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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 204-208, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690201

RESUMO

The steadily growing COVID-19 pandemic is challenging health systems worldwide including Sudan. In Sudan, the first COVID-19 case was reported on 13th March 2020, and up to 11 November 2020 there were 14,401 confirmed cases of which 9,535 cases recovered and the rest 3,750 cases were under treatment. Additionally, 1,116 deaths were reported, indicating a relatively high case fatality rate of 7.7%. Several preventive and control measures were implemented by the government of Sudan and health partners, including the partial lockdown of the country, promoting social distancing, and suspending mass gathering such as festivals and performing religious practices in groups. However, new cases still emerging every day and this could be attributed to the noncompliance of the individuals to the advocated preventive measurements.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , África/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 274, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Novel Corona virus SARS-CoV-2 emerged to affect the human population in 2019 causing COVID-19 pandemic. The only preventive measures available are social distancing, hand washing and face masks. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the Sudanese people towards COVID-19. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study targeting adult Sudanese people was conducted in April 2020. The study used a self-administered questionnaire containing 18 knowledge questions, 5 questions for attitude and six questions for practices. Social media such as Facebook and WhatsApp were utilized to disseminate the questionnaire. The total number of eligible questionnaires available for analysis by the end of the period was 987. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of respondents was 30.13 (±9.84) years with males representing 55.4%. The majority were university and higher education levels (95.2%), residing in Khartoum (71.7%). The mean (±SD) knowledge score of the participants was 15.33 (± 2.24) and was found to be associated with education level and age groups (p-value = 0.022, P value =0.010) respectively. The mean (±SD) attitude score was 04.15 (± 0.97) and was significantly associated with older groups and better-educated participants (p-value =0.001, p-value = 0.048) respectively. The practices related to COVID-19 preventive measures mean (±SD) was 02.58 (± 1.73) with a significant difference between age groups and area of residence. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the participants had good knowledge and satisfactory attitude that was not similarly expressed into practice. Efforts are needed in health education and law enforcement to improve the practices among all groups with special emphasis on younger and less educated males.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study planned to investigate the urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections among type 2 diabetes patients compare to non-diabetic (Control) individuals and examine the intensity of helminthiasis in both groups. METHODS: At Kosti Teaching Hospital (Sudan), 300 Urine and 300 stool samples have collected from 150 type 2 diabetes and 150 control individuals, along with the socio-demographic data using a structured questionnaire. The parasitic infections were examined by direct sedimentation technique for urine specimens. Whereas, for fecal samples, simple-direct saline, formal-ether concentration, Kato-Katz, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques were used. RESULTS: Out of 150 type 2 diabetes patients studied, 31 (20.6%) and 14 (9.3%) had intestinal parasitosis and urogenital schistosomiasis, respectively. Whereas, 16 (10.6%) and 8 (5.3%) of the control group were infected, respectively. Compared to the control group, the odds of testing positive for either urogenital schistosomiasis (AOR: 2.548, 95% CI: 0.836-7.761, P = 0.100) or intestinal parasitic diseases (AOR: 2.099, 95% CI: 0.973-4.531, P = 0.059) were greater in diabetic individuals. Likewise, the intensities of helminthiasis were much higher in the diabetic patients and positively correlated with the duration of illness. The rate of urogenital schistosomiasis was also significantly different among the disease duration subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted the relationship of type 2 diabetes with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections and enhanced our knowledge about the frequency of particular urogenital and intestinal parasites as well as the intensity of helminths infection in type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic individuals, which are important for further studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Food Chem ; 337: 127604, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777562

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein fraction, and bioavailability of Fe and Zn in the grains of five sorghum landraces grown in Sudan. The results showed significant differences in all quality tests among the landraces. The Tetron landrace showed the highest percentage of crude protein and IVPD among the landraces. Additionally, most of the landrace grains had high contents of Fe and Zn with a high rate of bioavailability. The Kolom 4055 and Wad akar exhibited significantly higher total phenolic contents, with antioxidant activity of 79.3% and 83.4%, respectively. The glutelin content was relatively higher compared to the other fractions, irrespective of sorghum landraces. The principal components cumulatively accounted for 89.3% of the total variation among the five sorghum landraces. It can be concluded that these landraces could be used in the improvement of new value-added crops using the by-products of sorghum grains.


