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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 204-208, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690201

RESUMO

The steadily growing COVID-19 pandemic is challenging health systems worldwide including Sudan. In Sudan, the first COVID-19 case was reported on 13th March 2020, and up to 11 November 2020 there were 14,401 confirmed cases of which 9,535 cases recovered and the rest 3,750 cases were under treatment. Additionally, 1,116 deaths were reported, indicating a relatively high case fatality rate of 7.7%. Several preventive and control measures were implemented by the government of Sudan and health partners, including the partial lockdown of the country, promoting social distancing, and suspending mass gathering such as festivals and performing religious practices in groups. However, new cases still emerging every day and this could be attributed to the noncompliance of the individuals to the advocated preventive measurements.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , África/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 274, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Novel Corona virus SARS-CoV-2 emerged to affect the human population in 2019 causing COVID-19 pandemic. The only preventive measures available are social distancing, hand washing and face masks. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the Sudanese people towards COVID-19. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study targeting adult Sudanese people was conducted in April 2020. The study used a self-administered questionnaire containing 18 knowledge questions, 5 questions for attitude and six questions for practices. Social media such as Facebook and WhatsApp were utilized to disseminate the questionnaire. The total number of eligible questionnaires available for analysis by the end of the period was 987. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of respondents was 30.13 (±9.84) years with males representing 55.4%. The majority were university and higher education levels (95.2%), residing in Khartoum (71.7%). The mean (±SD) knowledge score of the participants was 15.33 (± 2.24) and was found to be associated with education level and age groups (p-value = 0.022, P value =0.010) respectively. The mean (±SD) attitude score was 04.15 (± 0.97) and was significantly associated with older groups and better-educated participants (p-value =0.001, p-value = 0.048) respectively. The practices related to COVID-19 preventive measures mean (±SD) was 02.58 (± 1.73) with a significant difference between age groups and area of residence. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the participants had good knowledge and satisfactory attitude that was not similarly expressed into practice. Efforts are needed in health education and law enforcement to improve the practices among all groups with special emphasis on younger and less educated males.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study planned to investigate the urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections among type 2 diabetes patients compare to non-diabetic (Control) individuals and examine the intensity of helminthiasis in both groups. METHODS: At Kosti Teaching Hospital (Sudan), 300 Urine and 300 stool samples have collected from 150 type 2 diabetes and 150 control individuals, along with the socio-demographic data using a structured questionnaire. The parasitic infections were examined by direct sedimentation technique for urine specimens. Whereas, for fecal samples, simple-direct saline, formal-ether concentration, Kato-Katz, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques were used. RESULTS: Out of 150 type 2 diabetes patients studied, 31 (20.6%) and 14 (9.3%) had intestinal parasitosis and urogenital schistosomiasis, respectively. Whereas, 16 (10.6%) and 8 (5.3%) of the control group were infected, respectively. Compared to the control group, the odds of testing positive for either urogenital schistosomiasis (AOR: 2.548, 95% CI: 0.836-7.761, P = 0.100) or intestinal parasitic diseases (AOR: 2.099, 95% CI: 0.973-4.531, P = 0.059) were greater in diabetic individuals. Likewise, the intensities of helminthiasis were much higher in the diabetic patients and positively correlated with the duration of illness. The rate of urogenital schistosomiasis was also significantly different among the disease duration subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted the relationship of type 2 diabetes with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections and enhanced our knowledge about the frequency of particular urogenital and intestinal parasites as well as the intensity of helminths infection in type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic individuals, which are important for further studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(1): 103-109, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged health systems globally. Here we report the first identified infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; aetiology of COVID-19) among recent international arrivals to Sudan and their contacts. METHODS: Suspected cases were identified clinically and/or epidemiologically. Samples from suspected cases and their contacts were tested in the National Influenza Centre following World Health Organization protocols. Two real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect and confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Seven cases of COVID-19, including two deaths, were confirmed in Sudan between 27 February and 30 March 2020. Suspected cases were identified and tested. As of 30 March, no local transmission was yet reported in the country. Fifty-nine percent of the suspected cases were international travellers coming from areas with current COVID-19 epidemics. Cough and fever were the major symptoms, presented by 65% and 60% of the suspected cases, respectively. By early April, an additional seven cases were confirmed through limited contact tracing that identified the first locally acquired infections in recent contact with imported cases. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of COVID-19 cases in Sudan might be due to limitations in test and trace and case management services. Unfortunately, infections have spread further into other states and the country has no capacity for mass community screening to better estimate disease prevalence. Therefore external support is urgently needed to improve the healthcare and surveillance systems.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMO

