16.
Food Chem ; 350: 129242, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626398

RESUMO

Herein, an electrospun polyacrylonitrile/nickel-based metal-organic framework nanocomposite (PAN/Ni-MOF) coating on a stainless steel wire was synthesized and employed as a novel nanosorbent for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), diazinon (DIZ), and chlorpyrifos (CPS) from the diverse aqueous media followed by corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration plots were linear in the range of 1.0-250.0 ng mL-1 for DIZ and 0.5-300.0 ng mL-1 for CPS with r2 > 0.999. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.3 and 0.2 ng mL-1 for DIZ and CPS, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs%) (n = 5) at the concentration levels of 20.0, 40.0, and 100.0 ng mL-1 were ≤ 5.2%. To investigate the extraction efficiency, PAN/Ni-MOF was employed to analyze various juice samples, including orange, apple, and grape juices, and in three water samples where it led to good recoveries ranged between 87% and 98%.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/isolamento & purificação , Diazinon/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanofibras/química , Níquel/química , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Aço Inoxidável/análise , Aço Inoxidável/química
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109092, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607541

RESUMO

Tomato is widely consumed and marketed as juice, puree, or fresh product. Nevertheless, 30% of its harvest volume is lost because of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This research aimed to provide early detection methods for this fungal decay on tomato juice and fresh fruit. Biomass content, CO2, O2 and volatile compounds (VOCs) during A. alternata growth in tomato juice and fruit at two ripening stages (breaker and red colour) were evaluated. Additionally, CO2 and VOCs data set were analysed with a hierarchical cluster technique (HCA) to explore the differences between inoculated and non-inoculated samples. Biomass was determined by gravimetry, CO2 and O2 by gas chromatography (GC), and VOCs by GC-mass spectrometry. Biomass content was not drastically modified by tomato's ripening stage (3-6 mg of dry weight). CO2 in tomato juice was considerably higher in the inoculated samples with A. alternata (27-63%) than in the non-inoculated ones (2.8-6.6%), regardless of the ripeness stage; while in tomato fruit CO2 was higher at breaker stage and inoculated with A. alternata (33-41%) than the remaining treatments (9-23%). It was also observed that, except for limonene, trans-sabinene hydrate, and rhodovibrin, VOCs' release during the interaction between tomato juice and A. alternata was different from the fresh tomato and A. alternata interaction. Only the HCA based on CO2 data showed clear differences between the inoculated and non-inoculated tomato juice and fruit at both ripening stages.


Assuntos
Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Alternaria/metabolismo , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557387

RESUMO

The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificial-sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ), is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases. It may also be linked to the development of certain types of tumors. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at examining the association between sweet beverage intake and cancer risk. Suitable articles published up to June 2020 were sourced through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 64 studies were identified, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest sweet beverage intake categories compared to the lowest one. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSB intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.27) and also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). Although the statistically significant threshold was not reached, there tended to be positive associations for the following: SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; and ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk. This study recommends limiting sweet beverage consumption. Furthermore, we propose to establish a homogeneous classification of beverages and investigate them separately, to better understand their role in carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/efeitos adversos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 950-960, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vascular function, blood pressure and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of major chronic diseases, including both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study investigated the effects of food anthocyanins on microvascular function, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and inflammatory biomarkers in older adults with MCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-one participants with MCI [19 female, 12 male, mean age 75.3 (SD 6.9) years and body mass index 26.1 (SD 3.3) kg/m2], participated in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12618001184268). Participants consumed 250 mL fruit juice daily for 8 weeks, allocated into three groups: a) high dose anthocyanins (201 mg); b) low dose anthocyanins (47 mg); c) control. Microvascular function (Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging combined with a post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia test), 24h ABP and serum inflammatory biomarkers were assessed before and after the nutritional intervention. RESULTS: Participants in the high anthocyanins group had a reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P = 0.002) compared to controls and the low anthocyanins group (all P's > 0.05). Serum IL-6, IL-1ß, c-reactive protein, and parameters of microvascular function and 24h ABP were not altered by any treatment. CONCLUSION: A daily high dose of fruit-based anthocyanins for 8 weeks reduced concentrations of TNF-α in older adults with MCI. Anthocyanins did not alter other inflammatory biomarkers, microvascular function or blood pressure parameters. Further studies with a larger sample size and longer period of follow-up are required to elucidate whether this change in the immune response will alter CVD risk and progression of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , New South Wales , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Molecules ; 26(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466479

RESUMO

Orange pomace (OP) is a solid waste produced in bulk as a byproduct of the orange juice industry and accounts for approximately 50% of the quantity of the fruits processed into juice. In numerous literature references there is information about diverse uses of orange pomace for the production of high-added-value products including production of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial extracts rich in polyphenols and flavonoids which can substitute the hazardous chemical antioxidants/antimicrobials used in agro-food and cosmetics sectors. In this work and for the first time, according to our knowledge, the eco-friendly aqueous vacuum microwave assisted extraction of orange pomace was investigated and optimized at real industrial scale in order to produce aqueous antioxidant/antimicrobial extracts. A Response Surface Optimization methodology with a multipoint historical data experimental design was employed to obtain the optimal values of the process parameters in order to achieve the maximum rates of extraction of OP total polyphenols and/or total flavonoids for economically optimum production at industrial scale. The three factors used for the optimization were: (a) microwave power (b) water to raw pomace ratio and (c) extraction time. Moreover, the effectiveness and statistical soundness of the derived cubic polynomial predictive models were verified by ANOVA.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Vácuo , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
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