Assuntos
Sorghum/química , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Flavonoides/análise , Variação Genética , Glutens/análise , Ferro/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Sorghum/genética , Sudão , Zinco/análise
5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(1): 103-109, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged health systems globally. Here we report the first identified infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; aetiology of COVID-19) among recent international arrivals to Sudan and their contacts. METHODS: Suspected cases were identified clinically and/or epidemiologically. Samples from suspected cases and their contacts were tested in the National Influenza Centre following World Health Organization protocols. Two real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect and confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Seven cases of COVID-19, including two deaths, were confirmed in Sudan between 27 February and 30 March 2020. Suspected cases were identified and tested. As of 30 March, no local transmission was yet reported in the country. Fifty-nine percent of the suspected cases were international travellers coming from areas with current COVID-19 epidemics. Cough and fever were the major symptoms, presented by 65% and 60% of the suspected cases, respectively. By early April, an additional seven cases were confirmed through limited contact tracing that identified the first locally acquired infections in recent contact with imported cases. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of COVID-19 cases in Sudan might be due to limitations in test and trace and case management services. Unfortunately, infections have spread further into other states and the country has no capacity for mass community screening to better estimate disease prevalence. Therefore external support is urgently needed to improve the healthcare and surveillance systems.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMO

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Conflitos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condições Sociais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 678, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is a primary global health priority but the goal to eliminate TB is being threatened by the increase in incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). With this series of seven MDR-TB cases in migrant patients with identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains we aim to illustrate the challenges encountered during therapy and follow-up: language barriers, access to care for migrant patients, depression due to isolation, adverse reactions to the treatment, management of pediatric TB, further contact tracing. We also discuss best practices for the management of complex MDR-TB cases in settings with low overall TB incidence focusing on modern diagnostic assays and an individualized and an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. METHODS: We describe a case series of seven consecutively diagnosed MDR-TB patients, six of them treated at our tertiary care hospital between May 2018 and March 2020. Epidemiologic data was gained by semi-structured patient interviews and reconstruction of the migration route. The origin of the cluster was confirmed by genotyping of the TB-strains. RESULTS: Six related patients were diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB between May and August 2018. All had a positive Interferon-Gamma-Release Assay (IGRA), in five patients sputum microscopy was positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The genetic and phenotypical drug susceptibility test did not match with MDR-TB strains from an East-African origin. The index patient was identified through genetical fingerprinting. By changing the therapy to a modern MDR-TB regime and using an interdisciplinary and culture-sensitive approach, all patients improved clinically and radiologically. CONCLUSION: Human migration plays an important role for the global spread of MDR-TB in low incidence countries. Early case detection and adequate treatment are key to prevention of outbreaks. Especially language barriers and complex migration routes make genotyping of TB-strains a crucial tool to identify cases clusters, the potential index patient and transmission dynamics. We are fortunate enough to experience times in which new TB-antibiotics were made available and in which molecular assays revolutionized TB-diagnostics. We need to take advantage of that and develop personalized therapies for patients suffering from drug resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Escarro/microbiologia , Sudão , Migrantes , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 421-430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871636