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Conflitos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condições Sociais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 421-430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871636

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether mass drug administration (MDA) intervention has an equivalent effect on reducing the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection regardless of the baseline values. A repeated cross-sectional survey was performed targeting students of 12 primary schools in Al Jabalain and El Salam districts of White Nile State, Sudan, at both 1 week before and 8 months after the MDA. Prior to the baseline survey, school-aged children in Al Jabalain had received MDA interventions twice in 4 years, while those in El Salam had not. The baseline prevalence was 9.1% in Al Jabalain and 35.2% in El Salam, which were reduced to 1.8% and 5.5% at 8 months after the MDA, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 80.3% and 84.4%, not significant difference between both districts. However, changes in the geometric mean intensity (GMI) of egg counts were significantly different between both districts. The baseline GMIs were 14.5 eggs per 10 ml of urine (EP10) in Al Jabalain and 18.5 EP10 in El Salam, which were reduced to 7.1 and 11.2 EP10 after treatment, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 51.0% and 39.5%. In conclusion, MDA interventions were found to bring about similar relative reduction in prevalence regardless of the baseline value; however, the relative reduction in infection intensity was more salient in the district with a low baseline value for both prevalence and intensity. This clearly points to the importance of repeated MDA interventions in endemic areas, which will eventually contribute to schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008420, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730340

RESUMO

Eumycetoma (mycotic mycetoma) is the fungal form of mycetoma, a subcutaneous infection occurring in individuals living in endemic areas of the disease. The Sudan is hyperendemic for mycetoma, with the highest incidence being reported from Gezira State, Central Sudan. The present study was conducted at the Gezira Mycetoma Center and aimed to determine the cause of black-grain eumycetoma in the state and describe its epidemiology. Black-grain specimens were collected during the surgical operation and direct detection of the causative agent was performed using M. mycetomatis species-specific PCR and ITS PCR followed by sequencing. Black-grain was reported from 93.3% of all confirmed mycetoma cases (n = 111/119), with a prevalence in young males. Of the 91 samples subjected to direct PCR, 90.1% (n = 82) gave positive results. The predominant species (88.2%) was Madurella mycetomatis. One sample was identified as M. fahalii, one as M. tropicana, and one matched the phytopathogenic species Sphaerulina rhododendricola. The highest endemic zones were Southern Gezira (76.6%) and Northern Sinnar (23.4%). The study confirmed that direct molecular detection on grains provides rapid and specific diagnosis of agents of eumycetoma.


Assuntos
Madurella/isolamento & purificação , Micetoma/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Madurella/classificação , Madurella/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micetoma/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 948-953, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730784

RESUMO

In 2019, a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission on accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis reported on the status of 11 viral hepatitis policy indicators in 66 countries and territories with the heaviest burden by global region. Policies were reported as being either in place, in development, or not in place. This study uses the Commission findings to estimate hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) policy scores and rankings for these 66 countries and territories. We applied a multiple correspondence analysis technique to reduce data on policy indicators into a weighted summary for the HBV and HCV policies. We calculated HBV and HCV policy scores for each country. Countries and territories that received higher scores had more policies in place and in development than did countries with lower scores. The highest scoring country for HBV was Australia, whereas Somalia had the lowest score. For the HCV policy score, Australia and New Zealand had perfect scores, whereas Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen had the lowest scores, all having no policy indicators in place.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(6): 646-651, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621498