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether mass drug administration (MDA) intervention has an equivalent effect on reducing the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection regardless of the baseline values. A repeated cross-sectional survey was performed targeting students of 12 primary schools in Al Jabalain and El Salam districts of White Nile State, Sudan, at both 1 week before and 8 months after the MDA. Prior to the baseline survey, school-aged children in Al Jabalain had received MDA interventions twice in 4 years, while those in El Salam had not. The baseline prevalence was 9.1% in Al Jabalain and 35.2% in El Salam, which were reduced to 1.8% and 5.5% at 8 months after the MDA, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 80.3% and 84.4%, not significant difference between both districts. However, changes in the geometric mean intensity (GMI) of egg counts were significantly different between both districts. The baseline GMIs were 14.5 eggs per 10 ml of urine (EP10) in Al Jabalain and 18.5 EP10 in El Salam, which were reduced to 7.1 and 11.2 EP10 after treatment, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 51.0% and 39.5%. In conclusion, MDA interventions were found to bring about similar relative reduction in prevalence regardless of the baseline value; however, the relative reduction in infection intensity was more salient in the district with a low baseline value for both prevalence and intensity. This clearly points to the importance of repeated MDA interventions in endemic areas, which will eventually contribute to schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751384

RESUMO

Aims: Perinatal mental illness (PMI) is associated with a high risk of maternal and infant morbidity. Recently, several systematic reviews and primary studies have explored the prevalence and risk factors of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. To our knowledge, there has been no critical analysis of the existing systematic reviews (SRs) on this topic in the MENA region. Our systematic overview primarily aimed to synthesize evidence from the published SRs on PMI in the MENA countries focusing on a) the prevalence of PMI and b) the risk factors associated with PMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic overview of the epidemiology of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa region by searching the PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo databases for relevant publications between January 2008 and July 2019. In addition to searching the reference lists of the identified SRs for other relevant SRs and additional primary studies of relevance (those which primarily discussed the prevalence of PMI and/or risk and protective factors), between August and October 2019, we also searched Google Scholar for relevant studies. Results: After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 systematic reviews (SRs) and 79 primary studies were included in our overview. Studies utilizing validated diagnostic tools report a PMI prevalence range from 5.6% in Morocco to 28% in Pakistan. On the other hand, studies utilizing screening tools to detect PMI report a prevalence range of 9.2% in Sudan to 85.6% in the United Arab Emirates. Wide variations were observed in studies reporting PMI risk factors. We regrouped the risk factors applying an evidence-based categorization scheme. Our study indicates that risk factors in the relational, psychological, and sociodemographic categories are the most studied in the region. Conversely, lifestyle-related risk factors were less studied. Conclusions: Our systematic overview identifies perinatal mental illness as an important public health issue in the region. Standardizing approaches for estimating, preventing, screening, and treating perinatal mental illness would be a step in the right direction for the region.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Gravidez , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos , Paquistão , Gravidez/psicologia , Sudão , Emirados Árabes Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235401, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current malaria control and elimination strategies rely mainly on efficacious antimalarial drugs. However, drug resistance is a major threat facing malaria control programs. Determination of drug resistance molecular markers is useful in the monitoring and surveillance of malaria drug efficacy. This study aimed to determine the mutations and haplotypes frequencies of different genes linked with antimalarial drug resistance in certain areas in Sudan. METHODS: A total of 226 dried blood spots (DBS) of microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum isolates were collected from Khartoum and three other areas in Sudan during 2015-2017. Plasmodium falciparum confirmation and multiplicity of infection was assessed using the Sanger's 101 SNPs-barcode and speciation was confirmed using regions of the parasite mitochondria. Molecular genotyping of drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, exonuclease, Pfk13, parasite genetic background (PGB) (Pfarps10, ferredoxin, Pfcrt, Pfmdr2)) was also performed. All genotypes were generated by selective regions amplicon sequencing of the parasite genome using the Illumina MiSeq platform at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK then genotypes were translated into drug resistance haplotypes and species determination. FINDINGS: In total 225 samples were confirmed to be P. falciparum. A higher proportion of multiplicity of infection was observed in Gezira (P<0.001) based on the Sanger 101 SNPs -barcode. The overall frequency of mutant haplotype Pfcrt 72-76 CVIET was 71.8%. For Pfmdr1, N86Y was detected in 53.6%, Y184F was observed in 88.1% and D1246Y was detected in 1.5% of the samples. The most frequently observed haplotype was YFD 47.4%. For Pfdhfr (codons 51, 59,108,164), the ICNI haplotype was the most frequent (80.7%) while for Pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613) the (SGEAA) was most frequent haplotype (41%). The Quadruple mutation (dhfr N51I, S108N + dhps A437G, K540E) was the highest frequent combined mutation (33.9%). In Pfkelch13 gene, 18 non-synonymous mutations were detected, 7 of them were detected in other African countries. The most frequent Pfk13 mutation was E433D detected in four samples. All of the Pfk13 mutant alleles have not been reported to belong to mutations associated with delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia. PGB mutations were detected only in Pfcrt N326S\I (46.3%) and Pfcrt I356T (8.2%). The exonuclease mutation was not detected. There was no significant variation in mutant haplotypes between study areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was high frequency of mutations in Pfcrt, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps in this study. These mutations are associated with chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. Many SNPs in Pfk13 not linked with delayed parasite clearance were observed. The exonuclease E415G mutation which is linked with piperaquine resistance was not reported.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária/parasitologia , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adolescente , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Criança , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sudão , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 162, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptin receptor gene (LEPR) variants may affect the leptin levels and act as a risk factor for preeclampsia. Two LEPR gene missense variants rs1137101 (c.668A>G) and rs1805094 (c.1968G>C) were investigated in Sudanese women with preeclampsia. METHODS: A matched case-control study (122 women in each arm) was conducted in Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan from May to December 2018. The cases were women with preeclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women. Genotyping for LEPR gene variants c.668A>G and c.1968G>C was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Logistic regression models (adjusted for age, parity, body mass index and hemoglobin level) were conducted. RESULTS: Genotype frequency of LEPR gene variants c.668A>G and c.1968G>C was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05) in the controls. Allele G in LEPRc.668A>G variant was significantly more frequent in the cases compared with the controls [43.4% vs. 10.2%; OR = 6.44; 95%CI (3.98-10.40); P < 0.001]. In variant LEPRc.668A>G, genotype AG was the prevalent genotype in the cases compared with the controls, and it was significantly associated with preeclampsia risk [37.7% vs. 15.5%; AOR = 3.48; 95%CI (1.15-10.54); P = 0.027]. Likewise, the GG genotype was the second most common genotype in the cases compared with the controls, and was associated with preeclampsia risk [24.6% vs. 2.5%; AOR = 14.19; 95%CI (1.77-113.76); P = 0.012]. None of the LEPRc.1968G>C variant genotypes were associated with preeclampsia. The CC genotype was not detected in neither the cases nor the controls. The haplotype A-G 70.1% was the prevalent haplotype in this population, and it significantly protected against preeclampsia [OR = 0.14; 95%CI (0.09-0.23); P < 0.001]. However, the haplotype G-G 26.8% was significantly associated with preeclampsia risk [OR = 6.70; 95%CI (4.16-11.05); P < 0.001]. Both variants c.668A>G and c.1968G>C were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r2 = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the rs1137101 (c.668A>G) variant and G-G haplotype may independently associate with the development of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Gravidez , Sudão
12.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 161-169, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809185