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes, and correct practices are crucial for the prevention of COVID-19. Aims: This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a sample of Sudanese residents towards COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted on 812 participants, including both sexes and aged 18 years and above, with the exclusion of health care workers. Considerable care was taken to include people with different education levels. Results: Among the survey respondents (n=812), 45.8% were women, 40.4% held a bachelor's degree, 5.7% were uneducated, and 51.1% were aged 18-25 years. The overall correct rate of the knowledge questionnaire was 78.2%; 66.9% agreed that religious gatherings and events should be cancelled to prevent the spread of COVID-19; 34.1% of respondents wore medical masks; and 57.9% avoided shaking hands in recent days. Conclusion: This study showed that sampled Sudanese residents have incomplete knowledge and poor practices towards COVID-19. However, we found that women and people aged 18-25 years were more knowledgeable and had more positive attitudes towards COVID-19. We hope that concerned authorities will establish awareness programmes to improve the ability to combat this disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1125, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a global health problem and women in reproductive age (WRA) are amongst the most affected population. Its consequences include low birth weight and maternal mortality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and to identify its determinants in Sudanese women in reproductive age. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sudan in 2016. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design was executed with consideration of rural population, urban population, and internally displaced persons/refugees camps residents. All women in reproductive age (15-49 years), classified by pregnancy status, in the targeted households were surveyed and personal characteristic data were collected. Their haemoglobin level and malaria infection (using rapid diagnostic test, RDT) were assessed. The World Health Organization (WHO) haemoglobin level cut-off for defining anaemia and severe anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women was used. Logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 4271 women (WRA) of which 421 (9.9%) pregnant women (PW) were included in the study. The overall anaemia prevalence in WRA was 35.6%. It was 36.0 and 35.5% in PW and non-pregnant women (NPW), respectively. The average haemoglobin level was found to be 113.9 g/L (SD 16.3) and 123.2 g/L (SD 15.7) for PW and NPW respectively. Severe anaemia prevalence was 1.2% in each group. In the logistic regression model, anaemia was associated with malaria infection in PW (aOR 4.100, 95%CI 1.523-11.039, p = 0.003), NPW (aOR 2.776, 95%CI 1.889-4.080, p < 0.001), and WRA (aOR 2.885, 95%CI 2.021-4.119, p < 0.001). Other identified determinants of anaemia in NPW was living in camps (aOR 1.499, 95%CI 1.115-2.017, p = 0.007) and in WRA was being in the poorest economic class (aOR 1.436, 95%CI 1.065-1.936, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Anaemia is a public health problem in Sudan. The study supported the association between malaria infection and anaemia, but not with low and moderate malaria transmission areas. Resources need to be allocated for all anaemic populations with special attention for the populations in most need and interventions need to be implemented based on local variations. Malaria control interventions, specifically case management, may have a major impact in reducing anaemia prevalence in low to moderate malaria transmission areas.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/etiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Prevalência , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 2793960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566298

RESUMO

Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is one of the main worldwide public health challenges. Presently, the high levels of MMR are a common problem in the world public health and especially, in developing countries. Half of these maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or nothing progress has been made. South Sudan is one of the developing countries which has the highest MMR. Thus, this paper deploys statistical analysis to identify the significant physiological causes of MMR in South Sudan. Prediction models based on Poisson Regression are then developed to predict MMR in terms of the significant physiological causes. Coefficients of determination and variance inflation factor are deployed to assess the influence of the individual causes on MMR. Efficacy of the models is assessed by analyzing their prediction errors. The paper for the first time has used optimization procedures to develop yearly lower and upper profile limits for MMR. Hemorrhaging and unsafe abortion are used to achieve UN 2030 lower and upper MMR targets. The statistical analysis indicates that reducing haemorrhaging by 1.91% per year would reduce MMR by 1.91% (95% CI (42.85-52.53)), reducing unsafe abortion by 0.49% per year would reduce MMR by 0.49% (95% CI (11.06-13.56)). The results indicate that the most influential predictors of MMR are; hemorrhaging (38%), sepsis (11.5%), obstructed labour (11.5%), unsafe abortion (10%), and indirect causes such as anaemia, malaria, and HIV/AIDs virus (29%). The results also show that to obtain the UN recommended MMR levels of minimum 21 and maximum 42 by 2030, the Government and other stakeholders should simultaneously, reduce haemorrhaging from the current value of 62 to 33.38 and 16.69, reduce unsafe abortion from the current value of 16 to 8.62 and 4.31. Thirty years of data is used to develop the optimal reduced Poisson Model based on hemorrhaging and unsafe abortion. The model with R 2 of 92.68% can predict MMR with mean error of -0.42329 and SE-mean of 0.02268. The yearly optimal level of hemorrhage, unsafe abortion, and MMR can aid the government and other stakeholders on resources allocation to reduce the risk of maternal death.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia , Mortalidade Materna , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Sudão/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 135-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530590