RESUMO

Morphological abnormalities in ticks have rarely been reported in nature. The existing knowledge about anomalies in ticks collected in Africa is very sparse. In this paper, we describe abnormalities in Amblyomma, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus ticks collected from cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and horses in Kassala and North Kordofan states, Sudan, between January and August 2017. A number of 15 adult ticks displayed one or several local anomalies, such as ectromely, abnormalities of the ventral plates, and body deformities, besides newly described multiple cuticula scars. This study presents the first report of local anomalies in ticks belonging to three genera in Sudan and highlights the need to investigate the association between such morphological abnormalities and tick biology.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Bovinos , Cavalos , Ovinos , Sudão , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for reliable and validated tools to identify, classify, and quantify vaccine-hesitancy in low and middle-income countries, such as Sudan. We evaluated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the measles vaccine hesitancy scale by assessing its reliability, convergent validity, and criterion validity in Sudan. The vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS) was originally developed by the WHO/SAGE Working Group of Vaccine Hesitancy. METHODS: A community-based survey among parents was conducted in February 2019 in Khartoum state. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure of the adapted measles VHS (aMVHS). We computed Cronbach's alphas, correlations with other vaccine hesitancy measurements including the Parental Attitude towards Childhood Vaccination (PACV) and the Vaccine Confidence Index (VCI), and performed a Mann-Whitney U test for assessing the reliability and the convergent and criterion validity, respectively. Moreover, to examine whether the aMVHS can predict the child's vaccination status, the area under the curve (AUC) was estimated using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 500 parents. Most were women (87.2%) between the ages of 20 and 47 (M = 31.15, SD = 5.74). The factor analyses indicated that the aMVHS comprises of two factors (sub-scales): 'confidence' and 'complacency'. The aMVHS sub-scales correlated weakly to moderately with the PACV and VCI scales. The area under the curve was 0.499 at most (P >0.05) and the aMVHS score did hardly differ between actually vaccinated and non-vaccinated children. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore that the aMVHS and its confidence and complacency sub-scales are reliable and have a moderately good convergent validity. However, the aMVHS has a limitation in predicting the concurrent child's vaccination status. More work is needed to revise and amend this aMVHS, particularly by additionally including the 'convenience' construct and by further evaluating its validity in other contexts.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Sudão
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008420, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730340

RESUMO

Eumycetoma (mycotic mycetoma) is the fungal form of mycetoma, a subcutaneous infection occurring in individuals living in endemic areas of the disease. The Sudan is hyperendemic for mycetoma, with the highest incidence being reported from Gezira State, Central Sudan. The present study was conducted at the Gezira Mycetoma Center and aimed to determine the cause of black-grain eumycetoma in the state and describe its epidemiology. Black-grain specimens were collected during the surgical operation and direct detection of the causative agent was performed using M. mycetomatis species-specific PCR and ITS PCR followed by sequencing. Black-grain was reported from 93.3% of all confirmed mycetoma cases (n = 111/119), with a prevalence in young males. Of the 91 samples subjected to direct PCR, 90.1% (n = 82) gave positive results. The predominant species (88.2%) was Madurella mycetomatis. One sample was identified as M. fahalii, one as M. tropicana, and one matched the phytopathogenic species Sphaerulina rhododendricola. The highest endemic zones were Southern Gezira (76.6%) and Northern Sinnar (23.4%). The study confirmed that direct molecular detection on grains provides rapid and specific diagnosis of agents of eumycetoma.


Assuntos
Madurella/isolamento & purificação , Micetoma/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Madurella/classificação , Madurella/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micetoma/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 948-953, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730784

RESUMO

In 2019, a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission on accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis reported on the status of 11 viral hepatitis policy indicators in 66 countries and territories with the heaviest burden by global region. Policies were reported as being either in place, in development, or not in place. This study uses the Commission findings to estimate hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) policy scores and rankings for these 66 countries and territories. We applied a multiple correspondence analysis technique to reduce data on policy indicators into a weighted summary for the HBV and HCV policies. We calculated HBV and HCV policy scores for each country. Countries and territories that received higher scores had more policies in place and in development than did countries with lower scores. The highest scoring country for HBV was Australia, whereas Somalia had the lowest score. For the HCV policy score, Australia and New Zealand had perfect scores, whereas Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen had the lowest scores, all having no policy indicators in place.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 2571293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612664

RESUMO

Waterborne Escherichia coli are a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Carbapenem-resistance, especially when mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes, is spreading worldwide and causing dramatically limiting treatment options. In our country, studies for the detection of carbapenem resistance in drinking water do not exist; therefore, this work was carried out to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant genes "blaKPC, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48" among Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water in Khartoum, Sudan. A total of forty-five E. coli bacteria were isolated from different sources of drinking water. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using imipenem (10 mg/disc), gentamicin (10 mg/disc), ceftriaxone (30 mg/disc), ciprofloxacin (5 mg/disc), chloramphenicol (30 mg/disc), and tetracycline (30 mg/disc). "Sensitive" or "resistant" patterns of E. coli were judged using antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted by the boiling method, and then multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaIMP, bla NDM , blaSPM, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48). Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes in 28% of all water isolates. OXA-48 gene was the most predominant gene, detected in 15.5% of the isolates. The blaKPC and bla SPM genes were also detected in 4.4% and 8.8% of the isolates, respectively. However, the isolates were negative for bla NDM , blaVIM, and blaIMP genes. The isolates showed a high rate of tetracycline resistance (97.7%), followed by gentamicin (57.7%), ciprofloxacin (46.6%), ceftriaxone (35.5%), and chloramphenicol (31.1%). In conclusion, this study confirmed for the first time the presence of E. coli carried carbapenem-resistant genes in the drinking water of Khartoum state, Sudan. These isolates commonly carried OXA-48 (7/45), followed by SPM (4/45) and KPC (2/45).


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Água Potável/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sudão , beta-Lactamases/genética
19.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(6): 646-651, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621498

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes, and correct practices are crucial for the prevention of COVID-19. Aims: This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a sample of Sudanese residents towards COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted on 812 participants, including both sexes and aged 18 years and above, with the exclusion of health care workers. Considerable care was taken to include people with different education levels. Results: Among the survey respondents (n=812), 45.8% were women, 40.4% held a bachelor's degree, 5.7% were uneducated, and 51.1% were aged 18-25 years. The overall correct rate of the knowledge questionnaire was 78.2%; 66.9% agreed that religious gatherings and events should be cancelled to prevent the spread of COVID-19; 34.1% of respondents wore medical masks; and 57.9% avoided shaking hands in recent days. Conclusion: This study showed that sampled Sudanese residents have incomplete knowledge and poor practices towards COVID-19. However, we found that women and people aged 18-25 years were more knowledgeable and had more positive attitudes towards COVID-19. We hope that concerned authorities will establish awareness programmes to improve the ability to combat this disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the feeding behavior and host choice of sand flies provides valuable information on vector-host relationships and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of leishmaniasis transmission. Blood meal analysis studies are essential for estimating the efficiency of pathogen transmission, assessing the relative human disease risk, and assist in identifying the other potential hosts of leishmaniasis. In Sudan and most of East Africa, there are large remaining gaps in knowledge regarding the feeding habits of phlebotomine vectors. The study aimed to identify the blood meal sources and, therefore, the host preferences of the principal vectors Phlebotomus orientalis and Ph. papatasi in leishmaniasis endemic areas of eastern and central Sudan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sand flies were collected from two endemic villages in eastern and central Sudan using CDC light traps and sticky traps. The phlebotomine sand flies were morphologically and then molecularly identified. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using a multiplex PCR methodology and specific primers of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA for human, goat, cow, and dog. The detection of the Leishmania parasite was done using PCR. RESULTS: The total number of collected female phlebotomine sand flies was 180. Morphological identification revealed the abundance of Ph. orientalis 103 (57.2%), Ph. papatasi 42 (23.3%), Ph. bergeroti 31 (17.2%), Ph. rodhaini 2 (1.1%) and Ph. duboscqi 2 (1.1%) in the study sites. Out of the 180 collected, 31 (17%) were blood-fed flies. Three species were blood-fed and molecularly identified: Ph. papatasi (N = 7, 22.6%), Ph. bergeroti (N = 9, 26%), and Ph. orientalis (N = 15, 48.4%). Blood meal analysis revealed human DNA in two Ph. orientalis (6.4%), hence, the anthropophilic index was 13.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR protocol described here allowed the identification of blood meal sources of many vertebrate species simultaneously. The results indicate that wild-caught Ph. orientalis are anthropophilic in the study areas. Further studies on larger blood-fed sample size are required to validate the potential applications of this technique in designing, monitoring and evaluating control programs, particularly in investigating the potential non-human hosts of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Feminino , Geografia , Sudão
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