RESUMO

There is an increasing concern about the co-infection of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or viral hepatitis B/C. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis co-infections among VL patients in a hyperendemic area in Eastern Sudan and to assess antibody levels in co-infected patients. This is a retrospective study where the sera of confirmed VL cases and non-VL individuals were analysed. The sera were screened for co-infections using immunochromatographic tests and ELISA for anti-HIV 1+2 antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). Anti-Leishmania donovani antibodies in the sera of VL alone were assessed and compared to the sera of co-infected patients. Of the 100 screened VL sera, 6 (6%), 0 (0%), and 1 (1%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV, respectively. These values were 5 (5%), 0 (0%), and 1 (1%) in the control group. Of note, the HCV screening test (Biorex, UK) showed positive reactivity in 32 (32%) and 17 (17%) sera of VL and control groups, respectively. All reactive sera tested negative in HCV ELISA. Of the 93 VL sera, 75 (80.6%) had strong DAT titers (1:˃102400), 2 (2.1%) demonstrated the lowest DAT titers (1:≤800), and 5 (5.4%) had marginal DAT titers (1:1600). Interestingly, the VL/HIV co-infected serum had a negative antibody titer (1:1600). Of the 6 VL/HBV co-infected sera, 1 (16.7%) and 5 (83.3%) demonstrated moderate (1:12800­1:51600) and strong (1:≥102400) DAT titers, respectively. The strong DAT titers observed in the VL/HBV co-infected sera were comparable to the DAT titers of the VL sera. The VL co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B/C is low in endemic areas in Eastern Sudan but may create a diagnostic difficulty. VL/HIV co-infected patients can have low Leishmania antibodies, thus alternative methodologies (e.g., antigen tests) may help the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Leishmaniose Visceral , Anticorpos/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/sangue , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity has been documented, particularly among African countries. While central obesity and overweight have been reported for many countries, very limited information exists about the prevalence of these health problems in Sudan, and these data are nonexistent for Eastern Sudan. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and central obesity, as well as the factors associated with both, among adults in Gadarif, Eastern Sudan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gadarif, Eastern Sudan, during the period of January through May 2018. Sociodemographic and health characteristics data were collected through a questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured using the standard methods. Both descriptive and inferential statics were applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 594 adults participated in the study; 70.4% of them were female. The mean (standard deviation) age was 44.98 (16.64) years. Of the 594 enrolled participants, 33.7%, 7.4%, 26.8%, and 32.2% were normal weight, underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was (67.8%). Approximately, one-third of the participants (29.29%) were obese and had central obesity. In the multinomial regression, being married was the main risk factor associated with overweight, and older age, female sex, being married and hypertension were significantly associated with obesity. In the binary regression, the main risk factors associated with central obesity were female sex and being married. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rates of both obesity and central obesity among the study participants were high. Older age and hypertension were only associated with obesity. Obesity and central obesity were significantly associated with female sex and being married. This study provided valuable baseline information to develop appropriate strategies for the prevention and control of obesity in Eastern Sudan.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421720

RESUMO

It is vital to share details of concrete experiences of conducting a nationwide disease survey. By doing so, the global health community could adapt previous experiences to expand geographic mapping programs, eventually contributing to the development of disease control and elimination strategies. A nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases was conducted from December 2016 to March 2017 in Sudan. We aimed to describe details of the key activities and cost components required for the nationwide survey. We investigated which activities were necessary to prepare and conduct a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases, and the types and amounts of transportation, personnel, survey equipment, and consumables that were required. In addition, we estimated financial and economic costs from the perspectives of the donor and the Ministry of Health. Cash expenditures incurred to implement the survey were defined as financial costs. For economic costs, we considered the true value for society as a whole, and this category therefore accounted for the costs of all goods and services used for the project, including those that were not sold in the market and therefore had no market price (e.g., time spent by head teachers and teachers). We organized costs into capital and recurrent items. We ran one-way sensitivity and probabilistic analyses using Monte-Carlo methods with 10,000 draws to examine the robustness of the primary analysis results. A total of USD 1,465,902 and USD 1,516,238 was incurred for the financial and economic costs, respectively. The key cost drivers of the nationwide survey were personnel and transportation, for both financial and economic costs. Personnel and transportation accounted for around 64% and 18% of financial costs, respectively. If a government finds a way to mobilize existing government officials with no additional payments using the health system already in place, the cost of a nationwide survey could be remarkably reduced.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Helmintíase/economia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/economia , Esquistossomose/economia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Programas Governamentais , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453746

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. A total of 1399 paired sera and nasal swabs were collected from camels between 2016 and 2018. Imported animals from Sudan (n = 829) and Djibouti (n = 328) were sampled on incoming ships at Jeddah Islamic seaport before unloading, and local camels were sampled from Jeddah (n = 242). Samples were screened for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and MERS-CoV viral RNA. The overall seroprevalence was 92.7% and RNA detection rate was 17.2%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence compared to resident herds (93.8% vs 87.6%, p <0.01) in contrast to RNA detection (13.3% vs 35.5%, p <0.0001). Seroprevalence significantly increased with age (p<0.0001) and viral RNA detection rate was ~2-folds higher in camels <2-year-old compared to older animals. RNA detection was higher in males verses females (24.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.0001) but seroprevalence was similar. Concurrent positivity for viral RNA and nAbs was found in >87% of the RNA positive animals, increased with age and was sex-dependent. Importantly, reduced viral RNA load was positively correlated with nAb titers. Our data confirm the widespread of MERS-CoV in imported and domestic camels in Saudi Arabia and highlight the need for continuous active surveillance and better prevention measures. Further studies are also warranted to understand camels correlates of protection for proper vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 532, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's nutritional status influences their physical, socioemotional and cognitive development throughout the life course. We aimed to determine the role of armed conflict on the prevalence of childhood malnourishment in The Sudan, and understand the underlying mechanisms using a framework based on the social determinants of health. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from the 2014-Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (n = 14,081) to compare the prevalence of malnourishment in states undergoing armed conflict and states free of conflict. Four-level multilevel multivariate modelling was conducted to identify the contribution of the social determinants of malnourishment in explaining the role of armed conflict in child health, with conflict status as the central predictor and progressive adjustments for child-, household- and cluster- and state-level predictors. RESULTS: Armed conflict is strongly associated with greater risk of severe and moderate underweight among children under-5. Adjusting for key social determinants of health reduced the strength of the association between armed conflict and risk of underweight, but there is statistical evidence of association between armed conflict and risk of severe underweight (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.03-2.49 for the low intensity group). CONCLUSION: Conflict-exposed children are particularly vulnerable to malnourishment, and this association is mostly explained by key socio-demographic factors. With the prolonged political instability in The Sudan, sustainable nutritional interventions are necessary to ease hard conditions in conflict-exposed states, and also among disadvantaged families in conflict-free regions.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/psicologia , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/psicologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 530, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute arboviral infections are distributed worldwide including Sudan, and dengue fever (DENV) is not an exception. The virus activity has recently been frequently reported in Kassala State, eastern Sudan. However, an appropriate epidemiological study would be necessary to provide accurate and precise estimates of the magnitude of recent DENV transmission in this area of endemicity. METHODS: In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to advance beyond the current knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in Kassala State. The prevalence of the disease was estimated and associated risk factors were determined. Sampled sera were collected and screened for recent dengue transmissionas as determined by DENV-IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collection of data for risk assessment was supported by a well designed structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of recent DENV infection was estimated to be (11.42%). Potential risk factors to DENV seropsitivity include, age (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.81-5.77,p-value = 0.001); low income (OR = 3.75, CI = 1.57-8.93, p-value = 0.027); mosquito control (OR = 4.18, CI = 2.33-7.51, p-value = 0.004); and localities. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a high rate of circulating DENV IgM antibodies among the participants of the study (11.42%), suggesting recent transmission of DENV in Kassala State, eastern Sudan. The frequent occurrence of DENV infections necessitates the need for improved surveillance programs and prevention measures to combat this important arboviral disease in Sudan.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/transmissão , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 291, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is becoming an increasingly common health issue worldwide, especially in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hypertension is the leading risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide, and it is the leading risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular diseases worldwide. The data on hypertension in Sudan that has been published is limited. We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors. METHODS: A multistage sampling survey was conducted in Gadarif, Eastern Sudan, from January to May 2018 to investigate the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors in adults in Eastern Sudan. The World Health Organization (WHO) three-level stepwise approach questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, height, weight marital status, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption habit, and family history of hypertension). Hypertension was defined as the presence of an average blood pressure of ≥140/90 mmHg or the reported use of anti-hypertensive medications for high blood pressure. RESULTS: A total of 600 participants (mean age: 44.9 years) were enrolled in this study. Four hundred twenty-two (70.3%) participants were women, and 196 (32.7%) participants were obese. Of the 600 enrolled participants, 245 (40.8%) individuals had hypertension, 44 (7.3%) had been previously diagnosed with hypertension, and 201 (33.5%) were newly diagnosed with hypertension. A logistic regression analysis showed no significant associations across the education level, marital status, overweight and hypertension factors. However, an older age (adjusted OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.28-4.51, P < 0.001) and obesity (adjusted OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.57-3.69, P < 0.001) were associated with the presence of hypertension. CONCLUSION: There is a high rate of hypertension in Eastern Sudan, especially among older and obese individuals. Preventive measures, such as dietary measures, should be implemented.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sudão/epidemiologia
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